Carbon 2.9.0

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Details

To install Carbon, run the following command from the command line or from PowerShell:

>

To upgrade Carbon, run the following command from the command line or from PowerShell:

>

To uninstall Carbon, run the following command from the command line or from PowerShell:

>

NOTE: This applies to both open source and commercial editions of Chocolatey.

1. Ensure you are set for organizational deployment

Please see the organizational deployment guide

  • Open Source or Commercial:
    • Proxy Repository - Create a proxy nuget repository on Nexus, Artifactory Pro, or a proxy Chocolatey repository on ProGet. Point your upstream to https://chocolatey.org/api/v2. Packages cache on first access automatically. Make sure your choco clients are using your proxy repository as a source and NOT the default community repository. See source command for more information.
    • You can also just download the package and push it to a repository Download

3. Enter your internal repository url

(this should look similar to https://chocolatey.org/api/v2)

4. Choose your deployment method:


choco upgrade carbon -y --source="'STEP 3 URL'" [other options]

See options you can pass to upgrade.

See best practices for scripting.

Add this to a PowerShell script or use a Batch script with tools and in places where you are calling directly to Chocolatey. If you are integrating, keep in mind enhanced exit codes.

If you do use a PowerShell script, use the following to ensure bad exit codes are shown as failures:


choco upgrade carbon -y --source="'STEP 3 URL'" 
$exitCode = $LASTEXITCODE

Write-Verbose "Exit code was $exitCode"
$validExitCodes = @(0, 1605, 1614, 1641, 3010)
if ($validExitCodes -contains $exitCode) {
  Exit 0
}

Exit $exitCode

- name: Ensure carbon installed
  win_chocolatey:
    name: carbon
    state: present
    version: 2.9.0
    source: STEP 3 URL

See docs at https://docs.ansible.com/ansible/latest/modules/win_chocolatey_module.html.

Coming early 2020! Central Managment Reporting available now! More information...


chocolatey_package 'carbon' do
  action    :install
  version  '2.9.0'
  source   'STEP 3 URL'
end

See docs at https://docs.chef.io/resource_chocolatey_package.html.


Chocolatey::Ensure-Package
(
    Name: carbon,
    Version: 2.9.0,
    Source: STEP 3 URL
);

Requires Otter Chocolatey Extension. See docs at https://inedo.com/den/otter/chocolatey.


cChocoPackageInstaller carbon
{
   Name     = 'carbon'
   Ensure   = 'Present'
   Version  = '2.9.0'
   Source   = 'STEP 3 URL'
}

Requires cChoco DSC Resource. See docs at https://github.com/chocolatey/cChoco.


package { 'carbon':
  provider => 'chocolatey',
  ensure   => '2.9.0',
  source   => 'STEP 3 URL',
}

Requires Puppet Chocolatey Provider module. See docs at https://forge.puppet.com/puppetlabs/chocolatey.


salt '*' chocolatey.install carbon version="2.9.0" source="STEP 3 URL"

See docs at https://docs.saltstack.com/en/latest/ref/modules/all/salt.modules.chocolatey.html.

5. If applicable - Chocolatey configuration/installation

See infrastructure management matrix for Chocolatey configuration elements and examples.

This package was approved as a trusted package on 9/19/2019.

Description

Carbon is a PowerShell module for automating the configuration Windows 7, 8, 2008, and 2012 and automation the installation and configuration of Windows applications, websites, and services. It can configure and manage:

  • Local users and groups
  • IIS websites, virtual directories, and applications
  • File system, registry, and certificate permissions
  • Certificates
  • Privileges
  • Services
  • Encryption
  • Junctions
  • Hosts file
  • INI files
  • Performance counters
  • Shares
  • .NET connection strings and app settings
  • And much more!

All functions are idempotent: when run multiple times with the same arguments, your system will be in the same state without failing or producing errors.


Carbon\bin\coreclr\Carbon.dll
md5: 54B74321B0D7370E1A5321420AA7A449 | sha1: 35C2B6DCDBC3DC7AFD2CF286546977A6C750F469 | sha256: E14AAB41CA991AC4DAAD56B73A4E4BF506AB64FF03E83CFE14465D240600A829 | sha512: A3AA3C1E3C7E4E6D28F43A2E99071844430685FB9BDB8D97CF97630357F73A094E85D104F2BB514A5ED4BE635C9ACCFF68DEA8D08BEC26B438C8B5848588F605
Carbon\bin\coreclr\Carbon.Iis.dll
md5: 914D46F2C605A71BBDE07242D23259C4 | sha1: 4833B156491AD74BDC0232D429D9F2BC3CDD3EA7 | sha256: DFC40961FC95D48AD5F6E5860F6A04C854188AFD6EC007F43EF98994C9EB86E2 | sha512: 586DC05CDD6381F42FA084F30A544FC94E1296D68686F0C45738CF3C60ED9890E1E987E9F0DD560FC9FDF08A7C34CAC53E3957D8D30779E7E1957D97424BC649
Carbon\bin\coreclr\Carbon.Xdt.dll
md5: 9362E958C2D39AE66A7DD115673A4E7A | sha1: 4454DD508A62BE0621BF5B0C1CEEE59F0855B796 | sha256: 37D16797E0D2CD895D6423133F48189657ADE6D4371BE7EF7BA64EDEAD53BA7A | sha512: C4604E2AD10E36835825906695E4D5448D19DAE1B211785EE09E2F8A8EECB43191CC524185DE49EB5419E1C7511D6756A0CE2EB07A1A8C1F453B30C259FCD450
Carbon\bin\coreclr\Microsoft.Web.Administration.dll
md5: 850D508B8708A2A28EE6AD55725C38DE | sha1: F97776A7B2B15A8DB71EF8D1C4195FFCA1040C52 | sha256: 0C2B0C0864EB13983B086C915E35220ED88455F8F351F556C706306992C8C7D4 | sha512: 31B340C57D3E6C232BA87255CEB2F91F1CFE7B45C692B08660FC093DD41792A12CD16045B67BBA3982F6B2C5800DC92980C9A8E55AF94C3EBCCCFF250BC5A37C
Carbon\bin\coreclr\Microsoft.Web.XmlTransform.dll
md5: 9709B6954CC22CB20AB0FA2BE1E071DC | sha1: C53A5219906D852C99DBE74A0E6E63CC2B5EDE25 | sha256: 6882B7F8543407739E7610E65CFF7E46772D6BC6EE246870170F6CF6567C0020 | sha512: 14EC32EA52DD0B75ADD3A862667490BE9380AE15137D6D0B49DB0764F9814699CB6F4DEA7176BB91D38BA150333D3715EF386050C227E02AEC71EE6E3A2B72F9
Carbon\bin\fullclr\Carbon.dll
md5: E93111452154EB444461CB5EC370DCA3 | sha1: 77C06C73D45F7543182C53139B74CB3713E165E5 | sha256: 19D14E2B64D5994A7F6E2893146C7AF21E144A419466A6BAF43BBBA8EA66B3CA | sha512: C03F1497F480E74AE0D101AA904240BA524F545B959020B0D7F226EEDC5E59C75B586F45C8F42C7055D703D5BF76D042276119B22B9A77C3FD961E3A5F6D40D0
Carbon\bin\fullclr\Carbon.Iis.dll
md5: DD26CEFEF8EAC7912E8A66D85E10E31B | sha1: E120D307B762C109E728E6982798D5D13156B4F4 | sha256: E334E8AA6E2AB5B6C17E4A876448B3E84763F5DB41E4DBE08EB7558428EDAC90 | sha512: 767D98A603AA5C5D8100DB274B1986F1611BE7F65B180A434A7EA28A8C930B7BA144473A6BEC91CA640571E025378CA742519E751A6266191E44F29BE15D5A5F
Carbon\bin\fullclr\Carbon.Xdt.dll
md5: FFBA5F28612C9EB6AE798E799A8FA48F | sha1: 7D8616D3F6F3D88B062AD3467B35235412A435F1 | sha256: BFC3595A37989817CC07218A2B533AF110E1B046745EC627526806A70E813442 | sha512: 8D461679FD934BE012A5E50C9C573CE2915E21103318BCE0AABA3916153E34152FD07E52DC6B08A1683DA28111B61B465AF75BEAFA340212D1883066C86FA32E
Carbon\bin\fullclr\Microsoft.Web.XmlTransform.dll
md5: 63DBC95F3C0B762F734A6279652C6F8D | sha1: D1505431EDB1503CBBF58D4012F77EF6A6E51C05 | sha256: DAB9E1C50DEAAC955ED5EDC3A9DE20AC274412DA3E1CCB6572B6DBE1337A656B | sha512: F6A02C02B81580FEFCA803C67F9FB1BBE0424E5F601D5C16BD3A82F421EE09BD3B572B60F959F998D3A1E2451556462A90D2849D24D02133F65F4A9875F84EC8
Carbon\bin\Ionic.Zip.dll
md5: C7AE289C6C0D17AA8338328D6F7133BC | sha1: 2FCDB81968F586F7D76A33C61D52BF1174EE1986 | sha256: 37C70E73717FA77DCBDBD0797CACB4AB6632C4F52F090B081968C7E1E00E25B9 | sha512: 70BC9BEEBCE4436B670278853A1A5F3B9F10C30E6CE798241D1A8C1EF6C7EAA4D57D006F0443793E2D7982EA31EE3FFD59089179529321A9CF2C79B456AB47EA
Carbon\bin\Protect-String.ps1
<#
.SYNOPSIS
**INTERNAL. DO NOT USE**
#>
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
# 
#     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
# 
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
param(
    [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
    [string]
    $ProtectedString
)

Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

# Keep cause this script is used by PowerShell 2.
$PSScriptRoot = Split-Path -Parent -Path $MyInvocation.MyCommand.Definition

Add-Type -AssemblyName 'System.Security'

Import-Module -Name (Join-Path -Path $PSScriptRoot -ChildPath '..\Carbon.psd1' -Resolve)

$string = Unprotect-CString -ProtectedString $ProtectedString
Protect-CString -String $string -ForUser

Carbon\bin\Remove-DotNetAppSetting.ps1
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
# 
#     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
# 
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
[CmdletBinding()]
param(
    [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,Position=0)]
    [string]
    $Name
)

Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

$Name = [Text.Encoding]::Unicode.GetString( [Convert]::FromBase64String($Name) )

Add-Type -AssemblyName System.Configuration

$config = [Configuration.ConfigurationManager]::OpenMachineConfiguration()
$appSettings = $config.AppSettings.Settings
if( $appSettings[$Name] )
{
    $appSettings.Remove( $Name )
    $config.Save()
}
Carbon\bin\Remove-EnvironmentVariable.ps1
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
# 
#     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
# 
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.

[CmdletBinding()]
param(
    [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
    [string]
    $Name
)

Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

$Name = [Text.Encoding]::Unicode.GetString( [Convert]::FromBase64String($Name) ) 
[Environment]::SetEnvironmentVariable( $Name, $null, [EnvironmentVariableTarget]::User )
Carbon\bin\Set-DotNetAppSetting.ps1
<#
.SYNOPSIS
*Internal*.  Use `Set-CDotNetAppSetting` function instead.
.LINK
Set-CDotNetAppSetting
#>

# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
# 
#     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
# 
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
[CmdletBinding()]
param(
    [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,Position=0)]
    [string]
    $Name,

    [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,Position=1)]
    [string]
    $Value
)

Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

$Name = [Text.Encoding]::Unicode.GetString( [Convert]::FromBase64String($Name) )
$Value = [Text.Encoding]::Unicode.GetString( [Convert]::FromBase64String($Value) )

Add-Type -AssemblyName System.Configuration

$config = [Configuration.ConfigurationManager]::OpenMachineConfiguration()
$appSettings = $config.AppSettings.Settings
if( $appSettings[$Name] )
{
    $appSettings[$Name].Value = $Value
}
else
{
    $appSettings.Add( $Name, $Value )
}
$config.Save()

Carbon\bin\Set-DotNetConnectionString.ps1
<#
.SYNOPSIS
Internal.  Use `Set-CDotNetConnectionString` function instead.
#>

# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
# 
#     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
# 
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.

[CmdletBinding()]
param(
    [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,Position=0)]
    [string]
    $Name,

    [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,Position=1)]
    [string]
    $Value,

    [Parameter(Position=2)]
    [string]
    $ProviderName
)

Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

$Name = [Text.Encoding]::Unicode.GetString( [Convert]::FromBase64String($Name) )
$Value = [Text.Encoding]::Unicode.GetString( [Convert]::FromBase64String($Value) )
$ProviderName = [Text.Encoding]::Unicode.GetString( [Convert]::FromBase64String($ProviderName) )

Add-Type -AssemblyName System.Configuration

$config = [Configuration.ConfigurationManager]::OpenMachineConfiguration()
$connectionStrings = $config.ConnectionStrings.ConnectionStrings
if( $connectionStrings[$Name] )
{
    $connectionStrings.Remove( $Name )
}

$args = @( $Name, $Value )
if( $ProviderName )
{
    $args += $ProviderName
}
$connectionString = New-Object Configuration.ConnectionStringSettings $args
$connectionStrings.Add( $connectionString )

$config.Save()

Carbon\bin\Set-EnvironmentVariable.ps1
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
# 
#     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
# 
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.

[CmdletBinding()]
param(
    [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
    [string]
    $Name,

    [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
    [string]
    $Value
)

Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

$Name,$Value = 
    $Name,$Value | 
    ForEach-Object { [Text.Encoding]::Unicode.GetString( [Convert]::FromBase64String($_) ) }
    
[Environment]::SetEnvironmentVariable( $Name, $Value, [EnvironmentVariableTarget]::User )
Carbon\bin\Use-CarbonPrefix.ps1
<#
.SYNOPSIS
Updates files to use Carbon functions with the new `C` prefix.

.DESCRIPTION
The `Use-CarbonPrefix.ps1` script updates files to use Carbon functions with the new `C` prefix. You pass the path to the file(s) to update via the `Path` parameter. This script looks in each file for Carbon function names and updates them to include the new `C` prefix.

The `Path` parameter is passed as-is to the `Get-ChildItem` cmdlet, which does the work of actually finding the files to update. This script also has `Filter`, `Include`, `Exclude`, and `Recurse` parameters which are passed as-is to the `Get-ChildItem` cmdlet.

.EXAMPLE
.\Carbon\bin\Use-CarbonPrefix.ps1 -Path C:\Projects\MyProjects -Include '*.ps1' -Recurse

Demonstrates how to update all your PowerShell scripts to use the new Carbon command prefix in function names.
#>

# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
# 
#     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
# 
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
[CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
param(
    [Parameter(Mandatory)]
    [string[]]
    # The paths to update.
    $Path,
    
    [string]
    $Filter,

    [string[]]
    $Include,

    [string[]]
    $Exclude,

    [Switch]
    $Recurse
)

Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

& (Join-Path -Path $PSScriptRoot -ChildPath '..\Import-Carbon.ps1' -Resolve) -Force

$commands = Get-Command -Module 'Carbon' | Where-Object { $_.CommandType -ne 'Alias' }
$commandNames = $commands | ForEach-Object { '{0}-{1}' -f $_.Verb,($_.Noun -replace '^C','') }
$regex = '\b({0})\b' -f ($commandNames -join '|')

$getChildItemParams = @{
                            Path = $Path;
                            Filter = $Filter;
                            Include = $Include;
                            Exclude = $Exclude;
                            Recurse = $Recurse;
                        }

foreach( $filePath in (Get-ChildItem @getChildItemParams -File) )
{
    $content = [IO.File]::ReadAllText($filePath.FullName)
    $changed = $false
    while( $content -match $regex )
    {
        $oldCommandName = $Matches[1]
        $newCommandName = $oldCommandName -replace '-','-C'
        
        [pscustomobject]@{
                            Path = $filePath;
                            OldName = $oldCommandName;
                            NewName = $newCommandName
                        }
        
        $content = $content -replace ('\b({0})\b' -f $oldCommandName),$newCommandName
        $changed = $true
    }

    if( $changed -and $PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess($filePath.FullName,'update') )
    {
        [IO.File]::WriteAllText($filePath.FullName,$content)
    }
}
Carbon\Carbon.format.ps1xml
 
Carbon\Carbon.psd1
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
# 
#     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
# 
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
#
# Module manifest for module 'Carbon'
#
# Generated by: Aaron Jensen
#
# Generated on: 8/30/2011
#

#Requires -Version 4

@{

    # Script module or binary module file associated with this manifest
    RootModule = 'Carbon.psm1'

    # Version number of this module.
    ModuleVersion = '2.9.0'

    # ID used to uniquely identify this module
    GUID = '075d9444-c01b-48c3-889a-0b3490716fa2'

    # Author of this module
    Author = 'Aaron Jensen'

    # Company or vendor of this module
    CompanyName = ''

    # Copyright statement for this module
    Copyright = 'Aaron Jensen and WebMD Health Services'
    
    # Description of the functionality provided by this module
    Description = @'
Carbon is a PowerShell module for automating the configuration Windows 7, 8, 2008, and 2012 and automation the installation and configuration of Windows applications, websites, and services. It can configure and manage:

 * Local users and groups
 * IIS websites, virtual directories, and applications
 * File system, registry, and certificate permissions
 * Certificates
 * Privileges
 * Services
 * Encryption
 * Junctions
 * Hosts file
 * INI files
 * Performance counters
 * Shares
 * .NET connection strings and app settings
 * And much more!

All functions are idempotent: when run multiple times with the same arguments, your system will be in the same state without failing or producing errors.
'@

    # Minimum version of the Windows PowerShell engine required by this module
    PowerShellVersion = '4.0'

    # Name of the Windows PowerShell host required by this module
    PowerShellHostName = ''

    # Minimum version of the Windows PowerShell host required by this module
    PowerShellHostVersion = ''

    # Minimum version of the .NET Framework required by this module
    DotNetFrameworkVersion = ''

    # Minimum version of the common language runtime (CLR) required by this module
    CLRVersion = ''

    # Processor architecture (None, X86, Amd64, IA64) required by this module
    ProcessorArchitecture = ''

    # Modules that must be imported into the global environment prior to importing this module
    RequiredModules = @()

    # Assemblies that must be loaded prior to importing this module
    RequiredAssemblies = @()

    # Script files (.ps1) that are run in the caller's environment prior to importing this module
    ScriptsToProcess = @()

    # Type files (.ps1xml) to be loaded when importing this module
    TypesToProcess = @(
                        'Carbon.types.ps1xml',
                        'Types\Scheduled.Service.RegisteredTask.types.ps1xml',
                        'Types\System.IO.DirectoryInfo.types.ps1xml'
                        'Types\System.IO.FileInfo.types.ps1xml'
                        'Types\System.ServiceProcess.ServiceController.types.ps1xml'
                      )

    # Format files (.ps1xml) to be loaded when importing this module
    FormatsToProcess = @( 
                            'Carbon.format.ps1xml', 
                            'Formats\Carbon.Security.HttpUrlAcl.format.ps1xml',
                            'Formats\Schedule.Service.RegisteredTask.format.ps1xml'
                        )

    # Modules to import as nested modules of the module specified in ModuleToProcess
    NestedModules = @()

    # Functions to export from this module
    FunctionsToExport = @(
                            'Add-CGroupMember',
                            'Add-CIisDefaultDocument',
                            'Add-CTrustedHost',
                            'Assert-CAdminPrivilege',
                            'Assert-CFirewallConfigurable',
                            'Assert-CService',
                            'Clear-CDscLocalResourceCache',
                            'Clear-CMofAuthoringMetadata',
                            'Clear-CTrustedHost',
                            'Complete-CJob',
                            'Compress-CItem',
                            'ConvertFrom-CBase64',
                            'Convert-CSecureStringToString',
                            'ConvertTo-CBase64',
                            'ConvertTo-CContainerInheritanceFlags',
                            'ConvertTo-CInheritanceFlag',
                            'ConvertTo-CPropagationFlag',
                            'ConvertTo-CSecurityIdentifier',
                            'Convert-CXmlFile',
                            'Copy-CDscResource',
                            'Disable-CAclInheritance',
                            'Disable-CFirewallStatefulFtp',
                            'Disable-CIEEnhancedSecurityConfiguration',
                            'Disable-CIisSecurityAuthentication',
                            'Disable-CNtfsCompression',
                            'Enable-CAclInheritance',
                            'Enable-CFirewallStatefulFtp',
                            'Enable-CIEActivationPermission',
                            'Enable-CIisDirectoryBrowsing',
                            'Enable-CIisSecurityAuthentication',
                            'Enable-CIisSsl',
                            'Enable-CNtfsCompression',
                            'Expand-CItem',
                            'Find-CADUser',
                            'Format-CADSearchFilterValue',
                            'Get-CADDomainController',
                            'Get-CCertificate',
                            'Get-CCertificateStore',
                            'Get-CComPermission',
                            'Get-CComSecurityDescriptor',
                            'Get-CDscError',
                            'Get-CDscWinEvent',
                            'Get-CFileShare',
                            'Get-CFileSharePermission',
                            'Get-CFirewallRule',
                            'Get-CGroup',
                            'Get-CHttpUrlAcl',
                            'Get-CIisApplication',
                            'Get-CIisAppPool',
                            'Get-CIisConfigurationSection',
                            'Get-CIisHttpHeader',
                            'Get-CIisHttpRedirect',
                            'Get-CIisMimeMap',
                            'Get-CIisSecurityAuthentication',
                            'Get-CIisVersion',
                            'Get-CIisWebsite',
                            'Get-CIPAddress',
                            'Get-CMsi',
                            'Get-CMsmqMessageQueue',
                            'Get-CMsmqMessageQueuePath',
                            'Get-CPathProvider',
                            'Get-CPathToHostsFile',
                            'Get-CPerformanceCounter',
                            'Get-CPermission',
                            'Get-CPowerShellModuleInstallPath',
                            'Get-CPowershellPath',
                            'Get-CPrivilege',
                            'Get-CProgramInstallInfo',
                            'Get-CRegistryKeyValue',
                            'Get-CScheduledTask',
                            'Get-CServiceAcl',
                            'Get-CServiceConfiguration',
                            'Get-CServicePermission',
                            'Get-CServiceSecurityDescriptor',
                            'Get-CSslCertificateBinding',
                            'Get-CTrustedHost',
                            'Get-CUser',
                            'Get-CWindowsFeature',
                            'Get-CWmiLocalUserAccount',
                            'Grant-CComPermission',
                            'Grant-CHttpUrlPermission',
                            'Grant-CMsmqMessageQueuePermission',
                            'Grant-CPermission',
                            'Grant-CPrivilege',
                            'Grant-CServiceControlPermission',
                            'Grant-CServicePermission',
                            'Initialize-CLcm',
                            'Install-CCertificate',
                            'Install-CDirectory',
                            'Install-CFileShare',
                            'Install-CGroup',
                            'Install-CIisApplication',
                            'Install-CIisAppPool',
                            'Install-CIisVirtualDirectory',
                            'Install-CIisWebsite',
                            'Install-CJunction',
                            'Install-CMsi',
                            'Install-CMsmq',
                            'Install-CMsmqMessageQueue',
                            'Install-CPerformanceCounter',
                            'Install-CRegistryKey',
                            'Install-CScheduledTask',
                            'Install-CService',
                            'Install-CUser',
                            'Install-CWindowsFeature',
                            'Invoke-CAppCmd',
                            'Invoke-CPowerShell',
                            'Join-CIisVirtualPath',
                            'Lock-CIisConfigurationSection',
                            'New-CCredential',
                            'New-CJunction',
                            'New-CRsaKeyPair',
                            'New-CTempDirectory',
                            'Protect-CString',
                            'Read-CFile',
                            'Remove-CDotNetAppSetting',
                            'Remove-CEnvironmentVariable',
                            'Remove-CGroupMember',
                            'Remove-CHostsEntry',
                            'Remove-CIisMimeMap',
                            'Remove-CIniEntry',
                            'Remove-CJunction',
                            'Remove-CRegistryKeyValue',
                            'Remove-CSslCertificateBinding',
                            'Reset-CHostsFile',
                            'Reset-CMsmqQueueManagerID',
                            'Resolve-CFullPath',
                            'Resolve-CIdentity',
                            'Resolve-CIdentityName',
                            'Resolve-CNetPath',
                            'Resolve-CPathCase',
                            'Resolve-CRelativePath',
                            'Restart-CRemoteService',
                            'Revoke-CComPermission',
                            'Revoke-CHttpUrlPermission',
                            'Revoke-CPermission',
                            'Revoke-CPrivilege',
                            'Revoke-CServicePermission',
                            'Set-CDotNetAppSetting',
                            'Set-CDotNetConnectionString',
                            'Set-CEnvironmentVariable',
                            'Set-CHostsEntry',
                            'Set-CIisHttpHeader',
                            'Set-CIisHttpRedirect',
                            'Set-CIisMimeMap',
                            'Set-CIisWebsiteID',
                            'Set-CIisWebsiteSslCertificate',
                            'Set-CIisWindowsAuthentication',
                            'Set-CIniEntry',
                            'Set-CRegistryKeyValue',
                            'Set-CServiceAcl',
                            'Set-CSslCertificateBinding',
                            'Set-CTrustedHost',
                            'Split-CIni',
                            'Start-CDscPullConfiguration',
                            'Test-CAdminPrivilege',
                            'Test-CDotNet',
                            'Test-CDscTargetResource',
                            'Test-CFileShare',
                            'Test-CFirewallStatefulFtp',
                            'Test-CGroup',
                            'Test-CGroupMember',
                            'Test-CIdentity',
                            'Test-CIisAppPool',
                            'Test-CIisConfigurationSection',
                            'Test-CIisSecurityAuthentication',
                            'Test-CIisWebsite',
                            'Test-CIPAddress',
                            'Test-CMsmqMessageQueue',
                            'Test-CNtfsCompression',
                            'Test-COSIs32Bit',
                            'Test-COSIs64Bit',
                            'Test-CPathIsJunction',
                            'Test-CPerformanceCounter',
                            'Test-CPerformanceCounterCategory',
                            'Test-CPermission',
                            'Test-CPowerShellIs32Bit',
                            'Test-CPowerShellIs64Bit',
                            'Test-CPrivilege',
                            'Test-CRegistryKeyValue',
                            'Test-CScheduledTask',
                            'Test-CService',
                            'Test-CSslCertificateBinding',
                            'Test-CTypeDataMember',
                            'Test-CUncPath',
                            'Test-CUser',
                            'Test-CWindowsFeature',
                            'Test-CZipFile',
                            'Uninstall-CCertificate',
                            'Uninstall-CDirectory',
                            'Uninstall-CFileShare',
                            'Uninstall-CGroup',
                            'Uninstall-CIisAppPool',
                            'Uninstall-CIisWebsite',
                            'Uninstall-CJunction',
                            'Uninstall-CMsmqMessageQueue',
                            'Uninstall-CPerformanceCounterCategory',
                            'Uninstall-CScheduledTask',
                            'Uninstall-CService',
                            'Uninstall-CUser',
                            'Uninstall-CWindowsFeature',
                            'Unlock-CIisConfigurationSection',
                            'Unprotect-CString',
                            'Write-CDscError',
                            'Write-CFile'
                        )

    # Cmdlets to export from this module
    CmdletsToExport = ''

    # Variables to export from this module
    VariablesToExport = ''

    # Aliases to export from this module
    AliasesToExport = '*'

    # List of all modules packaged with this module
    ModuleList = @()

    # List of all files packaged with this module
    FileList = @()

    # Private data to pass to the module specified in ModuleToProcess
    PrivateData = @{

        PSData = @{

            # Tags applied to this module. These help with module discovery in online galleries.
            Tags = @('.net','acl','active-directory','certificates','com','compression','computer','credential','cryptography','directory','dsc','dsc-resources','encryption','environment','file-system','firewall','groups','hosts-file','http','identity','iis','ini','installers','internet-explorer','ip','junctions','msi','msmq','netsh','networking','ntfs','operating-system','os','path','performance-counters','powershell','principal','privileges','programs','registry','rsa','scheduled-tasks','security','service','shares','sid','smb','ssl','text','trusted-host','users','wcf','windows','windows-features','xml','zip','PSModule','DscResources','setup','automation','admin')

            # A URL to the license for this module.
            LicenseUri = 'http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0'

            # A URL to the main website for this project.
            ProjectUri = 'http://get-carbon.org/'

            Prerelease = ''

            # ReleaseNotes of this module
            ReleaseNotes = @'
* Carbon should now import in less than a second.
* Fixed: `Grant-CHttpUrlPermission` documentation uses command named `Grant-CHttpUrlAclPermission`. (Fixes [issue 66](https://github.com/webmd-health-services/Carbon/issues/66).)
* Fixed: `Enable-CNtfsCompression` always enables compression even if compression is already enabled.
* Fixed: `Disable-CNtfsCompression` always disables compression even if compression is already disabled.
* Fixed: `Uninstall-CService` can write an error when a service's process exits at unexpected times.
* Fixed: `Get-CUser` can sometimes take 60 to 90 seconds to lookup a specific user.
* Fixed: `Get-CGroup` can sometimes take 60 to 90 seconds to lookup a specific group.
* Improved `Set-CEnvironmentVariable` and `Remove-CEnvironmentVariable` functions' reliability when setting and removing variables for a specific user (they now use `Start-Job` instead of Carbon's `Invoke-CPowerShell`).
* Fixed: Carbon was hiding the ServerManager module's `Get-WindowsFeature`, `Install-WindowsFeature`, and `Uninstall-WindowsFeature` cmdlets (fixes issue #55).
* Fixed: `Set-CHostsEntry` can sometimes clear the hosts file (fixes issue #39).
* Fixed: `Get-CServiceConfiguration` fails with a terminating exception if a service doesn't exist.
'@
        } # End of PSData hashtable
    
    } # End of PrivateData hashtable
}
Carbon\Carbon.psm1
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
# 
#     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
# 
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.

#Requires -Version 4

$startedAt = Get-Date
function Write-Timing
{
    param(
        [Parameter(Position=0)]
        $Message
    )

    $now = Get-Date
    Write-Debug -Message ('[{0}]  [{1}]  {2}' -f $now,($now - $startedAt),$Message)
}

if( -not (Test-Path 'variable:IsWindows') )
{
    $IsWindows = $true
    $IsLinux = $IsMacOS = $false
}

Write-Timing ('BEGIN')
$carbonRoot = $PSScriptRoot
$CarbonBinDir = Join-Path -Path $PSScriptRoot -ChildPath 'bin' -Resolve
$carbonAssemblyDir = Join-Path -Path $CarbonBinDir -ChildPath 'fullclr' -Resolve

# Used to detect how to manager windows features. Determined at run time to improve import speed.
$windowsFeaturesNotSupported = $null
$useServerManager = $null
$useOCSetup = $false
$supportNotFoundErrorMessage = 'Unable to find support for managing Windows features.  Couldn''t find servermanagercmd.exe, ocsetup.exe, or WMI support.'

$IsPSCore = $PSVersionTable['PSEdition'] -eq 'Core'
if( $IsPSCore )
{
    $carbonAssemblyDir = Join-Path -Path $CarbonBinDir -ChildPath 'coreclr' -Resolve
}

Write-Timing ('Loading Carbon assemblies from "{0}".' -f $carbonAssemblyDir)
Get-ChildItem -Path (Join-Path -Path $carbonAssemblyDir -ChildPath '*') -Filter 'Carbon*.dll' -Exclude 'Carbon.Iis.dll' |
    ForEach-Object { Add-Type -Path $_.FullName }

# Active Directory

# COM
$ComRegKeyPath = 'hklm:\software\microsoft\ole'

# IIS
$exportIisFunctions = $false
if( (Test-Path -Path 'env:SystemRoot') )
{
    Write-Timing ('Adding System.Web assembly.')
    Add-Type -AssemblyName "System.Web"
    $microsoftWebAdministrationPath = Join-Path -Path $env:SystemRoot -ChildPath 'system32\inetsrv\Microsoft.Web.Administration.dll'
    if( (Test-Path -Path $microsoftWebAdministrationPath -PathType Leaf) )
    {
        $exportIisFunctions = $true
        if( -not $IsPSCore )
        {
            Write-Timing ('Adding Microsoft.Web.Administration assembly.')
            Add-Type -Path $microsoftWebAdministrationPath
            Write-Timing ('Adding Carbon.Iis assembly.')
            Add-Type -Path (Join-Path -Path $carbonAssemblyDir -ChildPath 'Carbon.Iis.dll' -Resolve)
        }
    }
}

Write-Timing ('Adding System.ServiceProcess assembly.')
Add-Type -AssemblyName 'System.ServiceProcess'

if( $IsWindows )
{
    Write-Timing ('Adding System.ServiceProcess assembly.')
    Add-Type -AssemblyName 'System.Messaging'
}

#PowerShell
$TrustedHostsPath = 'WSMan:\localhost\Client\TrustedHosts'

# Users and Groups
Write-Timing ('Adding System.DirectoryServices.AccountManagement assembly.')
Add-Type -AssemblyName 'System.DirectoryServices.AccountManagement'

Write-Timing ('Dot-sourcing functions.')
$functionRoot = Join-Path -Path $PSScriptRoot -ChildPath 'Functions' -Resolve

Get-ChildItem -Path (Join-Path -Path $functionRoot -ChildPath '*') -Filter '*.ps1' -Exclude '*Iis*','Initialize-Lcm.ps1' | 
    ForEach-Object { 
        . $_.FullName 
    }

$developerImports = & {
    Join-Path -Path $PSScriptRoot -ChildPath 'Carbon.psm1.Import.Iis.ps1' 
    Join-Path -Path $PSScriptRoot -ChildPath 'Carbon.psm1.Import.Lcm.ps1' 
    Join-Path -Path $PSScriptRoot -ChildPath 'Carbon.psm1.Import.Post.ps1' 
}
foreach( $developerImport in $developerImports )
{
    if( -not (Test-Path -Path $developerImport -PathType Leaf) )
    {
        continue
    }

    Write-Timing ('Dot-sourcing "{0}".' -f $developerImport)
    . $developerImport
}



function Add-CGroupMember
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Adds a users or groups to a *local* group.

    .DESCRIPTION
    You would think it's pretty easy and straight-forward to add users/groups to a local group, but you would be wrong.  The quick solution is to use `net localgroup`, but that won't accept user/group names longer than 24 characters.  This means you have to use the .NET Directory Services APIs.  How do you reliably add both users *and* groups?  What if those users are in a domain?  What if they're in another domain?  What about built-in users?  Fortunately, you're brain hasn't exploded.

    So, this function adds users and groups to a *local* group.

    If the members are already part of the group, nothing happens.

    The user running this function must have access to the directory where each principal in the `Member` parameter and the directory where each of the group's current members are located.

    .EXAMPLE
    Add-CGroupMember -Name Administrators -Member EMPIRE\DarthVader,EMPIRE\EmperorPalpatine,REBELS\LSkywalker

    Adds Darth Vader, Emperor Palpatine and Luke Skywalker to the local administrators group.

    .EXAMPLE
    Add-CGroupMember -Name TieFighters -Member NetworkService

    Adds the local NetworkService account to the local TieFighters group.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The group name.
        $Name,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string[]]
        # The users/groups to add to a group.
		[Alias('Members')]
        $Member
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    
    [DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.GroupPrincipal]$group = Get-CGroup -Name $Name
    if( -not $group )
    {
        return
    }
    
    try
    {
        foreach( $_member in $Member )
        {
            $identity = Resolve-CIdentity -Name $_member
            if( -not $identity )
            {
                continue
            }

            if( (Test-CGroupMember -GroupName $group.Name -Member $_member) )
            {
                continue
            }

            Write-Verbose -Message ('[{0}] Members       -> {1}' -f $Name,$identity.FullName)
            if( -not $PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess(('adding ''{0}'' to local group ''{1}''' -f $identity.FullName, $group.Name), $null, $null) )
            {
                continue
            }

            try
            {
                $identity.AddToLocalGroup( $group.Name )
            }
            catch
            {
                Write-Error ('Failed to add ''{0}'' to group ''{1}'': {2}.' -f $identity,$group.Name,$_)
            }
        }
    }
    finally
    {
        $group.Dispose()
    }
}

Set-Alias -Name 'Add-GroupMembers' -Value 'Add-CGroupMember'




function Add-CTrustedHost
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Adds an item to the computer's list of trusted hosts.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Adds an entry to this computer's list of trusted hosts.  If the item already exists, nothing happens.

    PowerShell Remoting needs to be turned on for this function to work.

    .LINK
    Enable-PSRemoting

    .EXAMPLE
    Add-CTrustedHost -Entry example.com

    Adds `example.com` to the list of this computer's trusted hosts.  If `example.com` is already on the list of trusted hosts, nothing happens.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string[]]
		[Alias("Entries")]
        # The computer name(s) to add to the trusted hosts
        $Entry
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $trustedHosts = @( Get-CTrustedHost )
    $newEntries = @()
    
	$Entry | ForEach-Object {
		if( $trustedHosts -notcontains $_ )
		{
            $trustedHosts += $_ 
            $newEntries += $_
		}
	}
    
    if( $pscmdlet.ShouldProcess( "trusted hosts", "adding $( ($newEntries -join ',') )" ) )
    {
        Set-CTrustedHost -Entry $trustedHosts
    }
}

Set-Alias -Name 'Add-TrustedHosts' -Value 'Add-CTrustedHost'



function Assert-CAdminPrivilege
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Writes an error and returns false if the user doesn't have administrator privileges.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Many scripts and functions require the user to be running as an administrator.  This function checks if the user is running as an administrator or with administrator privileges and writes an error if the user doesn't.  

    .LINK
    Test-CAdminPrivilege

    .EXAMPLE
    Assert-CAdminPrivilege

    Writes an error that the user doesn't have administrator privileges.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( -not (Test-CAdminPrivilege) )
    {
        Write-Error "You are not currently running with administrative privileges.  Please re-start PowerShell as an administrator (right-click the PowerShell application, and choose ""Run as Administrator"")."
        return $false
    }
    return $true
}

Set-Alias -Name 'Assert-AdminPrivileges' -Value 'Assert-CAdminPrivilege'




function Assert-CFirewallConfigurable
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Asserts that the Windows firewall is configurable and writes an error if it isn't.

    .DESCRIPTION
    The Windows firewall can only be configured if it is running.  This function checks test if it is running.  If it isn't, it writes out an error and returns `False`.  If it is running, it returns `True`.

    .OUTPUTS
    System.Boolean.

    .EXAMPLE
    Assert-CFirewallConfigurable

    Returns `True` if the Windows firewall can be configured, `False` if it can't.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( (Get-Service 'Windows Firewall' -ErrorAction Ignore | Select-Object -ExpandProperty 'Status' -ErrorAction Ignore) -eq 'Running' )
    {
        return $true
    }
    elseif( (Get-Service -Name 'MpsSvc').Status -eq 'Running' )
    {
        return $true
    }

    Write-Error "Unable to configure firewall: Windows Firewall service isn't running."
    return $false
}



function Assert-CService
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Checks if a service exists, and writes an error if it doesn't.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    Also returns `True` if the service exists, `False` if it doesn't.
    
    .OUTPUTS
    System.Boolean.
    
    .LINK
    Test-CService
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Assert-CService -Name 'Drivetrain'
    
    Writes an error if the `Drivetrain` service doesn't exist.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the service.
        $Name
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( -not (Test-CService $Name) )
    {
        Write-Error ('Service {0} not found.' -f $Name)
        return $false
    }
    
    return $true
}




function Assert-WindowsFeatureFunctionsSupported
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    INTERNAL.  DO NOT USE.  
    
    .DESCRIPTION 
    INTERNAL.  DO NOT USE.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Assert-WindowsFeatureFunctionsSupported
    
    Writes an error and returns `false` if support for managing functions isn't found.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    
    if( $null -eq $windowsFeaturesNotSupported )
    {
        $script:useServerManager = $null -ne (Get-Command -Name 'servermanagercmd.exe' -ErrorAction Ignore)
        $useWmi = $false
        if( -not $useServerManager )
        {
            $win32OptionalFeatureClass = $null
            if( (Get-Command -Name 'Get-CimClass' -ErrorAction Ignore) )
            {
                $win32OptionalFeatureClass = Get-CimClass -ClassName 'Win32_OptionalFeature'
            }
            elseif( Get-Command -Name 'Get-WmiObject' -ErrorAction Ignore )
            {
                $win32OptionalFeatureClass = Get-WmiObject -List | Where-Object { $_.Name -eq 'Win32_OptionalFeature' }
            }
                
            $useWmi = $null -ne $win32OptionalFeatureClass
            $script:useOCSetup = $null -ne (Get-Command -Name 'ocsetup.exe' -ErrorAction Ignore )
        }

        $script:windowsFeaturesNotSupported = (-not ($useServerManager -or ($useWmi -and $useOCSetup) ))
    }

    if( $windowsFeaturesNotSupported )
    {
        Write-Warning $supportNotFoundErrorMessage
        return $false
    }
    return $true
}




function Clear-CDscLocalResourceCache
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Clears the local DSC resource cache.

    .DESCRIPTION
    DSC caches resources. This is painful when developing, since you're constantly updating your resources. This function allows you to clear the DSC resource cache on the local computer. What this function really does, is kill the DSC host process running DSC.

    `Clear-CDscLocalResourceCache` is new in Carbon 2.0.

    .EXAMPLE
    Clear-CDscLocalResourceCache
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    Get-WmiObject msft_providers | 
        Where-Object {$_.provider -like 'dsccore'} | 
        Select-Object -ExpandProperty HostProcessIdentifier | 
        ForEach-Object { Get-Process -ID $_ } | 
        Stop-Process -Force
}



function Clear-CMofAuthoringMetadata
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Removes authoring metadata from .mof files.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Everytime PowerShell generates a .mof file, it includes authoring metadata: who created the file, on what computer, and at what date/time. This means a .mof file's checksum will change everytime a new one is generated, even if the configuration in that file didn't change. This makes it hard to know when a configuration in a .mof file has truly changed, and makes its change history noisy. This function strips/removes all authoring metadata from a .mof file.

    When given a path to a file, all authoring metadata is removed from that file. When given the path to a directory, removes authoring metadata from all `*.mof` files in that directory.

    Essentially, these blocks from each .mof file:

        /*
        @TargetNode='********'
        @GeneratedBy=********
        @GenerationDate=08/19/2014 13:29:15
        @GenerationHost=********
        */

        /* ...snip... */

        
        instance of OMI_ConfigurationDocument
        {
         Version="1.0.0";
         Author="********;
         GenerationDate="08/19/2014 13:29:15";
         GenerationHost="********";
        };

    Would be changed to:

        /*
        @TargetNode='JSWEB01L-WHS-08'
        */

        /* ...snip... */
        
        instance of OMI_ConfigurationDocument
        {
         Version="1.0.0";
        };


    `Clear-CMofAuthoringMetadata` is new in Carbon 2.0.

    .EXAMPLE
    Clear-CMofAuthoringMetadata -Path 'C:\Projects\DSC\localhost.mof'

    Demonstrates how to clear the authoring data from a specific file.

    .EXAMPLE
    Clear-CMofAuthoringMetadata -Path 'C:\Projects\DSC'

    Demonstrates how to clear the authoring data from all .mof files in a specific directory.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The path to the file/directory whose .mof files should be operated on.
        $Path
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $tempDir = New-CTempDirectory -Prefix ('Carbon+ClearMofAuthoringMetadata+') -WhatIf:$false

    foreach( $item in (Get-ChildItem -Path $Path -Filter '*.mof') )
    {
        Write-Verbose ('Clearing authoring metadata from ''{0}''.' -f $item.FullName)
        $tempItem = Copy-Item -Path $item.FullName -Destination $tempDir -PassThru -WhatIf:$false
        $inComment = $false
        $inAuthoringComment = $false
        $inConfigBlock = $false;
        Get-Content -Path $tempItem |
            Where-Object {
                $line = $_

                if( $line -like '/`**' )
                {
                    if( $line -like '*`*/' )
                    {
                        return $true
                    }
                    $inComment = $true
                    return $true
                }

                if( $inComment )
                {
                    if( $line -like '*`*/' )
                    {
                        $inComment = $false
                        $inAuthoringComment = $false
                        return $true
                    }

                    if( $line -like '@TargetNode=*' )
                    {
                        $inAuthoringComment = $true
                        return $true
                    }

                    if( $inAuthoringComment )
                    {
                        return ( $line -notmatch '^@(GeneratedBy|Generation(Host|Date))' )
                    }

                    return $true
                }

                if( $line -eq 'instance of OMI_ConfigurationDocument' )
                {
                    $inConfigBlock = $true
                    return $true
                }

                if( $inConfigBlock )
                {
                    if( $line -like '};' )
                    {
                        $inConfigBlock = $false;
                        return $true
                    }

                    return ($line -notmatch '(Author|(Generation(Date|Host)))=');
                }

                return $true

            } | 
            Set-Content -Path $item.FullName
    }
}



function Clear-CTrustedHost
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Removes all entries from PowerShell trusted hosts list.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Add-CTrustedHost` function adds new entries to the trusted hosts list.  `Set-CTrustedHost` sets it to a new list.  This function clears out the trusted hosts list completely.  After you run it, you won't be able to connect to any computers until you add them to the trusted hosts list.
    
    .LINK
    Add-CTrustedHost
    
    .LINK
    Set-CTrustedHost

    .EXAMPLE
    Clear-CTrustedHost
    
    Clears everything from the trusted hosts list.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( $pscmdlet.ShouldProcess( 'trusted hosts', 'clear' ) )
    {
        Set-Item $TrustedHostsPath -Value '' -Force
    }

}

Set-Alias -Name 'Clear-TrustedHosts' -Value 'Clear-CTrustedHost'



function Complete-CJob
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    OBSOLETE. Use PowerShell's `Wait-Job` cmdlet instead. Will be removed in a future major version of Carbon.

    .DESCRIPTION
    OBSOLETE. Use PowerShell's `Wait-Job` cmdlet instead. Will be removed in a future major version of Carbon.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-Job | Wait-Job

    Demonstrates that `Complete-CJob` is OBSOLETE and you should use PowerShell's `Wait-Job` cmdlet instead.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [Management.Automation.Job[]]
        # The jobs to complete.
        [Alias('Jobs')]
        $Job,
        
        [Parameter()]
        [int]
        # The number of seconds to sleep between job status checks.  Default is 1 second.
        $IntervalSeconds = 1
    )

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    Write-Warning ('Complete-CJob is obsolete and will be removed in a future major version of Carbon. Use PowerShell''s `Wait-Job` cmdlet instead.')
    
    $errorAction = 'Continue'
    $params = $PSBoundParameters
    if( $PSBoundParameters.ContainsKey( 'ErrorAction' ) )
    {
        $errorAction = $PSBoundParameters.ErrorAction
    }

    trap { Write-Warning "Unhandled error found: $_" }
    $numFailed = 0
    do
    {
        Start-Sleep -Seconds $IntervalSeconds
        
        $jobsStillRunning = $false
        foreach( $pendingJob in $Job )
        {
            $currentJob = Get-Job $pendingJob.Id -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue
            if( -not $currentJob )
            {
                Write-Verbose "Job with ID $($pendingJob.Id) doesn't exist."
                continue
            }
            
            try
            {
                Write-Verbose "Job $($currentJob.Name) is in the $($currentJob.State) state."
                
                $jobHeader = "# $($currentJob.Name): $($currentJob.State)"
                if( $currentJob.State -eq 'Blocked' -or $currentJob.State -eq 'Stopped')
                {
                    Write-Host $jobHeader

                    Write-Verbose "Stopping job $($currentJob.Name)."
                    Stop-Job -Job $currentJob

                    Write-Verbose "Receiving job $($currentJob.Name)."
                    Receive-Job -Job $currentJob -ErrorAction $errorAction| Write-Host

                    Write-Verbose "Removing job $($currentJob.Name)."
                    Remove-Job -Job $currentJob
                    $numFailed += 1
                }
                elseif( $currentJob.State -eq 'Completed' -or $currentJob.State -eq 'Failed' )
                {
                    Write-Host $jobHeader

                    Write-Verbose "Receiving job $($currentJob.Name)."
                    Receive-Job -Job $currentJob -ErrorAction $errorAction | Write-Host

                    Write-Verbose "Removing job $($currentJob.Name)."
                    Remove-Job -Job $currentJob
                    if( $currentJob.State -eq 'Failed' )
                    {
                        $numFailed += 1
                    }
                }
                elseif( $currentJob.State -eq 'NotStarted' -or $currentJob.State -eq 'Running' )
                {
                    $jobsStillRunning = $true
                }
                else
                {
                    Write-Error "Found unknown job state $($currentJob.State)."
                }
            }
            catch
            {
                Write-Warning "Encountered error handling job $($currentJob.Name)."
                Write-Warning $_
            }
        }
        
     } while( $jobsStillRunning )
     
     return $numFailed
}

Set-Alias -Name 'Complete-Jobs' -Value 'Complete-CJob'



function Compress-CItem
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Compresses a file/directory using the `DotNetZip` library.

    .DESCRIPTION
    You can supply a destination file path, via the `OutFile` parameter. If the file doesn't exist, it is created. If it exists, use the `-Force` parameter to overwrite it.

    Each item added to the ZIP file will be added to the root of the file, with a name matching the original file's/directory's name. For example, if adding the file `C:\Projects\Carbon\RELEASE NOTE.txt`, it would get added to the ZIP file as `RELEASE NOTES.txt`.

    If you don't supply an output file path, one will be created in the current user's TEMP directory.

    A `System.IO.FileInfo` object is returned representing the ZIP file. If you're using the `WhatIf` switch, nothing is returned.

    Microsoft's DSC Local Configuration Manager is unable to unzip files compressed with the `DotNetZip` library (or the `ZipFile` class in .NET 4.5), so as an alternative, if you specify the `UseShell` switch, the file will be compressed with the Windows COM shell API.

    .LINK
    https://www.nuget.org/packages/DotNetZip

    .LINK
    Expand-CItem

    .LINK
    Test-CZipFile

    .EXAMPLE
    Compress-CItem -Path 'C:\Projects\Carbon' -OutFile 'C:\Carbon.zip'

    Demonstrates how to create a ZIP file of the `C:\Projects\Carbon` directory.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-ChildItem -Path 'C:\Projects\Carbon' | Where-Object { $_.PsIsContainer} | Compress-CItem -OutFile 'C:\Projects\Carbon.zip'

    Demonstrates how you can pipe items to `Compress-CItem` for compressing.

    .EXAMPLE
    Compress-CItem -Path 'C:\Projects\Carbon' -OutFile 'C:\Carbon.zip' -UseShell

    Demonstrates how to create a ZIP file with the Windows shell COM APIs instead of the `DotNetZip` library.
    #>
    [OutputType([IO.FileInfo])]
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName=$true)]
        [Alias('FullName')]
        [string[]]
        # The path to the files/directories to compress.
        $Path,

        [string]
        # Path to destination ZIP file. If not provided, a ZIP file will be created in the current user's TEMP directory.
        $OutFile,

        [Switch]
        # Uses the Windows COM shell API to create the zip file instead of the `DotNetZip` library. Microsoft's DSC Local Configuration Manager can't unzip files zipped with `DotNetZip` (or even the .NET 4.5 `ZipFile` class).
        $UseShell,

        [Switch]
        # Overwrites an existing ZIP file.
        $Force
    )

    begin
    {
        Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
        Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

        Add-Type -Path (Join-Path -Path $CarbonBinDir -ChildPath 'Ionic.Zip.dll' -Resolve)

        $zipFile = $null
        $fullPaths = New-Object -TypeName 'Collections.Generic.List[string]'

        if( $OutFile )
        {
            $OutFile = Resolve-CFullPath -Path $OutFile
            if( (Test-Path -Path $OutFile -PathType Leaf) )
            {
                if( -not $Force )
                {
                    Write-Error ('File ''{0}'' already exists. Use the `-Force` switch to overwrite.' -f $OutFile)
                    return
                }
            }
        }
        else
        {
            $OutFile = 'Carbon+Compress-CItem-{0}.zip' -f ([IO.Path]::GetRandomFileName())
            $OutFile = Join-Path -Path $env:TEMP -ChildPath $OutFile
        }

        if( $UseShell )
        {
            [byte[]]$data = New-Object byte[] 22
            $data[0] = 80
            $data[1] = 75
            $data[2] = 5
            $data[3] = 6
            [IO.File]::WriteAllBytes($OutFile, $data)

            $shellApp = New-Object -ComObject "Shell.Application"
            $copyHereFlags = (
                                # 0x4   = No dialog
                                # 0x10  = Responde "Yes to All" to any prompts
                                # 0x400 = Do not display a user interface if an error occurs
                                0x4 -bor 0x10 -bor 0x400        
                            )
            $zipFile = $shellApp.NameSpace($OutFile)
            $zipItemCount = 0
        }
        else
        {
            $zipFile = New-Object 'Ionic.Zip.ZipFile'
        }

    }

    process
    {
        if( -not $zipFile )
        {
            return
        }

        $Path | Resolve-Path | Select-Object -ExpandProperty 'ProviderPath' | ForEach-Object { $fullPaths.Add( $_ ) }
    }

    end
    {
        if( -not $zipFile )
        {
            return
        }

        $shouldProcessCaption = ('creating compressed file ''{0}''' -f $outFile)
        $maxPathLength = $fullPaths | Select-Object -ExpandProperty 'Length' | Measure-Object -Maximum
        $maxPathLength = $maxPathLength.Maximum
        $shouldProcessFormat = 'compressing {{0,-{0}}} to {{1}}@{{2}}' -f $maxPathLength
        
        $fullPaths | ForEach-Object { 
            $zipEntryName = Split-Path -Leaf -Path $_
            $operation = $shouldProcessFormat -f $_,$OutFile,$zipEntryName
            if( $PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess($operation,$operation,$shouldProcessCaption) )
            {
                if( $UseShell )
                {
                    [void]$zipFile.CopyHere($_, $copyHereFlags)
                    $entryCount = Get-ChildItem $_ -Recurse | Measure-Object | Select-Object -ExpandProperty 'Count'
                    $zipItemCount += $entryCount
                }
                else
                {
                    if( Test-Path -Path $_ -PathType Container )
                    {
                        [void]$zipFile.AddDirectory( $_, $zipEntryName )
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        [void]$zipFile.AddFile( $_, '.' )
                    }
                }
            }
        }

        if( $UseShell )
        {
            [void][Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::ReleaseComObject($zipFile)
            [void][Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::ReleaseComObject($shellApp)
            do
            {
                try
                {
                    if( [Ionic.Zip.ZipFile]::CheckZip( $OutFile ) )
                    {
                        $zipFile = [Ionic.Zip.ZipFile]::Read($OutFile)
                        $count = $zipFile.Count
                        $zipFile.Dispose()
                        if( $zipItemCount -eq $count )
                        {
                            Write-Verbose ('Found {0} expected entries in ZIP file ''{1}''.' -f $zipItemCount,$OutFile)
                            break
                        }
                        Write-Verbose ('ZIP file ''{0}'' has {1} entries, but expected {2}. Looks like the Shell API is still writing to it.' -f $OutFile,$count,$zipItemCount)
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        Write-Verbose ('ZIP file ''{0}'' not valid. Looks like Shell API is still writing to it.' -f $OutFile)
                    }
                }
                catch
                {
                    Write-Verbose ('Encountered an exception checking if the COM Shell API has finished creating ZIP file ''{0}'': {1}' -f $OutFile,$_.Exception.Message) 
                    $Global:Error.RemoveAt(0)
                }
                Start-Sleep -Milliseconds 100
            }
            while( $true )
        }
        else
        {
            $operation = 'saving {0}' -f $OutFile
            if( $PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess( $operation, $operation, $shouldProcessCaption ) )
            {
                $zipFile.Save( $OutFile )
            }
            $zipFile.Dispose()
        }

        $operation = 'returning {0}' -f $OutFile
        if( $PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess($operation,$operation,$shouldProcessCaption) )
        {
            Get-Item -Path $OutFile
        }
    }
}



function Convert-CSecureStringToString
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Converts a secure string into a plain text string.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Sometimes you just need to convert a secure string into a plain text string.  This function does it for you.  Yay!  Once you do, however, the cat is out of the bag and your password will be *all over memory* and, perhaps, the file system.

    .OUTPUTS
    System.String.

    .EXAMPLE
    Convert-CSecureStringToString -SecureString $mySuperSecretPasswordIAmAboutToExposeToEveryone

    Returns the plain text/decrypted value of the secure string.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [Security.SecureString]
        # The secure string to convert.
        $SecureString
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $stringPtr = [Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::SecureStringToBSTR($SecureString)
    return [Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStringAuto($stringPtr)
}




function Convert-CXmlFile
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Transforms an XML document using XDT (XML Document Transformation).
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    An XDT file specifies how to change an XML file from a *known* beginning state into a new state.  This is usually helpful when deploying IIS websites.  Usually, the website's default web.config file won't work in different environments, and needs to be changed during deployment to reflect settings needed for the target environment.

    XDT was designed to apply a tranformation against an XML file in a *known* state.  **Do not use this method to transform an XML file in-place.**  There lies madness, and you will never get that square peg into XDT's round hole.  If you *really* want to transform in-place, you're responsible for checking if the source/destination file has already been transformed, and if it hasn't, calling `Convert-CXmlFile` to transform to a temporary file, then copying the temporary file onto the source/destination file.
    
    You can load custom transformations.  In your XDT XML, use the `xdt:Import` element to import your transformations.  In your XDT file:
    
        <?xml version="1.0"?>
        <root xmlns:xdt="http://schemas.microsoft.com/XML-Document-Transform">
            <!-- You can also use the "assembly" attribute (PowerShell v3 
                 *only*).  In PowerShell v2, you can only use the `path` 
                 attribute.
                 
                 All classes in `namespace` that inherit from the XDT 
                 `Transform` class are loaded. -->
            <xdt:Import path="C:\Projects\Carbon\Lib\ExtraTransforms.dll"
                        namespace="ExtraTransforms" />
            <!-- ...snip... -->
        </root>
   
    You also have to pass the path to your custom transformation assembly as a value to the `TransformAssemblyPath` parameter. That's it! (Note: Carbon does *not* ship with any extra transformations.)
    
    When transforming a file, the XDT framework will write warnings and errors to the PowerShell error and warning stream.  Informational and debug messages are written to the verbose stream (i.e. use the `Verbose` switch to see all the XDT log messages).
     
    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd465326.aspx
    
    .LINK
    http://stackoverflow.com/questions/2915329/advanced-tasks-using-web-config-transformation
    
    .LINK
    Set-CDotNetConnectionString
    
    .LINK
    Set-CDotNetAppSetting

    .EXAMPLE
    Convert-CXmlFile -Path ".\web.config" -XdtPath ".\web.debug.config" -Destination '\\webserver\wwwroot\web.config'
    
    Transforms `web.config` with the XDT in `web.debug.config` to a new file at `\\webserver\wwwroot\web.config`.

    .EXAMPLE
    Convert-CXmlFile -Path ".\web.config" -XdtXml "<configuration><connectionStrings><add name=""MyConn"" xdt:Transform=""Insert"" /></connectionStrings></configuration>" -Destination '\\webserver\wwwroot\web.config'
    
    Transforms `web.config` with the given XDT XML to a new file at `\\webserver\wwwroot\web.config`.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Convert-CXmlFile -Path ".\web.config" -XdtPath ".\web.debug.config" -Destination '\\webserver\wwwroot\web.config' -Verbose
    
    See that `Verbose` switch? It will show informational/debug messages written by the XDT framework.  Very helpful in debugging what XDT framework is doing.

    .EXAMPLE
    Convert-CXmlFile -Path ".\web.config" -XdtPath ".\web.debug.config" -Destination '\\webserver\wwwroot\web.config' -TransformAssemblyPath C:\Projects\CustomTransforms.dll
    
    Shows how to reference a custom transformation assembly.  It should also be loaded in your XDT file via the `xdt:Import`.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The path of the XML file to convert.
        $Path,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ByXdtFile')]
        [string]
        # The path to the XDT file.
        $XdtPath,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ByXdtXml')]
        [xml]
        # The raw XDT XML to use.
        $XdtXml,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
		[string]
        # The destination XML file's path.
        $Destination,
        
        [string[]]
        # List of assemblies to load which contain custom transforms.
        $TransformAssemblyPath = @(),

        [Switch]
        # Overwrite the destination file if it exists.
        $Force
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    
	if( -not (Test-Path -Path $Path -PathType Leaf))
	{
		Write-Error ("Path '{0}' not found." -f $Path)
        return
	}
	
    if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'ByXdtXml' )
    {
        $xdtPathForInfoMsg = ''
        $xdtPathForShouldProcess = 'raw XDT XML'
        $XdtPath = 'Carbon_Convert-XmlFile_{0}' -f ([IO.Path]::GetRandomFileName())
        $XdtPath = Join-Path $env:TEMP $XdtPath
        $xdtXml.Save( $XdtPath )
    }
    else
    {
	    if( -not (Test-Path -Path $XdtPath -PathType Leaf) )
	    {
		    Write-Error ("XdtPath '{0}' not found." -f $XdtPath)
            return
	    }
        $XdtPath = Resolve-CFullPath -Path $XdtPath
        $xdtPathForShouldProcess = $XdtPath
        $xdtPathForInfoMsg = 'with ''{0}'' ' -f $XdtPath
    }
    
    $Path = Resolve-CFullPath -Path $Path
    $Destination = Resolve-CFullPath -Path $Destination
    $TransformAssemblyPath = $TransformAssemblyPath | ForEach-Object { Resolve-CFullPath -path $_ }
    if( $TransformAssemblyPath )
    {
        $badPaths = $TransformAssemblyPath | Where-Object { -not (Test-Path -Path $_ -PathType Leaf) }
        if( $badPaths )
        {
            $errorMsg = "TransformAssemblyPath not found:`n * {0}" -f ($badPaths -join "`n * ")
            Write-Error -Message $errorMsg -Category ObjectNotFound
            return
        }
    }
    
    if( $Path -eq $Destination )
    {
        $errorMsg = 'Can''t transform Path {0} onto Destination {1}: Path is the same as Destination. XDT is designed to transform an XML file from a known state to a new XML file. Please supply a new, unique path for the Destination XML file.' -f `
                        $Path,$Destination
        Write-Error -Message $errorMsg -Category InvalidOperation -RecommendedAction 'Set Destination parameter to a unique path.'
        return
    }

    if( -not $Force -and (Test-Path -Path $Destination -PathType Leaf) )
    {
        $errorMsg = 'Can''t transform ''{0}'': Destination ''{1}'' exists. Use the -Force switch to overwrite.' -f $Path,$Destination
        Write-Error $errorMsg -Category InvalidOperation -RecommendedAction 'Use the -Force switch to overwrite.'
        return
    }
    
    
    $scriptBlock = {
        param(
            [Parameter(Position=0)]
            [string]
            $CarbonBinDir,

            [Parameter(Position=1)]
            [string]
            $Path,

            [Parameter(Position=2)]
            [string]
            $XdtPath,

            [Parameter(Position=3)]
            [string]
            $Destination,
            
            [Parameter(Position=4)]
            [string[]]
            $TransformAssemblyPath
        )
        
        Add-Type -Path (Join-Path -Path $CarbonBinDir -ChildPath "Microsoft.Web.XmlTransform.dll")
        Add-Type -Path (Join-Path -Path $CarbonBinDir -ChildPath "Carbon.Xdt.dll")
        if( $TransformAssemblyPath )
        {
            $TransformAssemblyPath | ForEach-Object { Add-Type -Path $_ }
        }
                
        function Convert-CXmlFile
        {
            [CmdletBinding()]
            param(
                [string]
                $Path,

                [string]
                $XdtPath,

                [string]
                $Destination
            )

            [Microsoft.Web.XmlTransform.XmlTransformation]$xmlTransform = $null
            [Microsoft.Web.XmlTransform.XmlTransformableDocument]$document = $null
            try
            {
                $document = New-Object Microsoft.Web.XmlTransform.XmlTransformableDocument
                $document.PreserveWhitespace = $true
                $document.Load($Path)

                $logger = New-Object Carbon.Xdt.PSHostUserInterfaceTransformationLogger $PSCmdlet.CommandRuntime
                $xmlTransform = New-Object Microsoft.Web.XmlTransform.XmlTransformation $XdtPath,$logger

                $success = $xmlTransform.Apply($document)

                if($success)
                {
                    $document.Save($Destination)
                }
            }
            finally
            {
                if( $xmlTransform )
                {	
                    $xmlTransform.Dispose()
                }
                if( $document )
                {
                    $document.Dispose()
                }
            }
        }
        
        $PsBoundParameters.Remove( 'CarbonBinDir' )
        $PSBoundParameters.Remove( 'TransformAssemblyPath' )
        Convert-CXmlFile @PSBoundParameters
    }

    try
    {
        if( $PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess( $Path, ('transform with {0} -> {1}' -f $xdtPathForShouldProcess,$Destination) ) )
        {
            $argumentList = $carbonAssemblyDir,$Path,$XdtPath,$Destination,$TransformAssemblyPath
            if( $PSVersionTable.CLRVersion.Major -ge 4 )
            {
                Invoke-Command -ScriptBlock $scriptBlock -ArgumentList $argumentList
            }
            else
            {
                Invoke-CPowerShell -Command $scriptBlock -Args $argumentList -Runtime 'v4.0'
            }
        }
    }
    finally
    {
        if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'ByXdtXml' )
        {
            Remove-Item -Path $XdtPath
        }
    }
}





function ConvertFrom-CBase64
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Converts a base-64 encoded string back into its original string.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    For some reason. .NET makes encoding a string a two-step process. This function makes it a one-step process.
    
    You're actually allowed to pass in `$null` and an empty string.  If you do, you'll get `$null` and an empty string back.

    .LINK
    ConvertTo-CBase64
    
    .EXAMPLE
    ConvertFrom-CBase64 -Value 'RW5jb2RlIG1lLCBwbGVhc2Uh'
    
    Decodes `RW5jb2RlIG1lLCBwbGVhc2Uh` back into its original string.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    ConvertFrom-CBase64 -Value 'RW5jb2RlIG1lLCBwbGVhc2Uh' -Encoding ([Text.Encoding]::ASCII)
    
    Shows how to specify a custom encoding in case your string isn't in Unicode text encoding.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    'RW5jb2RlIG1lIQ==' | ConvertTo-CBase64
    
    Shows how you can pipeline input into `ConvertFrom-CBase64`.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ValueFromPipeline=$true)]
        [AllowNull()]
        [AllowEmptyString()]
        [string[]]
        # The base-64 string to convert.
        $Value,
        
        [Text.Encoding]
        # The encoding to use.  Default is Unicode.
        $Encoding = ([Text.Encoding]::Unicode)
    )
    
    begin
    {
        Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

        Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    }

    process
    {
        $Value | ForEach-Object {
            if( $_ -eq $null )
            {
                return $null
            }
            
            $bytes = [Convert]::FromBase64String($_)
            $Encoding.GetString($bytes)
        }
    }
}



function ConvertTo-CBase64
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Converts a value to base-64 encoding.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    For some reason. .NET makes encoding a string a two-step process. This function makes it a one-step process.
    
    You're actually allowed to pass in `$null` and an empty string.  If you do, you'll get `$null` and an empty string back.

    .LINK
    ConvertFrom-CBase64
    
    .EXAMPLE
    ConvertTo-CBase64 -Value 'Encode me, please!'
    
    Encodes `Encode me, please!` into a base-64 string.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    ConvertTo-CBase64 -Value 'Encode me, please!' -Encoding ([Text.Encoding]::ASCII)
    
    Shows how to specify a custom encoding in case your string isn't in Unicode text encoding.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    'Encode me!' | ConvertTo-CBase64
    
    Converts `Encode me!` into a base-64 string.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ValueFromPipeline=$true)]
        [AllowNull()]
        [AllowEmptyString()]
        [string[]]
        # The value to base-64 encoding.
        $Value,
        
        [Text.Encoding]
        # The encoding to use.  Default is Unicode.
        $Encoding = ([Text.Encoding]::Unicode)
    )
    
    begin
    {
        Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

        Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState    
    }

    process
    {
        $Value | ForEach-Object {
            if( $_ -eq $null )
            {
                return $null
            }
            
            $bytes = $Encoding.GetBytes($_)
            [Convert]::ToBase64String($bytes)
        }
    }
}



function ConvertTo-CContainerInheritanceFlags
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Converts a combination of InheritanceFlags Propagation Flags into a Carbon.Security.ContainerInheritanceFlags enumeration value.

    .DESCRIPTION
    `Grant-CPermission`, `Test-CPermission`, and `Get-CPermission` all take an `ApplyTo` parameter, which is a `Carbon.Security.ContainerInheritanceFlags` enumeration value. This enumeration is then converted to the appropriate `System.Security.AccessControl.InheritanceFlags` and `System.Security.AccessControl.PropagationFlags` values for getting/granting/testing permissions. If you prefer to speak in terms of `InheritanceFlags` and `PropagationFlags`, use this function to convert them to a `ContainerInheritanceFlags` value.

    If your combination doesn't result in a valid combination, `$null` is returned.

    For detailed description of inheritance and propagation flags, see the help for `Grant-CPermission`.

    .OUTPUTS
    Carbon.Security.ContainerInheritanceFlags.

    .LINK
    Grant-CPermission

    .LINK
    Test-CPermission

    .EXAMPLE
    ConvertTo-CContainerInheritanceFlags -InheritanceFlags 'ContainerInherit' -PropagationFlags 'None'

    Demonstrates how to convert `InheritanceFlags` and `PropagationFlags` enumeration values into a `ContainerInheritanceFlags`. In this case, `[Carbon.Security.ContainerInheritanceFlags]::ContainerAndSubContainers` is returned.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    [OutputType([Carbon.Security.ContainerInheritanceFlags])]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,Position=0)]
        [Security.AccessControl.InheritanceFlags]
        # The inheritance flags to convert.
        $InheritanceFlags,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,Position=1)]
        [Security.AccessControl.PropagationFlags]
        # The propagation flags to convert.
        $PropagationFlags
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $propFlagsNone = $PropagationFlags -eq [Security.AccessControl.PropagationFlags]::None
    $propFlagsInheritOnly = $PropagationFlags -eq [Security.AccessControl.PropagationFlags]::InheritOnly
    $propFlagsInheritOnlyNoPropagate = $PropagationFlags -eq ([Security.AccessControl.PropagationFlags]::InheritOnly -bor [Security.AccessControl.PropagationFlags]::NoPropagateInherit)
    $propFlagsNoPropagate = $PropagationFlags -eq [Security.AccessControl.PropagationFlags]::NoPropagateInherit

    if( $InheritanceFlags -eq [Security.AccessControl.InheritanceFlags]::None )
    {
        return [Carbon.Security.ContainerInheritanceFlags]::Container
    }
    elseif( $InheritanceFlags -eq [Security.AccessControl.InheritanceFlags]::ContainerInherit )
    {
        if( $propFlagsInheritOnly )
        {
            return [Carbon.Security.ContainerInheritanceFlags]::SubContainers
        }
        elseif( $propFlagsInheritOnlyNoPropagate )
        {
            return [Carbon.Security.ContainerInheritanceFlags]::ChildContainers
        }
        elseif( $propFlagsNone )
        {
            return [Carbon.Security.ContainerInheritanceFlags]::ContainerAndSubContainers
        }
        elseif( $propFlagsNoPropagate )
        {
            return [Carbon.Security.ContainerInheritanceFlags]::ContainerAndChildContainers
        }
    }
    elseif( $InheritanceFlags -eq [Security.AccessControl.InheritanceFlags]::ObjectInherit )
    {
        if( $propFlagsInheritOnly )
        {
            return [Carbon.Security.ContainerInheritanceFlags]::Leaves
        }
        elseif( $propFlagsInheritOnlyNoPropagate )
        {
            return [Carbon.Security.ContainerInheritanceFlags]::ChildLeaves
        }
        elseif( $propFlagsNone )
        {
            return [Carbon.Security.ContainerInheritanceFlags]::ContainerAndLeaves
        }
        elseif( $propFlagsNoPropagate )
        {
            return [Carbon.Security.ContainerInheritanceFlags]::ContainerAndChildLeaves
        }
    }
    elseif( $InheritanceFlags -eq ([Security.AccessControl.InheritanceFlags]::ContainerInherit -bor [Security.AccessControl.InheritanceFlags]::ObjectInherit ) )
    {
        if( $propFlagsInheritOnly )
        {
            return [Carbon.Security.ContainerInheritanceFlags]::SubContainersAndLeaves
        }
        elseif( $propFlagsInheritOnlyNoPropagate )
        {
            return [Carbon.Security.ContainerInheritanceFlags]::ChildContainersAndChildLeaves
        }
        elseif( $propFlagsNone )
        {
            return [Carbon.Security.ContainerInheritanceFlags]::ContainerAndSubContainersAndLeaves
        }
        elseif( $propFlagsNoPropagate )
        {
            return [Carbon.Security.ContainerInheritanceFlags]::ContainerAndChildContainersAndChildLeaves
        }
    }
}



function ConvertTo-CInheritanceFlag
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Converts a `Carbon.Security.ContainerInheritanceFlags` value to a `System.Security.AccessControl.InheritanceFlags` value.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Carbon.Security.ContainerInheritanceFlags` enumeration encapsulates oth `System.Security.AccessControl.InheritanceFlags` and `System.Security.AccessControl.PropagationFlags`.  Make sure you also call `ConvertTo-CPropagationFlag` to get the propagation value.
    
    .OUTPUTS
    System.Security.AccessControl.InheritanceFlags.
    
    .LINK
    ConvertTo-CPropagationFlag
    
    .LINK
    Grant-CPermission
    
    .EXAMPLE
    ConvertTo-CInheritanceFlag -ContainerInheritanceFlag ContainerAndSubContainersAndLeaves
    
    Returns `InheritanceFlags.ContainerInherit|InheritanceFlags.ObjectInherit`.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [Carbon.Security.ContainerInheritanceFlags]
        # The value to convert to an `InheritanceFlags` value.
		[Alias('ContainerInheritanceFlags')]
        $ContainerInheritanceFlag
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $Flags = [Security.AccessControl.InheritanceFlags]
    $map = @{
        'Container' =                                  $Flags::None;
        'SubContainers' =                              $Flags::ContainerInherit;
        'Leaves' =                                     $Flags::ObjectInherit;
        'ChildContainers' =                            $Flags::ContainerInherit;
        'ChildLeaves' =                                $Flags::ObjectInherit;
        'ContainerAndSubContainers' =                  $Flags::ContainerInherit;
        'ContainerAndLeaves' =                         $Flags::ObjectInherit;
        'SubContainersAndLeaves' =                    ($Flags::ContainerInherit -bor $Flags::ObjectInherit);
        'ContainerAndChildContainers' =                $Flags::ContainerInherit;
        'ContainerAndChildLeaves' =                    $Flags::ObjectInherit;
        'ContainerAndChildContainersAndChildLeaves' = ($Flags::ContainerInherit -bor $Flags::ObjectInherit);
        'ContainerAndSubContainersAndLeaves' =        ($Flags::ContainerInherit -bor $Flags::ObjectInherit);
        'ChildContainersAndChildLeaves' =             ($Flags::ContainerInherit -bor $Flags::ObjectInherit);
    }
    $key = $ContainerInheritanceFlag.ToString()
    if( $map.ContainsKey( $key) )
    {
        return $map[$key]
    }
    
    Write-Error ('Unknown Carbon.Security.ContainerInheritanceFlags enumeration value {0}.' -f $ContainerInheritanceFlag) 
}

Set-Alias -Name 'ConvertTo-InheritanceFlags' -Value 'ConvertTo-CInheritanceFlag'




function ConvertTo-Key
{
    param(
        $From,
        $InputObject
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState    

    if( $InputObject -isnot [byte[]] )
    {
        if( $InputObject -is [SecureString] )
        {
            $InputObject = Convert-CSecureStringToString -SecureString $InputObject
        }
        elseif( $InputObject -isnot [string] )
        {
            Write-Error -Message ('Encryption key must be a SecureString, a string, or an array of bytes not a {0}. If you are passing an array of bytes, make sure you explicitly cast it as a `byte[]`, e.g. `([byte[]])@( ... )`.' -f $InputObject.GetType().FullName)
            return
        }

        $Key = [Text.Encoding]::UTF8.GetBytes($InputObject)
    }
    else
    {
        $Key = $InputObject
    }

    if( $Key.Length -ne 128/8 -and $Key.Length -ne 192/8 -and $Key.Length -ne 256/8 )
    {
        Write-Error -Message ('Key is the wrong length. {0} is using AES, which requires a 128-bit, 192-bit, or 256-bit key (16, 24, or 32 bytes, respectively). You passed a key of {1} bits ({2} bytes).' -f $From,($Key.Length*8),$Key.Length)
        return
    }

    return $Key
}



function ConvertTo-CPropagationFlag
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Converts a `Carbon.Security.ContainerInheritanceFlags` value to a `System.Security.AccessControl.PropagationFlags` value.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Carbon.Security.ContainerInheritanceFlags` enumeration encapsulates oth `System.Security.AccessControl.PropagationFlags` and `System.Security.AccessControl.InheritanceFlags`.  Make sure you also call `ConvertTo-InheritancewFlags` to get the inheritance value.
    
    .OUTPUTS
    System.Security.AccessControl.PropagationFlags.
    
    .LINK
    ConvertTo-CInheritanceFlag
    
    .LINK
    Grant-CPermission
    
    .EXAMPLE
    ConvertTo-CPropagationFlag -ContainerInheritanceFlag ContainerAndSubContainersAndLeaves
    
    Returns `PropagationFlags.None`.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [Carbon.Security.ContainerInheritanceFlags]
        # The value to convert to an `PropagationFlags` value.
		[Alias('ContainerInheritanceFlags')]
        $ContainerInheritanceFlag
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $Flags = [Security.AccessControl.PropagationFlags]
    $map = @{
        'Container' =                                  $Flags::None;
        'SubContainers' =                              $Flags::InheritOnly;
        'Leaves' =                                     $Flags::InheritOnly;
        'ChildContainers' =                           ($Flags::InheritOnly -bor $Flags::NoPropagateInherit);
        'ChildLeaves' =                               ($Flags::InheritOnly -bor $Flags::NoPropagateInherit);
        'ContainerAndSubContainers' =                  $Flags::None;
        'ContainerAndLeaves' =                         $Flags::None;
        'SubContainersAndLeaves' =                     $Flags::InheritOnly;
        'ContainerAndChildContainers' =                $Flags::NoPropagateInherit;
        'ContainerAndChildLeaves' =                    $Flags::NoPropagateInherit;
        'ContainerAndChildContainersAndChildLeaves' =  $Flags::NoPropagateInherit;
        'ContainerAndSubContainersAndLeaves' =         $Flags::None;
        'ChildContainersAndChildLeaves' =             ($Flags::InheritOnly -bor $Flags::NoPropagateInherit);
    }
    $key = $ContainerInheritanceFlag.ToString()
    if( $map.ContainsKey( $key ) )
    {
        return $map[$key]
    }
    
    Write-Error ('Unknown Carbon.Security.ContainerInheritanceFlags enumeration value {0}.' -f $ContainerInheritanceFlag) 
}

Set-Alias -Name 'ConvertTo-PropagationFlags' -Value 'ConvertTo-CPropagationFlag'




function ConvertTo-ProviderAccessControlRights
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Converts strings into the appropriate access control rights for a PowerShell provider (e.g. FileSystemRights or RegistryRights).

    .DESCRIPTION
    This is an internal Carbon function, so you're not getting anything more than the synopsis.

    .EXAMPLE
    ConvertTo-ProviderAccessControlRights -ProviderName 'FileSystem' -InputObject 'Read','Write'

    Demonstrates how to convert `Read` and `Write` into a `System.Security.AccessControl.FileSystemRights` value.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [ValidateSet('FileSystem','Registry','CryptoKey')]
        [string]
        # The provider name.
        $ProviderName,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ValueFromPipeline=$true)]
        [string[]]
        # The values to convert.
        $InputObject
    )

    begin
    {
        Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

        Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

        $rights = 0
        $rightTypeName = 'Security.AccessControl.{0}Rights' -f $ProviderName
        $foundInvalidRight = $false
    }

    process
    {
        $InputObject | ForEach-Object { 
            $right = ($_ -as $rightTypeName)
            if( -not $right )
            {
                $allowedValues = [Enum]::GetNames($rightTypeName)
                Write-Error ("System.Security.AccessControl.{0}Rights value '{1}' not found.  Must be one of: {2}." -f $providerName,$_,($allowedValues -join ' '))
                $foundInvalidRight = $true
                return
            }
            $rights = $rights -bor $right
        }
    }

    end
    {
        if( $foundInvalidRight )
        {
            return $null
        }
        else
        {
            $rights
        }
    }
}



function ConvertTo-CSecurityIdentifier
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Converts a string or byte array security identifier into a `System.Security.Principal.SecurityIdentifier` object.

    .DESCRIPTION
    `ConvertTo-CSecurityIdentifier` converts a SID in SDDL form (as a string), in binary form (as a byte array) into a `System.Security.Principal.SecurityIdentifier` object. It also accepts `System.Security.Principal.SecurityIdentifier` objects, and returns them back to you.

    If the string or byte array don't represent a SID, an error is written and nothing is returned.

    .LINK
    Resolve-CIdentity

    .LINK
    Resolve-CIdentityName

    .EXAMPLE
    Resolve-CIdentity -SID 'S-1-5-21-2678556459-1010642102-471947008-1017'

    Demonstrates how to convert a a SID in SDDL into a `System.Security.Principal.SecurityIdentifier` object.

    .EXAMPLE
    Resolve-CIdentity -SID (New-Object 'Security.Principal.SecurityIdentifier' 'S-1-5-21-2678556459-1010642102-471947008-1017')

    Demonstrates that you can pass a `SecurityIdentifier` object as the value of the SID parameter. The SID you passed in will be returned to you unchanged.

    .EXAMPLE
    Resolve-CIdentity -SID $sidBytes

    Demonstrates that you can use a byte array that represents a SID as the value of the `SID` parameter.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        # The SID to convert to a `System.Security.Principal.SecurityIdentifier`. Accepts a SID in SDDL form as a `string`, a `System.Security.Principal.SecurityIdentifier` object, or a SID in binary form as an array of bytes.
        $SID
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    
    try
    {
        if( $SID -is [string] )
        {
            New-Object 'Security.Principal.SecurityIdentifier' $SID
        }
        elseif( $SID -is [byte[]] )
        {
            New-Object 'Security.Principal.SecurityIdentifier' $SID,0
        }
        elseif( $SID -is [Security.Principal.SecurityIdentifier] )
        {
            $SID
        }
        else
        {
            Write-Error ('Invalid SID. The `SID` parameter accepts a `System.Security.Principal.SecurityIdentifier` object, a SID in SDDL form as a `string`, or a SID in binary form as byte array. You passed a ''{0}''.' -f $SID.GetType())
            return
        }
    }
    catch
    {
        Write-Error ('Exception converting SID parameter to a `SecurityIdentifier` object. This usually means you passed an invalid SID in SDDL form (as a string) or an invalid SID in binary form (as a byte array): {0}' -f $_.Exception.Message)
        return
    }
}



function Copy-CDscResource
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Copies DSC resources.

    .DESCRIPTION
    This function copies a DSC resource or a directory of DSC resources to a DSC pull server share/website. All files under `$Path` are copied.
    
    DSC requires all files have a checksum file (e.g. `localhost.mof.checksum`), which this function generates for you (in a temporary location).
    
    Only new files, or files whose checksums have changed, are copied. You can force all files to be copied with the `Force` switch.

    `Copy-CDscResource` is new in Carbon 2.0.

    .EXAMPLE
    Copy-CDscResource -Path 'localhost.mof' -Destination '\\dscserver\DscResources'

    Demonstrates how to copy a single resource to a resources SMB share. `localhost.mof` will only be copied if its checksum is different than what is in `\\dscserver\DscResources`.

    .EXAMPLE
    Copy-CDscResource -Path 'C:\Projects\DscResources' -Destination '\\dscserver\DscResources'

    Demonstrates how to copy a directory of resources. Only files in the directory are copied. Every file in the source must have a `.checksum` file. Only files whose checksums are different between source and destination will be copied.

    .EXAMPLE
    Copy-CDscResource -Path 'C:\Projects\DscResources' -Destination '\\dscserver\DscResources' -Recurse

    Demonstrates how to recursively copy files.

    .EXAMPLE
    Copy-CDscResource -Path 'C:\Projects\DscResources' -Destination '\\dscserver\DscResources' -Force

    Demonstrates how to copy all files, even if their `.checksum` files are the  same.

    .EXAMPLE
    Copy-CDscResource -Path 'C:\Projects\DscResources' -Destination '\\dscserver\DscResources' -PassThru

    Demonstrates how to get `System.IO.FileInfo` objects for all resources copied to the destination. If all files are up-to-date, nothing is copied, and no objects are returned.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    [OutputType([IO.FileInfo])]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The path to the DSC resource to copy. If a directory is given, all files in that directory are copied. Wildcards supported.
        $Path,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The directory where the resources should be copied.
        $Destination,

        [Switch]
        # Recursively copy files from the source directory.
        $Recurse,

        [Switch]
        # Returns `IO.FileInfo` objects for each item copied to `Destination`.
        $PassThru,

        [Switch]
        # Copy resources, even if they are the same on the destination server.
        $Force
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $tempDir = New-CTempDirectory -Prefix 'Carbon+Copy-CDscResource+'

    try
    {
        foreach( $item in (Get-ChildItem -Path $Path -Exclude '*.checksum') )
        {
            $destinationPath = Join-Path -Path $Destination -ChildPath $item.Name
            if( $item.PSIsContainer )
            {
                if( $Recurse )
                {
                    if( -not (Test-Path -Path $destinationPath -PathType Container) )
                    {
                        New-Item -Path $destinationPath -ItemType 'Directory' | Out-Null
                    }
                    Copy-CDscResource -Path $item.FullName -Destination $destinationPath -Recurse -Force:$Force -PassThru:$PassThru
                }
                continue
            }

            $sourceChecksumPath = '{0}.checksum' -f $item.Name
            $sourceChecksumPath = Join-Path -Path $tempDir -ChildPath $sourceChecksumPath
            $sourceChecksum = Get-FileHash -Path $item.FullName | Select-Object -ExpandProperty 'Hash'
            # hash files can't have any newline characters, so we can't use Set-Content
            [IO.File]::WriteAllText($sourceChecksumPath, $sourceChecksum)

            $destinationChecksum = ''

            $destinationChecksumPath = '{0}.checksum' -f $destinationPath
            if( (Test-Path -Path $destinationChecksumPath -PathType Leaf) )
            {
                $destinationChecksum = Get-Content -TotalCount 1 -Path $destinationChecksumPath
            }

            if( $Force -or -not (Test-Path -Path $destinationPath -PathType Leaf) -or ($sourceChecksum -ne $destinationChecksum) )
            {
                Copy-Item -Path $item -Destination $Destination -PassThru:$PassThru
                Copy-Item -Path $sourceChecksumPath -Destination $Destination -PassThru:$PassThru
            }
            else
            {
                Write-Verbose ('File ''{0}'' already up-to-date.' -f $destinationPath)
            }
        }
    }
    finally
    {
        Remove-Item -Path $tempDir -Recurse -Force -ErrorAction Ignore
    }
}



function Disable-CAclInheritance
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Protects an ACL so that changes to its parent can't be inherited to it.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    Items in the registry or file system will inherit permissions from its parent.  The `Disable-AclInheritnace` function disables inheritance, removing all inherited permissions. You can optionally preserve the currently inherited permission as explicit permissions using the `-Preserve` switch.
    
    This function is paired with `Enable-CAclInheritance`.

    Beginning in Carbon 2.4, this function will only disable inheritance if it is currently enabled. In previous versions, it always disabled inheritance.

    .LINK
    Disable-CAclInheritance
    
    .LINK
    Get-CPermission

    .LINK
    Grant-CPermission

    .LINK
    Revoke-CPermission
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Disable-CAclInheritance -Path C:\Projects\Carbon
    
    Removes all inherited access rules from the `C:\Projects\Carbon` directory.  Non-inherited rules are preserved.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Disable-CAclInheritance -Path hklm:\Software\Carbon -Preserve
    
    Stops `HKLM:\Software\Carbon` from inheriting acces rules from its parent, but preserves the existing, inheritied access rules.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ValueFromPipeline=$true,ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName=$true)]
        [Alias('PSPath')]
        [string]
        # The file system or registry path whose access rule should stop inheriting from its parent.
        $Path,
        
        [Switch]
        # Keep the inherited access rules on this item.
        $Preserve
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $acl = Get-Acl -Path $Path
    if( -not $acl.AreAccessRulesProtected )
    {
        Write-Verbose -Message ("[{0}] Disabling access rule inheritance." -f $Path)
        $acl.SetAccessRuleProtection( $true, $Preserve )
        $acl | Set-Acl -Path $Path
    }
}

Set-Alias -Name 'Unprotect-AclAccessRules' -Value 'Disable-CAclInheritance'
Set-Alias -Name 'Protect-Acl' -Value 'Disable-CAclInheritance'




function Disable-CFirewallStatefulFtp
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Disables the `StatefulFtp` Windows firewall setting.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Uses the `netsh` command to disable the `StatefulFtp` Windows firewall setting.

    If the firewall isn't configurable, writes an error and returns without making any changes.

    .LINK
    Assert-CFirewallConfigurable

    .EXAMPLE
    Disable-CFirewallStatefulFtp

    Disables the `StatefulFtp` Windows firewall setting.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( -not (Assert-CFirewallConfigurable) )
    {
        return
    }
    
    Invoke-ConsoleCommand -Target 'firewall' `
                          -Action 'disabling stateful FTP' `
                          -ScriptBlock {
        netsh advfirewall set global StatefulFtp disable
    }
}




function Disable-CIEEnhancedSecurityConfiguration
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Disables Internet Explorer's Enhanced Security Configuration. 
    .DESCRIPTION
    By default, Windows locks down Internet Explorer so that users can't visit certain sites.  This function disables that enhanced security.  This is necessary if you have automated processes that need to run and interact with Internet Explorer.
    
    You may also need to call `Enable-CIEActivationPermission`, so that processes have permission to start Internet Explorer.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Disable-CIEEnhancedSecurityConfiguration
    .LINK
    http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd883248(v=WS.10).aspx
    .LINK
    Enable-CIEActivationPermission
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $adminPath = "SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Active Setup\Installed Components\{A509B1A7-37EF-4b3f-8CFC-4F3A74704073}"
    $userPath =  "SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Active Setup\Installed Components\{A509B1A8-37EF-4b3f-8CFC-4F3A74704073}"
    # Yes.  They are different. Right                                     here ^

    $paths = @( $adminPath, $userPath )

    if( $PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess( 'Internet Explorer', 'disabling enhanced security configuration' ) )
    {
        foreach( $path in $paths )
        {
            $hklmPath = Join-Path -Path 'hklm:\' -ChildPath $path
            if( -not (Test-Path -Path $hklmPath) )
            {
                Write-Warning ('Applying Enhanced Security Configuration registry key ''{0}'' not found.' -f $hklmPath)
                return
            }
            Set-CRegistryKeyValue -Path $hklmPath -Name 'IsInstalled' -DWord 0
        }

        Write-Verbose ('Calling iesetup.dll hardening methods.')
        Rundll32 iesetup.dll, IEHardenLMSettings
        Rundll32 iesetup.dll, IEHardenUser
        Rundll32 iesetup.dll, IEHardenAdmin 

        foreach( $path in $paths )
        {
            $hkcuPath = Join-Path -Path 'hkcu:\' -ChildPath $path
            if( Test-Path -Path $hkcuPath )
            {
                Remove-Item -Path $hkcuPath
            }
        }

    }
}




function Disable-CNtfsCompression
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Turns off NTFS compression on a file/directory.

    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Disable-CNtfsCompression` function uses `compact.exe` to disable compression on a file or directory. When decompressing a directory, any compressed files/directories in that directory will remain compressed. To decompress everything under a directory, use the `-Recurse` switch.  This could take awhile.

    Beginning in Carbon 2.9.0, if compression is already disabled, nothing happens. To always disable compression, use the `-Force` switch.

    Uses Windows' `compact.exe` command line utility to compress the file/directory.  To see the output from `compact.exe`, set the `Verbose` switch.

    .LINK
    Enable-CNtfsCompression

    .LINK
    Test-CNtfsCompression

    .EXAMPLE
    Disable-CNtfsCompression -Path C:\Projects\Carbon

    Turns off NTFS compression and decompresses the `C:\Projects\Carbon` directory (if compression is enabled), but not its sub-directories/files.

    .EXAMPLE
    Disable-CNtfsCompression -Path C:\Projects\Carbon -Recurse

    Turns off NTFS compression and decompresses the `C:\Projects\Carbon` directory (if compression is enabled) and all its sub-directories/sub-files.

    .EXAMPLE
    Disable-CNtfsCompression -Path C:\Projects\Carbon -Recurse -Force

    Turns off NTFS compression and decompresses the `C:\Projects\Carbon` directory (even if compression is disabled) and all its sub-directories/sub-files.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-ChildItem * | Where-Object { $_.PsIsContainer } | Disable-CNtfsCompression

    Demonstrates that you can pipe the path to compress into `Disable-CNtfsCompression`.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ValueFromPipeline=$true,ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName=$true)]
        [Alias('FullName')]
        # The path where compression should be disabled.
        [string[]]$Path,

        # Disables compression on all sub-directories.
        [Switch]$Recurse,

        # Disable compression even it it's already disabled.
        [switch]$Force
    )

    begin
    {
        Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
        Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

        $compactPath = Join-Path $env:SystemRoot 'system32\compact.exe'
        if( -not (Test-Path -Path $compactPath -PathType Leaf) )
        {
            if( (Get-Command -Name 'compact.exe' -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue) )
            {
                $compactPath = 'compact.exe'
            }
            else
            {
                Write-Error ("Compact command '{0}' not found." -f $compactPath)
                return
            }
        }
    }

    process
    {
        foreach( $item in $Path )
        {
            if( -not (Test-Path -Path $item) )
            {
                Write-Error -Message ('Path {0} not found.' -f $item) -Category ObjectNotFound
                return
            }

            $recurseArg = ''
            $pathArg = $item
            if( (Test-Path -Path $item -PathType Container) )
            {
                if( $Recurse )
                {
                    $recurseArg = ('/S:{0}' -f $item)
                    $pathArg = ''
                }
            }

            if( -not $Force -and -not (Test-CNtfsCompression -Path $item) )
            {
                continue
            }

            Invoke-ConsoleCommand -Target $item -Action 'disable NTFS compression' -ScriptBlock {
                & $compactPath /U $recurseArg $pathArg
            }
        }
    }
}



function Enable-CAclInheritance
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Enables ACL inheritance on an item.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    Items in the registry or file system will usually inherit ACLs from its parent. This inheritance can be disabled, either via Carbon's `Protect-Acl` function or using .NET's securei API. The `Enable-CAclInheritance` function re-enables inheritance on containers where it has been disabled. By default, any explicit permissions on the item are removed. Use the `-Preserve` switch to keep any existing, explicit permissions on the item.
    
    This function is paired with `Disable-CAclInheritance`. 

    This function was added in Carbon 2.4.

    .LINK
    Disable-CAclInheritance
    
    .LINK
    Get-CPermission

    .LINK
    Grant-CPermission

    .LINK
    Revoke-CPermission

    .EXAMPLE
    Enable-CAclInheritance -Path C:\Projects\Carbon
    
    Re-enables ACL inheritance on `C:\Projects\Carbon`. ACLs on `C:\Projects` will be inherited to and affect `C:\Projects\Carbon`. Any explicit ACLs on `C:\Projects\Carbon` are removed.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Enable-CAclInheritance -Path hklm:\Software\Carbon -Preserve
    
    Re-enables ACL inheritance on `hklm:\Software\Carbon`. ACLs on `hklm:\Software` will be inherited to and affect `hklm:\Software\Carbon`. Any explicit ACLs on `C:\Projects\Carbon` are kept.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ValueFromPipeline=$true,ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName=$true)]
        [Alias('PSPath')]
        [string]
        # The file system or registry path who should start inheriting ACLs from its parent.
        $Path,
        
        [Switch]
        # Keep the explicit access rules defined on the item.
        $Preserve
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $acl = Get-Acl -Path $Path
    if( $acl.AreAccessRulesProtected )
    {
        Write-Verbose -Message ('[{0}] Enabling access rule inheritance.' -f $Path)
        $acl.SetAccessRuleProtection($false, $Preserve)
        $acl | Set-Acl -Path $Path

        if( -not $Preserve )
        {
            Get-CPermission -Path $Path | ForEach-Object { Revoke-CPermission -Path $Path -Identity $_.IdentityReference }
        }
    }
}



function Enable-CFirewallStatefulFtp
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Enables the `StatefulFtp` Windows firewall setting.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Uses the `netsh` command to enable the `StatefulFtp` Windows firewall setting.

    If the firewall isn't configurable, writes an error and returns without making any changes.

    .LINK
    Assert-CFirewallConfigurable

    .EXAMPLE
    Enable-CFirewallStatefulFtp
    
    Enables the `StatefulFtp` Windows firewall setting.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( -not (Assert-CFirewallConfigurable) )
    {
        return
    }
    
    Invoke-ConsoleCommand -Target 'firewall' -Action 'enable stateful FTP' -ScriptBlock {
        netsh advfirewall set global StatefulFtp enable
    }
}




function Enable-CIEActivationPermission
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Grants all users permission to start/launch Internet Explorer.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    By default, unprivileged users can't launch/start Internet Explorer. This prevents those users from using Internet Explorer to run automated, browser-based tests.  This function modifies Windows so that all users can launch Internet Explorer.
    
    You may also need to call Disable-CIEEnhancedSecurityConfiguration, so that Internet Explorer is allowed to visit all websites.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Enable-CIEActivationPermission

    .LINK
    Disable-CIEEnhancedSecurityConfiguration
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $sddlForIe =   "O:BAG:BAD:(A;;CCDCSW;;;SY)(A;;CCDCLCSWRP;;;BA)(A;;CCDCSW;;;IU)(A;;CCDCLCSWRP;;;S-1-5-21-762517215-2652837481-3023104750-5681)"
    $binarySD = ([wmiclass]"Win32_SecurityDescriptorHelper").SDDLToBinarySD($sddlForIE)
    $ieRegPath = "hkcr:\AppID\{0002DF01-0000-0000-C000-000000000046}"
    $ieRegPath64 = "hkcr:\Wow6432Node\AppID\{0002DF01-0000-0000-C000-000000000046}"

    if(-not (Test-Path "HKCR:\"))
    {
        $null = New-PSDrive -Name HKCR -PSProvider Registry -Root HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT
    }

    if( $PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess( 'Internet Explorer', 'enabling launch and activation permission' ) )
    {
        Set-CRegistryKeyValue -Path $ieRegPath -Name '(Default)' -String "Internet Explorer(Ver 1.0)"
        Set-CRegistryKeyValue -Path $ieRegPath64 -Name '(Default)' -String "Internet Explorer(Ver 1.0)"

        Set-CRegistryKeyValue -Path $ieRegPath -Name 'LaunchPermission' -Binary $binarySD.binarySD
        Set-CRegistryKeyValue -Path $ieRegPath64 -Name 'LaunchPermission' -Binary $binarySD.binarySD
    }
}

Set-Alias -Name 'Enable-IEActivationPermissions' -Value 'Enable-CIEActivationPermission'



function Enable-CNtfsCompression
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Turns on NTFS compression on a file/directory.

    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Enable-CNtfsCompression` function uses the `compact.exe` command to enable compression on a directory. By default, when enabling compression on a directory, only new files/directories created *after* enabling compression will be compressed.  To compress everything, use the `-Recurse` switch.

    Uses Windows' `compact.exe` command line utility to compress the file/directory.  To see the output from `compact.exe`, set the `Verbose` switch.

    Beginning in Carbon 2.9.0, `Enable-CNtfsCompression` only sets compression if it isn't already set. To *always* compress, use the `-Force` switch.

    .LINK
    Disable-CNtfsCompression

    .LINK
    Test-CNtfsCompression

    .EXAMPLE
    Enable-CNtfsCompression -Path C:\Projects\Carbon

    Turns on NTFS compression (if it isn't already turned on) and compresses the `C:\Projects\Carbon` directory, but not its sub-directories.

    .EXAMPLE
    Enable-CNtfsCompression -Path C:\Projects\Carbon -Recurse

    Turns on NTFS compression (if it isn't already turned on) and compresses the `C:\Projects\Carbon` directory and all its sub-directories.

    .EXAMPLE
    Enable-CNtfsCompression -Path C:\Projects\Carbon -Recurse -Force

    Turns on NTFS compression even if it is already on and and compresses the `C:\Projects\Carbon` directory and all its sub-directories.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-ChildItem * | Where-Object { $_.PsIsContainer } | Enable-CNtfsCompression

    Demonstrates that you can pipe the path to compress into `Enable-CNtfsCompression`.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ValueFromPipeline=$true,ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName=$true)]
        [Alias('FullName')]
        # The path where compression should be enabled.
        [string[]]$Path,

        # Enables compression on all sub-directories.
        [Switch]$Recurse,

        # Enable compression even if it is already enabled.
        [Switch]$Force
    )

    begin
    {
        Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
        Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

        $compactPath = Join-Path $env:SystemRoot 'system32\compact.exe'
        if( -not (Test-Path -Path $compactPath -PathType Leaf) )
        {
            if( (Get-Command -Name 'compact.exe' -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue) )
            {
                $compactPath = 'compact.exe'
            }
            else
            {
                Write-Error ("Compact command '{0}' not found." -f $compactPath)
                return
            }
        }
    }

    process
    {
        foreach( $item in $Path )
        {
            if( -not (Test-Path -Path $item) )
            {
                Write-Error -Message ('Path {0} not found.' -f $item) -Category ObjectNotFound
                return
            }

            $recurseArg = ''
            $pathArg = $item
            if( (Test-Path -Path $item -PathType Container) )
            {
                if( $Recurse )
                {
                    $recurseArg = ('/S:{0}' -f $item)
                    $pathArg = ''
                }
            }
        
            if( -not $Force -and (Test-CNtfsCompression -Path $item) )
            {
                continue
            }

            Invoke-ConsoleCommand -Target $item -Action 'enable NTFS compression' -ScriptBlock { 
                & $compactPath /C $recurseArg $pathArg
            }
        }
    }
}



function Expand-CItem
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Decompresses a ZIP file to a directory using the `DotNetZip` library.

    .DESCRIPTION
    The contents of the ZIP file are extracted to a temporary directory, and that directory is returned as a `System.IO.DirectoryInfo` object. You are responsible for deleting that directory when you're finished.
    
    You can extract to a specific directory with the `OutDirectory` parameter. If the directory doesn't exist, it is created. If the directory exists, and is empty, the file is decompressed into that directory. If the directory isn't empty, use the `-Force` parameter to overwrite any files/directories which may be present.

    The directory where the files were decompressed is returned.

    .LINK
    https://www.nuget.org/packages/DotNetZip

    .LINK
    Compress-CItem

    .LINK
    Test-CZipFile

    .EXAMPLE
    $unzipRoot = Expand-CItem -Path 'C:\Carbon.zip' 

    Demonstrates how to unzip a file into a temporary directory. You are responsible for deleting that directory.

    .EXAMPLE
    Expand-CItem -Path 'C:\Carbon.zip' -OutDirectory 'C:\Modules\Carbon'

    Demonstrates how to unzip a file into a specific directory.

    .EXAMPLE
    Expand-CItem -Path 'C:\Carbon.zip' -OutDirectory 'C:\Modules\Carbon' -Force

    Demonstrates how to decompress to an existing, non-empty directory with the `-Force` parameter. Existing files are overwritten.
    #>
    [OutputType([IO.DirectoryInfo])]
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The path to the files/directories to compress.
        $Path,

        [string]
        # Path to a directory where the file should be extracted.
        $OutDirectory,

        [Switch]
        # Overwrite any existing files/directories in `OutDirectory`.
        $Force
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    Add-Type -Path (Join-Path -Path $CarbonBinDir -ChildPath 'Ionic.Zip.dll' -Resolve)

    $Path = Resolve-Path -Path $Path | Select-Object -ExpandProperty 'ProviderPath'
    if( -not $Path )
    {
        return
    }

    if( -not (Test-CZipFile -Path $Path) )
    {
        Write-Error ('File ''{0}'' is not a ZIP file.' -f $Path)
        return
    }

    if( $OutDirectory )
    {
        $OutDirectory = Resolve-CFullPath -Path $OutDirectory
        if( (Test-Path -Path $OutDirectory -PathType Container) )
        {
            if( -not $Force -and (Get-ChildItem -LiteralPath $OutDirectory | Measure-Object | Select-Object -ExpandProperty Count) )
            {
                Write-Error ('Output directory ''{0}'' is not empty. Use the `-Force` switch to overwrite existing files/directories.' -f $OutDirectory)
                return
            }
        }
    }
    else
    {
        $OutDirectory = 'Carbon+Expand-CItem+{0}+{1}' -f (Split-Path -Leaf -Path $Path),([IO.Path]::GetRandomFileName())
        $OutDirectory = Join-Path -Path $env:TEMP -ChildPath $OutDirectory
        $null = New-Item -Path $OutDirectory -ItemType 'Directory'
    }

    $zipFile = [Ionic.Zip.ZipFile]::Read($Path)
    try
    {
        $zipFile.ExtractAll($OutDirectory, [Ionic.Zip.ExtractExistingFileAction]::OverwriteSilently)
    }
    finally
    {
        $zipFile.Dispose()
    }

    Get-Item -Path $OutDirectory
}



function Find-CADUser
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Finds a user in Active Directory.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Searches the Active Directory domain given by `DomainUrl` for a user whose `sAMAccountName` matches the `sAMAccountName` passed in.  Returns the `DirectoryEntry` object for that user.  If there are any errors communicating with the domain controller, `$null` is returned.
    
    .OUTPUTS
    System.DirectoryServices.DirectoryEntry.  The directory entry object of the user's account in Active Directory or `$null` if the user isn't found.
    
    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa746475.aspx
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Find-CADUser -DomainUrl LDAP://dc.example.com:389 -sAMAccountName $env:USERNAME
    
    Finds the AD user whose Windows username (sAMAccountName) is equal to thecurrently logged on user's username.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The LDAP URL to the domain controller to contact.
        $DomainUrl,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='BysAMAccountName')]
        [string]
        # Search by a user's sAMAcountName (i.e. Windows username).  Special
        # characters are escaped.
        $sAMAccountName
    )
   
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    
    $domain = [adsi] $DomainUrl
    $searcher = [adsisearcher] $domain
    
    $filterPropertyName = 'sAMAccountName'
    $filterPropertyValue = $sAMAccountName
    
    $filterPropertyValue = Format-CADSearchFilterValue $filterPropertyValue
    
    $searcher.Filter = "(&(objectClass=User) ($filterPropertyName=$filterPropertyValue))"
    try
    {
        $result = $searcher.FindOne() 
        if( $result )
        {
            $result.GetDirectoryEntry() 
        }
    }
    catch
    {
        Write-Error ("Exception finding user {0} on domain controller {1}: {2}" -f $sAMAccountName,$DomainUrl,$_.Exception.Message)
        return $null
    }
    
}




function Format-CADSearchFilterValue
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Escapes Active Directory special characters from a string.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    There are special characters in Active Directory queries/searches.  This function escapes them so they aren't treated as AD commands/characters.
    
    .OUTPUTS
    System.String.  The input string with any Active Directory-sensitive characters escaped.
    
    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa746475.aspx#special_characters

    .EXAMPLE
    Format-CADSearchFilterValue -String "I have AD special characters (I think)."

    Returns 

        I have AD special characters \28I think\29.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The string to escape.
        $String
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    
    $string = $string.Replace('\', '\5c')
    $string = $string.Replace('*', '\2a')
    $string = $string.Replace('(', '\28')
    $string = $string.Replace(')', '\29')
    $string = $string.Replace('/', '\2f')
    $string.Replace("`0", '\00')
}

Set-Alias -Name 'Format-ADSpecialCharacters' -Value 'Format-CADSearchFilterValue'




function Get-CADDomainController
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets the domain controller of the current computer's domain, or for a 
    specific domain.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    When working with Active Directory, it's important to have the hostname of 
    the domain controller you need to work with.  This function will find the 
    domain controller for the domain of the current computer or the domain 
    controller for a given domain.
    
    .OUTPUTS
    System.String. The hostname for the domain controller.  If the domain 
    controller is not found, $null is returned.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    > Get-CADDomainController
    Returns the domain controller for the current computer's domain.  
    Approximately equivialent to the hostname given in the LOGONSERVER 
    environment variable.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    > Get-CADDomainController -Domain MYDOMAIN
    Returns the domain controller for the MYDOMAIN domain.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [string]
        # The domain whose domain controller to get.  If not given, gets the 
        # current computer's domain controller.
        $Domain
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    
    if( $Domain )
    {
        $principalContext = $null
        try
        {
            Add-Type -AssemblyName System.DirectoryServices.AccountManagement
            $principalContext = New-Object DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.PrincipalContext Domain,$Domain
            return $principalContext.ConnectedServer
        }
        catch
        {
            $firstException = $_.Exception
            while( $firstException.InnerException )
            {
                $firstException = $firstException.InnerException
            }
            Write-Error ("Unable to find domain controller for domain '{0}': {1}: {2}" -f $Domain,$firstException.GetType().FullName,$firstException.Message)
            return $null
        }
        finally
        {
            if( $principalContext )
            {
                $principalContext.Dispose()
            }
        }
    }
    else
    {
        $root = New-Object DirectoryServices.DirectoryEntry "LDAP://RootDSE"
        try
        {
            return  $root.Properties["dnsHostName"][0].ToString();
        }
        finally
        {
            $root.Dispose()
        }
    }
}




function Get-CCertificate
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets a certificate from a file on the file system or from a Windows certificate store by thumbprint or friendly name.

    Beginning in Carbon 2.7, the returned object will have a `Path` property that is the full path to either the file or certificate in the certificate store.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Certificates can be files or they can be in a Windows certificate store.  This function returns an `X509Certificate2` object for a script that's a file on the file system or a cert stored in Microsoft's certificate store.  You can get a certificate from a certificate store with its unique thumbprint or its friendly name.  Friendly names are *not* required to be unique, so you may get multiple certificates when using that search method.
    
    Certificates loaded from a file are imported with default key storage values, which means if you try to add the certifiate returned by this function to a certificate store it will get persisted in the user's key store and *not* persisted.
    
    .OUTPUTS
    System.Security.Cryptography.x509Certificates.X509Certificate2. The X509Certificate2 certificates that were found, or `$null`.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CCertificate -Path C:\Certificates\certificate.cer -Password MySuperSecurePassword
    
    Gets an X509Certificate2 object representing the certificate.cer file. Wildcards *not* supported when using a file system path.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CCertificate -Thumbprint a909502dd82ae41433e6f83886b00d4277a32a7b -StoreName My -StoreLocation LocalMachine
    
    Gets an X509Certificate2 object for the certificate in the Personal store with a specific thumbprint under the Local Machine.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CCertificate -FriendlyName 'Development Certificate' -StoreLocation CurrentUser -StoreName TrustedPeople
    
    Gets the X509Certificate2 whose friendly name is Development Certificate from the Current User's Trusted People certificate store.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CCertificate -Thumbprint a909502dd82ae41433e6f83886b00d4277a32a7b -CustomStoreName 'SharePoint' -StoreLocation LocalMachine

    Demonstrates how to get a certificate from a custom store, i.e. one that is not part of the standard `StoreName` enumeration.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CCertificate -Path 'cert:\CurrentUser\a909502dd82ae41433e6f83886b00d4277a32a7b'

    Demonstrates how to get a certificate out of a Windows certificate store with its certificate path. Wildcards supported.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParameterSetName='ByFriendlyName')]
    [OutputType([Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509Certificate2])]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ByPath')]
        [string]
        # The path to the certificate. Can be a file system path or a certificate path, e.g. `cert:\`. Wildcards supported.
        $Path,
        
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='ByPath')]
        # The password to the certificate.  Can be plaintext or a [SecureString](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.securestring.aspx).
        $Password,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='ByPath')]
        [Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509KeyStorageFlags]
        # The storage flags to use when loading a certificate file. This controls where/how you can store the certificate in the certificate stores later. Use the `-bor` operator to combine flags.
        $KeyStorageFlags,

        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ByThumbprint')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ByThumbprintCustomStoreName')]
        [string]
        # The certificate's thumbprint.
        $Thumbprint,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ByFriendlyName')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ByFriendlyNameCustomStoreName')]
        [string]
        # The friendly name of the certificate.
        $FriendlyName,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ByFriendlyName')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ByFriendlyNameCustomStoreName')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ByThumbprint')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ByThumbprintCustomStoreName')]
        [Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.StoreLocation]
        # The location of the certificate's store.
        $StoreLocation,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ByFriendlyName')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ByThumbprint')]
        [Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.StoreName]
        # The name of the certificate's store.
        $StoreName,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ByFriendlyNameCustomStoreName')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ByThumbprintCustomStoreName')]
        [string]
        # The name of the non-standard, custom store.
        $CustomStoreName
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    function Add-PathMember
    {
        param(
            [Parameter(Mandatory,VAlueFromPipeline=$true)]
            [Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509Certificate2]
            $Certificate,

            [Parameter(Mandatory)]
            [string]
            $Path
        )

        process
        {
            $Certificate | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name 'Path' -Value $Path -PassThru
        }
    }

    function Resolve-CertificateProviderFriendlyPath
    {
        param(
            [Parameter(Mandatory,ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName)]
            [string]
            $PSPath,

            [Parameter(Mandatory,ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName)]
            [Management.Automation.PSDriveInfo]
            $PSDrive
        )

        process
        {
            $qualifier = '{0}:' -f $PSDrive.Name
            $path = $PSPath | Split-Path -NoQualifier
            Join-Path -Path $qualifier -ChildPath $path
        }
    }
    
    if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'ByPath' )
    {
        if( -not (Test-Path -Path $Path -PathType Leaf) )
        {
            Write-Error ('Certificate ''{0}'' not found.' -f $Path)
            return
        }

        Get-Item -Path $Path | 
            ForEach-Object {
                $item = $_
                if( $item -is [Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509Certificate2] )
                {
                    $certFriendlyPath = $item | Resolve-CertificateProviderFriendlyPath
                    return $item | Add-PathMember -Path $certFriendlyPath
                }
                elseif( $item -is [IO.FileInfo] )
                {
                    try
                    {
                        $ctorParams = @( $item.FullName, $Password )
                        if( $KeyStorageFlags )
                        {
                            $ctorParams += $KeyStorageFlags
                        }
                        return New-Object 'Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509Certificate2' $ctorParams | Add-PathMember -Path $item.FullName
                    }
                    catch
                    {
                        $ex = $_.Exception
                        while( $ex.InnerException )
                        {
                            $ex = $ex.InnerException
                        }
                        Write-Error -Message ('Failed to create X509Certificate2 object from file ''{0}'': {1}' -f $item.FullName,$ex.Message)
                    }
                }
            }
    }
    else
    {
        $storeLocationPath = '*'
        if( $StoreLocation )
        {
            $storeLocationPath = $StoreLocation
        }
        
        $storeNamePath = '*'
        if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -like '*CustomStoreName' )
        {
            $storeNamePath = $CustomStoreName
        }
        else
        {
            $storeNamePath = $StoreName
            if( $StoreName -eq [Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.StoreName]::CertificateAuthority )
            {
                $storeNamePath = 'CA'
            }
        }
        
        if( $pscmdlet.ParameterSetName -like 'ByThumbprint*' )
        {
            $certPath = 'cert:\{0}\{1}\{2}' -f $storeLocationPath,$storeNamePath,$Thumbprint
            if( (Test-Path -Path $certPath) )
            {
                foreach( $certPathItem in (Get-ChildItem -Path $certPath) )
                {
                    $path = $certPathItem | Resolve-CertificateProviderFriendlyPath
                    $certPathItem | Add-PathMember -Path $path
                }
            }
            return
        }
        elseif( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -like 'ByFriendlyName*' )
        {
            $certPath = Join-Path -Path 'cert:' -ChildPath $storeLocationPath
            $certPath = Join-Path -Path $certPath -ChildPath $storeNamePath
            $certPath = Join-Path -Path $certPath -ChildPath '*'
            return Get-ChildItem -Path $certPath | 
                        Where-Object { $_.FriendlyName -eq $FriendlyName } |
                        ForEach-Object {
                            $friendlyPath = $_ | Resolve-CertificateProviderFriendlyPath
                            $_ | Add-PathMember -Path $friendlyPath
                        }
        }
        Write-Error "Unknown parameter set '$($pscmdlet.ParameterSetName)'."
    }
}




function Get-CCertificateStore
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets an `X509CertificateStore` object for the given location and store name.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Returns an `X509Store` for a given store location and store name.  The store must exist.  Before being retured, it is opened for writing.  If you don't have permission to write to the store, you'll get an error.

    If you just want to read a store, we recommend using PowerShell's `cert:` drive.

    .OUTPUTS
    Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509Store.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CCertificateStore -StoreLocation LocalMachine -StoreName My

    Get the local computer's Personal certificate store.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CCertificateStore -StoreLocation CurrentUser -StoreName Root

    Get the current user's Trusted Root Certification Authorities certificate store.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParameterSetName='ByStoreName')]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.StoreLocation]
        # The location of the certificate store to get.
        $StoreLocation,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ByStoreName')]
        [Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.StoreName]
        # The name of the certificate store to get.
        $StoreName,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ByCustomStoreName')]
        [string]
        # The name of the non-standard certificate store to get. Use this to pull certificates from a non-standard store.
        $CustomStoreName
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    
    if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'ByStoreName' )
    {
        $store = New-Object Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509Store $StoreName,$StoreLocation
    }
    else
    {
        $store = New-Object Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509Store $CustomStoreName,$StoreLocation
    }

    $store.Open( ([Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.OpenFlags]::ReadWrite) )
    return $store
}




function Get-CComPermission
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets the COM Access or Launch and Activation permissions for the current computer.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    COM access permissions ared used to "allow default access to application" or "set limits on applications that determine their own permissions".  Launch and Activation permissions are used "who is allowed to launch applications or activate objects" and to "set limits on applications that determine their own permissions."  Usually, these permissions are viewed and edited by opening dcomcnfg, right-clicking My Computer under Component Services > Computers, choosing Properties, going to the COM Security tab, and clicking `Edit Default...` or `Edit Limits...` buttons under the **Access Permissions** or **Launch and Activation Permissions** sections.  This function does all that, but does it much easier, and returns objects you can work with.
    
    These permissions are stored in the registry, under `HKLM\Software\Microsoft\Ole`.  The default security registry value for Access Permissions is missing/empty until custom permissions are granted.  If this is the case, this function will return objects that represent the default security, which was lovingly reverse engineered by gnomes.
    
    Returns `Carbon.Security.ComAccessRule` objects, which inherit from `[System.Security.AccessControl.AccessRule](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.security.accesscontrol.accessrule.aspx).
    
    .LINK
    Grant-CComPermission

    .LINK
    Revoke-CComPermission
    
    .OUTPUTS
    Carbon.Security.ComAccessRule.
     
    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CComPermission -Access -Default
    
    Gets the COM access default security permissions. Look how easy it is!

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CComPermission -LaunchAndActivation -Identity 'Administrators' -Limits
    
    Gets the security limits for COM Launch and Activation permissions for the local administrators group.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    [OutputType([Carbon.Security.ComAccessRights])]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='DefaultAccessPermission')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='MachineAccessRestriction')]
        [Switch]
        # If set, returns permissions for COM Access permissions.
        $Access,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='DefaultLaunchPermission')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='MachineLaunchRestriction')]
        [Switch]
        # If set, returns permissions for COM Access permissions.
        $LaunchAndActivation,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='DefaultAccessPermission')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='DefaultLaunchPermission')]
        [Switch]
        # Gets default security permissions.
        $Default,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='MachineAccessRestriction')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='MachineLaunchRestriction')]
        [Switch]
        # Gets security limit permissions.
        $Limits,
        
        [string]
        # The identity whose access rule to return.  If not set, all access rules are returned.
        $Identity        
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $comArgs = @{ }
    if( $pscmdlet.ParameterSetName -like 'Default*' )
    {
        $comArgs.Default = $true
    }
    else
    {
        $comArgs.Limits = $true
    }
    
    if( $pscmdlet.ParameterSetName -like '*Access*' )
    {
        $comArgs.Access = $true
    }
    else
    {
        $comArgs.LaunchAndActivation = $true
    }
    
    Get-CComSecurityDescriptor @comArgs -AsComAccessRule |
        Where-Object {
            if( $Identity )
            {
                $account = Resolve-CIdentity -Name $Identity
                if( -not $account )
                {
                    return $false
                }
                return ( $_.IdentityReference.Value -eq $account.FullName )
            }
            
            return $true
        }
}

Set-Alias -Name 'Get-ComPermissions' -Value 'Get-CComPermission'



function Get-CComSecurityDescriptor
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets a WMI Win32_SecurityDescriptor default security or security limits object for COM Access or Launch and Activation permissions.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    There are four available security descriptors.  Default security and security limits for Access Permissions and Launch and Activation Permissions.  This method returns a Win32_SecurityDescriptor for the given area and security type.

    The `AsComAccessRule` parameter will return a `Carbon.Security.ComAccessRule` object for each of the access control entries in the security descriptor's ACL.
        
    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/aa394402.aspx
    
    .LINK
    Get-CComPermission
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CComSecurityDescriptor -Access -Default
    
    Gets the default security descriptor for COM Access Permissions.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CComSecurityDescriptor -Access -Limits
    
    Gets the security limits descriptor for COM Access Permissions.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CComSecurityDescriptor -LaunchAndActivation -Default
    
    Gets the default security descriptor for COM Launch and Activation Permissions.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CComSecurityDescriptor -LaunchAndActivation -Limits
    
    Gets the security limits descriptor for COM Launch and Activation Permissions.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CComSecurityDescriptor -Access -Default -AsComAccessRule
    
    Returns a `Carbon.Security.ComAccessRule` object for each of the access control entries in the Access Permissions's default security descriptor.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='DefaultAccessPermission')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='MachineAccessRestriction')]
        [Switch]
        # Returns a securty descriptor for one of the Access Permissions security types.
        $Access,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='DefaultLaunchPermission')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='MachineLaunchRestriction')]
        [Switch]
        # Returns a security descriptor for one of the Launch and Activation Permissions security types.
        $LaunchAndActivation,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='DefaultAccessPermission')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='DefaultLaunchPermission')]
        [Switch]
        # Returns the default security descriptor.
        $Default,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='MachineAccessRestriction')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='MachineLaunchRestriction')]
        [Switch]
        # Returns the security limits descriptor.
        $Limits,
        
        [Switch]
        # Returns `Carbon.Security.ComAccessRule` objects instead of a security descriptor.
        $AsComAccessRule
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $regValueName = $pscmdlet.ParameterSetName
    
    $bytes = Get-CRegistryKeyValue -Path $ComRegKeyPath -Name $regValueName
    
    $converter = New-Object Management.ManagementClass 'Win32_SecurityDescriptorHelper'

    if( -not $bytes -and $pscmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'DefaultAccessPermission')
    {
        Write-Warning "COM Default Access Permission not found. Using reverse-engineered, hard-coded default access permissions."

        # If no custom access permissions have been granted, then the DefaultAccessPermission registry value doesn't exist.
        # This is the SDDL for the default permissions used on Windows 2008 and Windows 7.
        $DEFAULT_SDDL = 'O:BAG:BAD:(A;;CCDCLC;;;PS)(A;;CCDC;;;SY)(A;;CCDCLC;;;BA)'
        $sd = $converter.SDDLToWin32SD( $DEFAULT_SDDL )
    }
    else
    {
        $sd = $converter.BinarySDToWin32SD( $bytes )
    }
    
    if( $AsComAccessRule )
    {
        $sd.Descriptor.DACL | 
            ForEach-Object {
                
                if( -not $_.Trustee.Domain -and -not $_.Trustee.Name )
                {
                    Write-Debug ('Unresolved trustee: SID: {0}' -f $_.Trustee.SidString)
                    return
                }
                
                $identity = New-Object Security.Principal.NTAccount $_.Trustee.Domain,$_.Trustee.Name
                $rights = [Carbon.Security.ComAccessRights]$_.AccessMask
                $controlType = [Security.AccessControl.AccessControlType]$_.AceType

                New-Object Carbon.Security.ComAccessRule $identity,$rights,$controlType
            }
    }
    else
    {
        $sd.Descriptor
    }
}




function Get-CDscError
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets DSC errors from a computer's event log.

    .DESCRIPTION
    The DSC Local Configuration Manager (LCM) writes any errors it encounters to the `Microsoft-Windows-DSC/Operational` event log, in addition to some error messages that report that encountered an error. This function gets just the important error log messages, skipping the superflous ones that won't help you track down where the problem is.

    By default, errors on the local computer are returned. You can return errors from another computer via the `ComputerName` parameter.

    You can filter the results further with the `StartTime` and `EndTime` parameters. `StartTime` will return entries after the given time. `EndTime` will return entries before the given time.

    If no items are found, nothing is returned.

    It can take several seconds for event log entries to get written to the log, so you might not get results back. If you want to wait for entries to come back, use the `-Wait` switch. You can control how long to wait (in seconds) via the `WaitTimeoutSeconds` parameter. The default is 10 seconds.

    When getting errors on a remote computer, that computer must have Remote Event Log Management firewall rules enabled. To enable them, run

        Get-CFirewallRule -Name '*Remove Event Log Management*' |
            ForEach-Object { netsh advfirewall firewall set rule name= $_.Name new enable=yes }

    `Get-CDscError` is new in Carbon 2.0.

    .OUTPUTS
    System.Diagnostics.Eventing.Reader.EventLogRecord

    .LINK
    Write-CDscError

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CDscWinEvent

    Demonstrates how to get all the DSC errors from the local computer.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CDscError -ComputerName 10.1.2.3

    Demonstrates how to get all the DSC errors from a specific computer.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CDscError -StartTime '8/1/2014 0:00'

    Demonstrates how to get errors that occurred *after* a given time.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CDscError -EndTime '8/30/2014 11:59:59'

    Demonstrates how to get errors that occurred *before* a given time.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CDscError -StartTime '8/1/2014 2:58 PM' -Wait -WaitTimeoutSeconds 5

    Demonstrates how to wait for entries that match the specified criteria to appear in the event log. It can take several seconds between the time a log entry is written to when you can read it.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParameterSetName='NoWait')]
    [OutputType([Diagnostics.Eventing.Reader.EventLogRecord])]
    param(
        [string[]]
        # The computer whose DSC errors to return.
        $ComputerName,

        [DateTime]
        # Get errors that occurred after this date/time.
        $StartTime,

        [DateTime]
        # Get errors that occurred before this date/time.
        $EndTime,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='Wait')]
        [Switch]
        # Wait for entries to appear, as it can sometimes take several seconds for entries to get written to the event log.
        $Wait,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Wait')]
        [uint32]
        # The time to wait for entries to appear before giving up. Default is 10 seconds. There is no way to wait an infinite amount of time.
        $WaitTimeoutSeconds = 10
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    Get-CDscWinEvent @PSBoundParameters -ID 4103 -Level ([Diagnostics.Eventing.Reader.StandardEventLevel]::Error)
}



function Get-CDscWinEvent
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets events from the DSC Windows event log.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Thie `Get-CDscWinEvent` function gets log entries from the `Microsoft-Windows-DSC/Operational` event log, where the Local Configuration Manager writes events. By default, entries on the local computer are returned. You can return entries from another computer via the `ComputerName` parameter.

    You can filter the results further with the `ID`, `Level`, `StartTime` and `EndTime` parameters. `ID` will get events with the specific ID. `Level` will get events at the specified level. `StartTime` will return entries after the given time. `EndTime` will return entries before the given time.

    If no items are found, nothing is returned.

    It can take several seconds for event log entries to get written to the log, so you might not get results back. If you want to wait for entries to come back, use the `-Wait` switch. You can control how long to wait (in seconds) via the `WaitTimeoutSeconds` parameter. The default is 10 seconds.

    When getting errors on a remote computer, that computer must have Remote Event Log Management firewall rules enabled. To enable them, run

        Get-CFirewallRule -Name '*Remove Event Log Management*' |
            ForEach-Object { netsh advfirewall firewall set rule name= $_.Name new enable=yes }

    `Get-CDscWinEvent` is new in Carbon 2.0.

    .OUTPUTS
    System.Diagnostics.Eventing.Reader.EventLogRecord

    .LINK
    Write-CDscError

    .LINK
    Get-CDscWinEvent

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CDscWinEvent

    Demonstrates how to get all the DSC errors from the local computer.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CDscWinEvent -ComputerName 10.1.2.3

    Demonstrates how to get all the DSC errors from a specific computer.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CDscWinEvent -StartTime '8/1/2014 0:00'

    Demonstrates how to get errors that occurred *after* a given time.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CDscWinEvent -EndTime '8/30/2014 11:59:59'

    Demonstrates how to get errors that occurred *before* a given time.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CDscWinEvent -StartTime '8/1/2014 2:58 PM' -Wait -WaitTimeoutSeconds 5

    Demonstrates how to wait for entries that match the specified criteria to appear in the event log. It can take several seconds between the time a log entry is written to when you can read it.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CDscWinEvent -Level ([Diagnostics.Eventing.Reader.StandardEventLevel]::Error)

    Demonstrates how to get events at a specific level, in this case, only error level entries will be returned.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CDscWinEvent -ID 4103

    Demonstrates how to get events with a specific ID, in this case `4103`.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParameterSetName='NoWait')]
    [OutputType([Diagnostics.Eventing.Reader.EventLogRecord])]
    param(
        [string[]]
        # The computer whose DSC errors to return.
        $ComputerName,

        [int]
        # The event ID. Only events with this ID will be returned.
        $ID,

        [int]
        # The level. Only events at this level will be returned.
        $Level,

        [DateTime]
        # Get errors that occurred after this date/time.
        $StartTime,

        [DateTime]
        # Get errors that occurred before this date/time.
        $EndTime,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='Wait')]
        [Switch]
        # Wait for entries to appear, as it can sometimes take several seconds for entries to get written to the event log.
        $Wait,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Wait')]
        [uint32]
        # The time to wait for entries to appear before giving up. Default is 10 seconds. There is no way to wait an infinite amount of time.
        $WaitTimeoutSeconds = 10
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $filter = @{ 
                    LogName = 'Microsoft-Windows-DSC/Operational'; 
              }

    if( $ID )
    {
        $filter['ID'] = $ID
    }

    if( $Level )
    {
        $filter['Level'] = $Level
    }

    if( $StartTime )
    {
        $filter['StartTime'] = $StartTime
    }

    if( $EndTime )
    {
        $filter['EndTime'] = $EndTime
    }

    function Invoke-GetWinEvent
    {
        param(
            [string]
            $ComputerName
        )

        Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

        $startedAt = Get-Date
        $computerNameParam = @{ }
        if( $ComputerName )
        {
            $computerNameParam['ComputerName'] = $ComputerName
        }

        try
        {
            $events = @()
            while( -not ($events = Get-WinEvent @computerNameParam -FilterHashtable $filter -ErrorAction Ignore -Verbose:$false) )
            {
                if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -ne 'Wait' )
                {
                    break
                }

                Start-Sleep -Milliseconds 100

                [timespan]$duration = (Get-Date) - $startedAt
                if( $duration.TotalSeconds -gt $WaitTimeoutSeconds )
                {
                    break
                }
            }
            return $events
        }
        catch
        {
            if( $_.Exception.Message -eq 'The RPC server is unavailable' )
            {
                Write-Error -Message ("Unable to connect to '{0}': it looks like Remote Event Log Management isn't running or is blocked by the computer's firewall. To allow this traffic through the firewall, run the following command on '{0}':`n`tGet-FirewallRule -Name '*Remove Event Log Management*' |`n`t`t ForEach-Object {{ netsh advfirewall firewall set rule name= `$_.Name new enable=yes }}." -f $ComputerName)
            }
            else
            {
                Write-Error -Exception $_.Exception
            }
        }
    }

    if( $ComputerName )
    {
        $ComputerName = $ComputerName | 
                            Where-Object { 
                                # Get just the computers that exist.
                                if( (Test-Connection -ComputerName $ComputerName -Quiet) )
                                {
                                    return $true
                                }
                                else
                                {
                                    Write-Error -Message ('Computer ''{0}'' not found.' -f $ComputerName)
                                    return $false
                                }
                            }

        if( -not $ComputerName )
        {
            return
        }

        $ComputerName | ForEach-Object { Invoke-GetWinEvent -ComputerName $_ }
    }
    else
    {
        Invoke-GetWinEvent
    }
}



function Get-CFileShare
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets the file/SMB shares on the local computer.

    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Get-CFileShare` function uses WMI to get the file/SMB shares on the current/local computer. The returned objects are `Win32_Share` WMI objects.

    Use the `Name` paramter to get a specific file share by its name. If a share with the given name doesn't exist, an error is written and nothing is returned.
    
    The `Name` parameter supports wildcards. If you're using wildcards to find a share, and no shares are found, no error is written and nothing is returned.

    `Get-CFileShare` was added in Carbon 2.0.

    .LINK
    https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa394435.aspx

    .LINK
    Get-CFileSharePermission

    .LINK
    Install-CFileShare

    .LINK
    Test-CFileShare

    .LINK
    Uninstall-CFileShare

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CFileShare

    Demonstrates how to get all the file shares on the local computer.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CFileShare -Name 'Build'

    Demonstrates how to get a specific file share.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CFileShare -Name 'Carbon*'

    Demonstrates that you can use wildcards to find all shares that match a wildcard pattern.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [string]
        # The name of a specific share to retrieve. Wildcards accepted. If the string contains WMI sensitive characters, you'll need to escape them.
        $Name
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $filter = '(Type = 0 or Type = 2147483648)'
    $wildcardSearch = [Management.Automation.WildcardPattern]::ContainsWildcardCharacters($Name)
    if( $Name -and -not $wildcardSearch)
    {
        $filter = '{0} and Name = ''{1}''' -f $filter,$Name
    }

    $shares = Get-WmiObject -Class 'Win32_Share' -Filter $filter |
                    Where-Object { 
                        if( -not $wildcardSearch )
                        {
                            return $true
                        }

                        return $_.Name -like $Name
                    }
    
    if( $Name -and -not $shares -and -not $wildcardSearch )
    {
        Write-Error ('Share ''{0}'' not found.' -f $Name) -ErrorAction $ErrorActionPreference
    }

    $shares
}




function Get-CFileSharePermission
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets the sharing permissions on a file/SMB share.

    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Get-CFileSharePermission` function uses WMI to get the sharing permission on a file/SMB share. It returns the permissions as a `Carbon.Security.ShareAccessRule` object, which has the following properties:

     * ShareRights: the rights the user/group has on the share.
     * IdentityReference: an `Security.Principal.NTAccount` for the user/group who has permission.
     * AccessControlType: the type of access control being granted: Allow or Deny.

    The `ShareRights` are values from the `Carbon.Security.ShareRights` enumeration. There are four values:

     * Read
     * Change
     * FullControl
     * Synchronize

    If the share doesn't exist, nothing is returned and an error is written.

    Use the `Identity` parameter to get a specific user/group's permissions. Wildcards are supported.

    `Get-CFileSharePermission` was added in Carbon 2.0.

    .LINK
    Get-CFileShare

    .LINK
    Install-CFileShare

    .LINK
    Test-CFileShare

    .LINK
    Uninstall-CFileShare

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CFileSharePermission -Name 'Build'

    Demonstrates how to get all the permissions on the `Build` share.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    [OutputType([Carbon.Security.ShareAccessRule])]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The share's name.
        $Name,

        [string]
        # Get permissions for a specific identity. Wildcards supported.
        $Identity
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $share = Get-CFileShare -Name $Name
    if( -not $share )
    {
        return
    }

    if( $Identity )
    {
        if( -not [System.Management.Automation.WildcardPattern]::ContainsWildcardCharacters( $Identity ) )
        {
            $Identity = Resolve-CIdentityName -Name $Identity -ErrorAction $ErrorActionPreference
            if( -not $Identity )
            {
                return
            }
        }
    }
        
    $acl = $null  
    $lsss = Get-WmiObject -Class 'Win32_LogicalShareSecuritySetting' -Filter "name='$Name'"
    if( -not $lsss )
    {
        return
    }

    $result = $lsss.GetSecurityDescriptor()
    if( -not $result )
    {
        return
    }

    if( $result.ReturnValue )
    {
        $win32lsssErrors = @{
                                [uint32]2 = 'Access Denied';
                                [uint32]8 = 'Unknown Failure';
                                [uint32]9 = 'Privilege Missing';
                                [uint32]21 = 'Invalid Parameter';
                            }
        Write-Error ('Failed to get ''{0}'' share''s security descriptor. WMI returned error code {1} which means: {2}' -f $Name,$result.ReturnValue,$win32lsssErrors[$result.ReturnValue])
        return
    }

    $sd = $result.Descriptor
    if( -not $sd -or -not $sd.DACL )
    {
        return
    }

    foreach($ace in $SD.DACL)
    {   
        if( -not $ace -or -not $ace.Trustee )
        {
            continue
        }

        [Carbon.Identity]$rId = [Carbon.Identity]::FindBySid( $ace.Trustee.SIDString )
        if( $Identity -and  (-not $rId -or $rId.FullName -notlike $Identity) )
        {
            continue
        }

        if( $rId )
        {
            $aceId = New-Object 'Security.Principal.NTAccount' $rId.FullName
        }
        else
        {
            $aceId = New-Object 'Security.Principal.SecurityIdentifier' $ace.Trustee.SIDString
        }

        New-Object 'Carbon.Security.ShareAccessRule' $aceId, $ace.AccessMask, $ace.AceType
    } 
}




function Get-CFirewallRule
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets the local computer's firewall rules.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    Returns a `Carbon.Firewall.Rule` object for each firewall rule on the local computer. 
    
    In Carbon 2.4.0 and earlier, this data is parsed from the output of:
    
        netsh advfirewall firewall show rule name=all

    which only works on english-speaking computers.

    Beginning with Carbon 2.4.1, firewall rules are read using the Windows Firewall with Advanced Security API's `HNetCfg.FwPolicy2` object.

    You can return specific rule(s) using the `Name` or `LiteralName` parameters. The `Name` parameter accepts wildcards; `LiteralName` does not. There can be multiple firewall rules with the same name.

    If the firewall isn't configurable/running, writes an error and returns without returning any objects.

    This function requires administrative privileges.

    .OUTPUTS
    Carbon.Firewall.Rule.

    .LINK
    Assert-CFirewallConfigurable

    .LINK
    Carbon_FirewallRule

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CFirewallRule

    Demonstrates how to get the firewall rules running on the current computer.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CFirewallRule -Name 'World Wide Web Services (HTTP Traffic-In)'

    Demonstrates how to get a specific rule.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CFirewallRule -Name '*HTTP*'

    Demonstrates how to use wildcards to find rules whose names match a wildcard pattern, in this case any rule whose name contains the text 'HTTP' is returned.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CFirewallRule -LiteralName 'Custom Rule **CREATED BY AUTOMATED PROCES'

    Demonstrates how to find a specific firewall rule by name if that name has wildcard characters in it.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParameterSetName='All')]
    [OutputType([Carbon.Firewall.Rule])]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ByName')]
        [string]
        # The name of the rule. Wildcards supported. Names aren't unique, so you may still get back multiple rules
        $Name,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ByLiteralName')]
        [string]
        # The literal name of the rule. Wildcards not supported.
        $LiteralName
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    
    if( -not (Assert-CFirewallConfigurable) )
    {
        return
    }

    $fw = New-Object -ComObject 'HNetCfg.FwPolicy2'
    $fw.Rules |
        Where-Object { 
            if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'ByLiteralName' )
            {
                return $_.Name -eq $LiteralName
            }

            if( -not $Name )
            {
                return $true
            }

            return $_.Name -like $Name 
        } | ForEach-Object {
    
            $rule = $_

            Write-Debug -Message $rule.Name

            $profiles = [Carbon.Firewall.RuleProfile]::Any
            if( $rule.Profiles -eq 0x7FFFFFFF )
            {
                $profiles = [Carbon.Firewall.RuleProfile]::Domain -bor [Carbon.Firewall.RuleProfile]::Private -bor [Carbon.Firewall.RuleProfile]::Public
            }
            else
            {
                if( ($rule.Profiles -band 1) -eq 1 )
                {
                    $profiles = $profiles -bor [Carbon.Firewall.RuleProfile]::Domain
                }
                if( ($rule.Profiles -band 2) -eq 2 )
                {
                    $profiles = $profiles -bor [Carbon.Firewall.RuleProfile]::Private
                }
                if( ($rule.Profiles -band 4) -eq 4 )
                {
                    $profiles = $profiles -bor [Carbon.Firewall.RuleProfile]::Public
                }
            }
            Write-Debug -Message ('  Profiles          {0,25} -> {1}' -f $rule.Profiles,$profiles)
            $protocol = switch( $rule.Protocol ) 
            {
                6 { 'TCP' }
                17 { 'UDP' }
                1 { 'ICMPv4' }
                58 { 'ICMPv6' }
                256 { 'Any' }
                default { $_ }
            }

            if( ($rule | Get-Member -Name 'IcmpTypesAndCodes') -and $rule.IcmpTypesAndCodes )
            {
                $type,$code = $rule.IcmpTypesAndCodes -split ':' | ConvertTo-Any
                if( -not $code )
                {
                    $code = 'Any'
                }
                $protocol = '{0}:{1},{2}' -f $protocol,$type,$code
                Write-Debug -Message ('  IcmpTypesAndCode  {0,25} -> {1},{2}' -f $rule.IcmpTypesAndCodes,$type,$code)
            }
            Write-Debug -Message ('  Protocol          {0,25} -> {1}' -f $rule.Protocol,$protocol)

            $direction = switch( $rule.Direction )
            {
                1 { [Carbon.Firewall.RuleDirection]::In }
                2 { [Carbon.Firewall.RuleDirection]::Out }
            }

            $action = switch( $rule.Action )
            {
                0 { [Carbon.Firewall.RuleAction]::Block }
                1 { [Carbon.Firewall.RuleAction]::Allow }
                default { throw ('Unknown action ''{0}''.' -f $_) }
            }

            $interfaceType = [Carbon.Firewall.RuleInterfaceType]::Any
            $rule.InterfaceTypes -split ',' |
                Where-Object { $_ -ne 'All' } |
                ForEach-Object {
                    if( $_ -eq 'RemoteAccess' )
                    {
                        $_ = 'Ras'
                    }
                    $interfaceType = $interfaceType -bor [Carbon.Firewall.RuleInterfaceType]::$_
                }
            Write-Debug -Message ('  InterfaceType     {0,25} -> {1}' -f $rule.InterfaceTypes,$interfaceType)

            function ConvertTo-Any
            {
                param(
                    [Parameter(ValueFromPipeline=$true)]
                    $InputObject
                )

                process
                {
                    if( $InputObject -eq '*' )
                    {
                        return 'Any'
                    }

                    $InputObject = $InputObject -split ',' |
                                        ForEach-Object { 
                                            $ipAddress,$mask = $_ -split '/'
                                            [ipaddress]$maskAddress = $null
                                            if( $mask -match '^\d{1,3}\.\d{1,3}\.\d{1,3}\.\d{1,3}$' -and [ipaddress]::TryParse($mask, [ref]$maskAddress) )
                                            {
                                                $cidr = $maskAddress.GetAddressBytes() | 
                                                            ForEach-Object { [Convert]::ToString($_, 2) -replace '[s0]' } |
                                                            Select-Object -ExpandProperty 'Length' |
                                                            Measure-Object -Sum | 
                                                            Select-Object -ExpandProperty 'Sum'
                                                return '{0}/{1}' -f $ipAddress,$cidr
                                            }
                                            return $_
                                        }
                    return $InputObject -join ','
                }
            }

            $localAddresses = $rule.LocalAddresses | ConvertTo-Any
            Write-Debug -Message ('  LocalAddresses    {0,25} -> {1}' -f $rule.LocalAddresses,$localAddresses)
            $remoteAddresses = $rule.RemoteAddresses | ConvertTo-Any
            Write-Debug -Message ('  RemoteAddresses   {0,25} -> {1}' -f $rule.RemoteAddresses,$remoteAddresses)
            $localPorts = $rule.LocalPorts | ConvertTo-Any
            Write-Debug -Message ('  LocalPorts        {0,25} -> {1}' -f $rule.LocalPorts,$localPorts)
            $remotePorts = $rule.RemotePorts | ConvertTo-Any
            Write-Debug -Message ('  RemotePorts       {0,25} -> {1}' -f $rule.RemotePorts,$remotePorts)

            $edgeTraversal = switch( $rule.EdgeTraversalOptions ) 
            {
                0 { 'No' }
                1 { 'Yes' }
                2 { 'Defer to application' }
                3 { 'Defer to user' }
            }

            $security = [Carbon.Firewall.RuleSecurity]::NotRequired
            if( $rule | Get-Member -Name 'SecureFlags' )
            {
                $security = switch( $rule.SecureFlags )
                {
                    1 { [Carbon.Firewall.RuleSecurity]::AuthNoEncap }
                    2 { [Carbon.Firewall.RuleSecurity]::Authenticate }
                    3 { [Carbon.Firewall.RuleSecurity]::AuthDynEnc }
                    4 { [Carbon.Firewall.RuleSecurity]::AuthEnc }
                    default { [Carbon.Firewall.RuleSecurity]::NotRequired }
                }
                Write-Debug -Message ('  Security          {0,25} -> {1}' -f $rule.SecureFlags,$security)
            }

            $serviceName = $rule.ServiceName | ConvertTo-Any
            Write-Debug -Message ('  Service           {0,25} -> {1}' -f $rule.ServiceName,$serviceName)


            $constructorArgs = @(
                                    $rule.Name, 
                                    $rule.Enabled,
                                    $direction,
                                    $profiles,
                                    $rule.Grouping,
                                    $localAddresses,
                                    $localPorts,
                                    $remoteAddresses,
                                    $remotePorts,
                                    $protocol,
                                    $edgeTraversal,
                                    $action,
                                    $interfaceType,
                                    $security,
                                    'Local Setting', 
                                    $rule.Description,
                                    $rule.ApplicationName,
                                    $serviceName
                                )
            New-Object -TypeName 'Carbon.Firewall.Rule' -ArgumentList $constructorArgs
        } 
}

Set-Alias -Name 'Get-FirewallRules' -Value 'Get-CFirewallRule'



function Get-CGroup
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets *local* groups.

    .DESCRIPTION
    `Get-CGroup` gets all *local* groups or a specific group by its name.

    The objects returned, `DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.GroupPrincipal`, use external resources, which means they don't clean up propertly when garbage collected, resulting in memory leaks. You should call `Dispose()` on the objects you receieve from this function when you're done using them so these external resources can be cleaned up correctly.

    `Get-CGroup` is new in Carbon 2.0.

    .OUTPUTS
    System.DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.GroupPrincipal.

    .LINK
    Get-CUser

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CGroup

    Demonstrates how to get all local groups.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CGroup -Name RebelAlliance

    Demonstrates how to get a specific group.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    [OutputType([DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.GroupPrincipal])]
    param(
        # The name of the group to return.
        [string]$Name 
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    Write-Timing ('Get-CGroup')

    $ctx = New-Object 'DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.PrincipalContext' ([DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.ContextType]::Machine)
    $query = New-Object 'DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.GroupPrincipal' $ctx
    try
    {
        $groups = Get-CPrincipal -Principal $query -Filter {
            if( $Name )
            {
                return $_.Name -eq $Name
            }
            return $true
        }

        if( $Name )
        {
            $groupCount = $groups | Measure-Object | Select-Object -ExpandProperty 'Count'
            if( $groupCount -gt 1 )
            {
                Write-Error -Message ('Found {0} groups named "{1}".' -f $groupCount,$Name) -ErrorAction:$ErrorActionPreference
                return
            }

            if( $groupCount -eq 0 )
            {
                Write-Error ('Local group "{0}" not found.' -f $Name) -ErrorAction:$ErrorActionPreference
                return
            }
        }

        return $groups
    }
    finally
    {
        $query.Dispose()
        Write-Timing ('Get-CGroup')
    }
}



function Get-CHttpUrlAcl
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets HTTP URL security information.

    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Get-CHttpUrlAcl` functions uses the HTTP Server API to get HTTP URL ACL information. With no parameters, it returns `Carbon.Security.HttpUrlSecurity` objects for all the HTTP URL ACLs. To get a specific HTTP URL ACL, use the `Name` parameter (wildcards supported).

    [The HTTP Server API](https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa364510.aspx)

    > enables applications to communicate over HTTP without using Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS). Applications can register to receive HTTP requests for particular URLs, receive HTTP requests, and send HTTP responses.

    An application that uses the HTTP Server API must register all URLs it listens (i.e. binds, registers) to. When registering, the user who will listen to the URL must also be provided. Typically, this is done with the `netsh http (show|add|remove) urlacl` command(s). This function replaces the `netsh http show urlacl` command.

    `Get-CHttpUrlAcl` was introduced in Carbon 2.1.0.

    .LINK
    https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa364510.aspx

    .LINK
    Grant-CHttpUrlPermission

    .LINK
    Revoke-CHttpUrlPermission

    .OUTPUTS
    Carbon.Security.HttpUrlSecurity.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CHttpUrlAcl

    Demonstrates how to get security information for all HTTP URLs configured on the current computer.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CHttpUrlAcl -Url 'http://+:8594/'

    Demonstrates how to get security information for a specific HTTP URL.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CHttpUrlAcl -Url 'htt://*:8599/'

    Demonstrates how to use wildcards to find security information. In this case, all URLs that use port 8599 will be returned.
    
    When using wildcards, it is important that your URL end with a slash! The HTTP Server API adds a forward slash to the end of all its URLs.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CHttpUrlAcl -LiteralUrl 'http://*:8599/'

    Demonstrates how to use a literal URL to find security information. Will only return the ACL for the URL `http://*:8599/`.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParameterSetName='AllUrls')]
    [OutputType([Carbon.Security.HttpUrlSecurity])]
    param(
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='ByWildcardUrl')]
        [string]
        # The URL whose security information to get. Wildcards supported.
        #
        # Make sure your URL ends with a forward slash.
        $Url,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='ByLiteralUrl')]
        [string]
        # The literal URL whose security information to get.
        #
        # Make sure your URL ends with a forward slash.
        $LiteralUrl
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $errorActionParam = @{ 'ErrorAction' = $ErrorActionPreference }
    if( $ErrorActionPreference -eq 'Ignore' )
    {
        $ErrorActionPreference = 'SilentlyContinue'
    }

    $acls = @()
    [Carbon.Security.HttpUrlSecurity]::GetHttpUrlSecurity() |
        Where-Object {
            if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'AllUrls' )
            {
                return $true
            }

            if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'ByWildcardUrl' )
            {
                Write-Debug -Message ('{0} -like {1}' -f $_.Url,$Url)
                return $_.Url -like $Url
            }

            Write-Debug -Message ('{0} -eq {1}' -f $_.Url,$LiteralUrl)
            return $_.Url -eq $LiteralUrl
        } |
        Tee-Object -Variable 'acls'

    if( -not $acls )
    {
        if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'ByLiteralUrl' )
        {
            Write-Error ('HTTP ACL for URL {0} not found. The HTTP API adds a trailing forward slash (/) to the end of all URLs. Make sure your URL ends with a trailing slash.' -f $LiteralUrl) @errorActionParam
        }
        elseif( -not [Management.Automation.WildcardPattern]::ContainsWildcardCharacters($Url) )
        {
            Write-Error ('HTTP ACL for URL {0} not found. The HTTP API adds a trailing forward slash (/) to the end of all URLs. Make sure your URL ends with a trailing slash.' -f $Url) @errorActionParam
        }
    }
}



function Get-IdentityPrincipalContext
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    **INTERNAL.** Do not use.
    .DESCRIPTION
    **INTERNAL.** Do not use.
    .EXAMPLE
    **INTERNAL.** Do not use.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    [OutputType([DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.PrincipalContext])]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [Carbon.Identity]
        # The identity whose principal context to get.
        $Identity
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    # First, check for a local match
    $machineCtx = New-Object 'DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.PrincipalContext' 'Machine',$env:COMPUTERNAME
    if( [DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.Principal]::FindByIdentity( $machineCtx, 'Sid', $Identity.Sid.Value ) )
    {
        return $machineCtx
    }

    $domainCtx = New-Object 'DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.PrincipalContext' 'Domain',$Identity.Domain
    if( [DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.PRincipal]::FindByIdentity( $domainCtx, 'Sid', $Identity.Sid.Value ) )
    {
        return $domainCtx
    }

    Write-Error -Message ('Unable to determine if principal ''{0}'' (SID: {1}; Type: {2}) is a machien or domain principal.' -f $Identity.FullName,$Identity.Sid.Value,$Identity.Type)
}



function Get-CIPAddress
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets the IP addresses in use on the local computer.

    .DESCRIPTION
    The .NET API for getting all the IP addresses in use on the current computer's network intefaces is pretty cumbersome.  If all you care about is getting the IP addresses in use on the current computer, and you don't care where/how they're used, use this function.

    If you *do* care about network interfaces, then you'll have to do it yourself using the [System.Net.NetworkInformation.NetworkInterface](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/System.Net.NetworkInformation.NetworkInterface.aspx) class's [GetAllNetworkInterfaces](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.net.networkinformation.networkinterface.getallnetworkinterfaces.aspx) static method, e.g.

        [Net.NetworkInformation.NetworkInterface]::GetNetworkInterfaces()

    .LINK
    http://stackoverflow.com/questions/1069103/how-to-get-my-own-ip-address-in-c

    .OUTPUTS
    System.Net.IPAddress.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CIPAddress

    Returns all the IP addresses in use on the local computer, IPv4 *and* IPv6.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CIPAddress -V4

    Returns just the IPv4 addresses in use on the local computer.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CIPAddress -V6

    Retruns just the IPv6 addresses in use on the local computer.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParameterSetName='NonFiltered')]
    param(
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Filtered')]
        [Switch]
        # Return just IPv4 addresses.
        $V4,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Filtered')]
        [Switch]
        # Return just IPv6 addresses.
        $V6
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    [Net.NetworkInformation.NetworkInterface]::GetAllNetworkInterfaces() | 
        Where-Object { $_.OperationalStatus -eq 'Up' -and $_.NetworkInterfaceType -ne 'Loopback' } | 
        ForEach-Object { $_.GetIPProperties() } | 
        Select-Object -ExpandProperty UnicastAddresses  | 
        Select-Object -ExpandProperty Address |
        Where-Object {
            if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'NonFiltered' )
            {
                return ($_.AddressFamily -eq 'InterNetwork' -or $_.AddressFamily -eq 'InterNetworkV6')
            }

            if( $V4 -and $_.AddressFamily -eq 'InterNetwork' )
            {
                return $true
            }

            if( $V6 -and $_.AddressFamily -eq 'InterNetworkV6' )
            {
                return $true
            }

            return $false
        }
}



function Get-CMsi
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets details about an MSI file.

    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Get-CMsi` function reads the installer properties from an MSI file and returns a `Carbon.Msi.MsiInfo` object representing an MSI's properties. `Carbon.Msi.MsiInfo` has properties for the following required MSI properties:

     * ProductName
     * ProductCode
     * ProduceLanguage
     * Manufacturer
     * ProductVersion

    All other properties are accessible via the `Properties` property, which is a hashtable of property name/value pairs.

    There is an additioanl `Path` property to capture the path of the MSI the properties came from.

    `Get-CMsi` was introduced in Carbon 2.0.

    .LINK
    https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa370905.aspx

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CMsi -Path MyCool.msi

    Demonstrates how to read the properties from `MyCool.msi` file.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-ChildItem *.msi -Recurse | Get-CMsi

    Demonstrates how you can pipe file info objects into `Get-CMsi`.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    [OutputType('Carbon.Msi.MsiInfo')]
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$True,ValueFromPipeline=$True,ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName=$True)]
        [Alias('FullName')]
        [string[]]
        # Path to the MSI file whose information to retrieve. Wildcards supported.
        $Path
    )
    
    begin 
    {
        Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

        Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    }

    process 
    {
        $Path |
            Resolve-Path |
            Select-Object -ExpandProperty 'ProviderPath' |
            ForEach-Object {

                $msiPath = $_

                try
                {
                    Write-Verbose ('Opening MSI {0}' -f $msiPath)
                    New-Object -TypeName 'Carbon.Msi.MsiInfo' -ArgumentList $msiPath
                }
                catch
                {
                    $ex = $_.Exception
                    $errMsg = 'Failed to open MSI file ''{0}''.' -f $msiPath
                    if( $ex )
                    {
                        $errMsg = '{0} {1} was thrown. The exception message is: ''{2}''.' -f $errMsg,$ex.GetType().FullName,$ex.Message
                        if( $ex -is [Runtime.InteropServices.COMException] )
                        {
                            $errMsg = '{0} HRESULT: {1:x}. (You can look up the meaning of HRESULT values at https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc704587.aspx.)' -f $errMsg,$ex.ErrorCode
                        }
                    }
                    Write-Error -Message $errMsg
                    return
                }


            }
    }

    end 
    {
    }
}



function Get-CMsmqMessageQueue
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets the MSMQ message queue by the given name

    .DESCRIPTION 
    Returns a [MessageQueue](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.messaging.messagequeue.aspx) object for the Message Queue with name `Name`.  If one doesn't exist, returns `$null`.

    Because MSMQ handles private queues differently than public queues, you must explicitly tell `Get-CMsmqMessageQueue` the queue you want to get is private by using the `Private` switch.

    .OUTPUTS
    System.Messaging.MessageQueue.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CMsmqMessageQueue -Name LunchQueue

    Returns the [MessageQueue](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.messaging.messagequeue.aspx) object for the queue named LunchQueue.  It's probably pretty full!

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CMsmqMessageQueue -Name TeacherLunchQueue -Private

    Returns the [MessageQueue](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.messaging.messagequeue.aspx) object for the teacher's private LunchQueue.  They must be medical professors.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the queue to get.
        $Name,
        
        [Switch]
        # Is the queue private?
        $Private
    )
   
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $privateArg = @{ Private = $Private }
    
    if( Test-CMsmqMessageQueue -Name $Name @privateArg )
    {
        $path = Get-CMsmqMessageQueuePath -Name $Name @privateArg 
        New-Object -TypeName Messaging.MessageQueue -ArgumentList ($path)
    }
    else
    {
        return $null
    }
}




function Get-CMsmqMessageQueuePath
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets the path to an MSMQ message queue.

    .DESCRIPTION
    The MSMQ APIs expect paths when identifying a queue.  This function converts a queue name into its path so that logic isn't spread across all your scripts.  

    Private queue paths are constructed differently.  If you need to get the path to a private MSMQ, use the `Private` switch.

    .OUTPUTS
    System.String.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CMsmqMessageQueuePath -Name MovieQueue

    Returns the path to the `MovieQueue` queue.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CMsmqMessageQueuePath -Name MovieQueue -Private

    Returns the path to the private `MovieQueue`.  Must be for the critics.  Early access for the win!
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The queue's name.  
        $Name,
        
        [Switch]
        # Is the queue private?
        $Private
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $path = ".\$Name"
    if( $Private )
    {
        $path = ".\private`$\$Name"
    }
    return $path
}




function Get-CPathProvider
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Returns a path's PowerShell provider.

    .DESCRIPTION
    When you want to do something with a path that depends on its provider, use this function.  The path doesn't have to exist.

    If you pass in a relative path, it is resolved relative to the current directory.  So make sure you're in the right place.

    .OUTPUTS
    System.Management.Automation.ProviderInfo.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CPathProvider -Path 'C:\Windows'

    Demonstrates how to get the path provider for an NTFS path.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The path whose provider to get.
        $Path
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $pathQualifier = Split-Path -Qualifier $Path -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue
    if( -not $pathQualifier )
    {
        $Path = Join-Path -Path (Get-Location) -ChildPath $Path
        $pathQualifier = Split-Path -Qualifier $Path -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue
        if( -not $pathQualifier )
        {
            Write-Error "Qualifier for path '$Path' not found."
            return
        }
    }

    $pathQualifier = $pathQualifier.Trim(':')
    $drive = Get-PSDrive -Name $pathQualifier -ErrorAction Ignore
    if( -not $drive )
    {
        $drive = Get-PSDrive -PSProvider $pathQualifier -ErrorAction Ignore
    }

    if( -not $drive )
    {
        Write-Error -Message ('Unable to determine the provider for path {0}.' -f $Path)
        return
    }

    $drive  |
        Select-Object -First 1 |
        Select-Object -ExpandProperty 'Provider'

}



function Get-CPathToHostsFile
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets the path to this computer's hosts file.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    This is a convenience method so you don't have to have the path to the hosts file hard-coded in your scripts.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CPathToHostsFile
    
    Returns `C:\Windows\system32\drivers\etc\hosts`.  Uses the environment variable to find the root to the Windows directory.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    return Join-Path $env:windir system32\drivers\etc\hosts
}




function Get-CPerformanceCounter
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets the performance counters for a category.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Returns `PerformanceCounterCategory` objects for the given category name.  If not counters exist for the category exits, an empty array is returned.

    .OUTPUTS
    System.Diagnostics.PerformanceCounterCategory.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CPerformanceCounter -CategoryName Processor

    Gets all the `Processor` performance counters.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The category's name whose performance counters will be returned.
        $CategoryName
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( (Test-CPerformanceCounterCategory -CategoryName $CategoryName) )
    {
        $category = New-Object Diagnostics.PerformanceCounterCategory $CategoryName
        return $category.GetCounters("")
    }
}

Set-Alias -Name 'Get-PerformanceCounters' -Value 'Get-CPerformanceCounter'




function Get-CPermission
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets the permissions (access control rules) for a file, directory, registry key, or certificate's private key/key container.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    Permissions for a specific identity can also be returned.  Access control entries are for a path's discretionary access control list.
    
    To return inherited permissions, use the `Inherited` switch.  Otherwise, only non-inherited (i.e. explicit) permissions are returned.

    Certificate permissions are only returned if a certificate has a private key/key container. If a certificate doesn't have a private key, `$null` is returned. 
    
    .OUTPUTS
    System.Security.AccessControl.AccessRule.
    
    .LINK
    Carbon_Permission

    .LINK
    Disable-CAclInheritance

    .LINK
    Enable-CAclInheritance

    .LINK
    Get-CPermission

    .LINK
    Grant-CPermission

    .LINK
    Revoke-CPermission

    .LINK
    Test-CPermission

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CPermission -Path 'C:\Windows'
    
    Returns `System.Security.AccessControl.FileSystemAccessRule` objects for all the non-inherited rules on `C:\windows`.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CPermission -Path 'hklm:\Software' -Inherited
    
    Returns `System.Security.AccessControl.RegistryAccessRule` objects for all the inherited and non-inherited rules on `hklm:\software`.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CPermission -Path 'C:\Windows' -Idenity Administrators
    
    Returns `System.Security.AccessControl.FileSystemAccessRule` objects for all the `Administrators'` rules on `C:\windows`.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CPermission -Path 'Cert:\LocalMachine\1234567890ABCDEF1234567890ABCDEF12345678'

    Returns `System.Security.AccessControl.CryptoKeyAccesRule` objects for certificate's `Cert:\LocalMachine\1234567890ABCDEF1234567890ABCDEF12345678` private key/key container. If it doesn't have a private key, `$null` is returned.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    [OutputType([System.Security.AccessControl.AccessRule])]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The path whose permissions (i.e. access control rules) to return. File system, registry, or certificate paths supported. Wildcards supported.
        $Path,
        
        [string]
        # The identity whose permissiosn (i.e. access control rules) to return.
        $Identity,
        
        [Switch]
        # Return inherited permissions in addition to explicit permissions.
        $Inherited
    )
   
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $account = $null
    if( $Identity )
    {
        $account = Test-CIdentity -Name $Identity -PassThru
        if( $account )
        {
            $Identity = $account.FullName
        }
    }

    if( -not (Test-Path -Path $Path) )
    {
        Write-Error ('Path ''{0}'' not found.' -f $Path)
        return
    }
    
    Invoke-Command -ScriptBlock {
        Get-Item -Path $Path -Force |
            ForEach-Object { 
                if( $_.PSProvider.Name -eq 'Certificate' )
                {
                    if( $_.HasPrivateKey -and $_.PrivateKey )
                    {
                        $_.PrivateKey.CspKeyContainerInfo.CryptoKeySecurity
                    }
                }
                else
                {
                    $_.GetAccessControl([Security.AccessControl.AccessControlSections]::Access)
                }
            }
        } |
        Select-Object -ExpandProperty Access |
        Where-Object { 
            if( $Inherited )
            {
                return $true 
            }
            return (-not $_.IsInherited)
        } |
        Where-Object {
            if( $Identity )
            {
                return ($_.IdentityReference.Value -eq $Identity)
            }
            
            return $true
        }    
}

Set-Alias -Name 'Get-Permissions' -Value 'Get-CPermission'




function Get-CPowerShellModuleInstallPath
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Returns the path to the directory where you can install custom modules.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Custom modules should be installed under the `Program Files` directory. This function looks at the `PSModulePath` environment variable to find the install location under `Program Files`. If that path isn't part of the `PSModulePath` environment variable, returns the module path under `$PSHOME`. If that isn't part of the `PSModulePath` environment variable, an error is written and nothing is returned.

    `Get-CPowerShellModuleInstallPath` is new in Carbon 2.0.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CPowerShellModuleInstallPath

    Demonstrates how to get the path where modules should be installed.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    [OutputType([string])]
    param(
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $modulePaths = $env:PSModulePath -split ';'

    $programFileModulePath = Join-Path -Path $env:ProgramFiles -ChildPath 'WindowsPowerShell\Modules'
    if( (Test-Path -Path 'Env:\ProgramW6432') )
    {
        $programFileModulePath = Join-Path -Path $env:ProgramW6432 -ChildPath 'WindowsPowerShell\Modules'
    }

    $installRoot = $modulePaths | 
                        Where-Object { $_.TrimEnd('\') -eq $programFileModulePath } |
                        Select-Object -First 1
    if( $installRoot )
    {
        return $programFileModulePath
    }

    $psHomeModulePath = Join-Path -Path $env:SystemRoot -ChildPath 'system32\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0\Modules'

    $installRoot = $modulePaths | 
                        Where-Object { $_.TrimEnd('\') -eq $psHomeModulePath } |
                        Select-Object -First 1
    if( $installRoot )
    {
        return $psHomeModulePath
    }

    Write-Error -Message ('PSModulePaths ''{0}'' and ''{1}'' not found in the PSModulePath environment variable.' -f $programFileModulePath,$psHomeModulePath)
}



function Get-CPowershellPath
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets the path to powershell.exe.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Returns the path to the powershell.exe binary for the machine's default architecture (i.e. x86 or x64).  If you're on a x64 machine and want to get the path to x86 PowerShell, set the `x86` switch.
    
    Here are the possible combinations of operating system, PowerShell, and desired path architectures, and the path they map to.
    
        +-----+-----+------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
        | OS  | PS  | Path | Result                                                       |
        +-----+-----+------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
        | x64 | x64 | x64  | $env:windir\System32\Windows PowerShell\v1.0\powershell.exe  |
        | x64 | x64 | x86  | $env:windir\SysWOW64\Windows PowerShell\v1.0\powershell.exe  |
        | x64 | x86 | x64  | $env:windir\sysnative\Windows PowerShell\v1.0\powershell.exe |
        | x64 | x86 | x86  | $env:windir\SysWOW64\Windows PowerShell\v1.0\powershell.exe  |
        | x86 | x86 | x64  | $env:windir\System32\Windows PowerShell\v1.0\powershell.exe  |
        | x86 | x86 | x86  | $env:windir\System32\Windows PowerShell\v1.0\powershell.exe  |
        +-----+-----+------+--------------------------------------------------------------+
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CPowerShellPath

    Returns the path to the version of PowerShell that matches the computer's architecture (i.e. x86 or x64).

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CPowerShellPath -x86

    Returns the path to the x86 version of PowerShell.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Switch]
        # Gets the path to 32-bit PowerShell.
        $x86
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $psPath = $PSHOME
    if( Test-COSIs64Bit )
    {
        if( Test-CPowerShellIs64Bit )
        {
            if( $x86 )
            {
                # x64 OS, x64 PS, want x86 path
                $psPath = $PSHOME -replace 'System32','SysWOW64'
            }
        }
        else
        {
            if( -not $x86 )
            {
                # x64 OS, x32 PS, want x64 path
                $psPath = $PSHome -replace 'SysWOW64','sysnative'
            }
        }
    }
    else
    {
        # x86 OS, no SysWOW64, everything is in $PSHOME
        $psPath = $PSHOME
    }
    
    Join-Path $psPath powershell.exe
}




function Get-CPrincipal
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    INTERNAL.

    .DESCRIPTION
    INTERNAL.

    .EXAMPLE
    INTERNAL.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory)]
        # The principal to search for.
        [DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.Principal]$Principal,

        [Parameter(Mandatory)]
        [scriptblock]$Filter
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -SessionState $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    
    $principalTypeName = 'principal'
    if( $Principal -is [DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.UserPrincipal] )
    {
        $principalTypeName = 'user'
    }
    elseif( $Principal -is [DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.GroupPrincipal] )
    {
        $principalTypeName = 'group'
    }
    
    Write-Timing 'Get-CPrincipal'
    Write-Timing ('                {0}' -f $principalTypeName)

    $searcher = New-Object 'DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.PrincipalSearcher' $Principal
    try
    {
        $principals = @()

        $maxTries = 100
        $tryNum = 0
        while( $tryNum++ -lt $maxTries )
        {
            $numErrorsBefore = $Global:Error.Count
            try
            {
                Write-Timing ('                [{0,3} of {1}]  FindAll()  Begin' -f $tryNum,$maxTries)
                $principals = 
                    $searcher.FindAll() |
                    Where-Object -FilterScript $Filter
                Write-Timing ('                              FindAll()  End')
                break
            }
            catch
            {
                Write-Timing ('                              FindAll()  Failed')
                $_ | Out-String | Write-Debug 

                $lastTry = $tryNum -ge $maxTries
                if( $lastTry )
                {
                    Write-Error -Message ('We tried {0} times to read {1} information, but kept getting exceptions. We''ve given up. Here''s the last error we got: {2}.' -f $maxTries,$principalTypeName,$_) -ErrorAction $ErrorActionPreference
                    return
                }

                $numErrors = $Global:Error.Count - $numErrorsBefore
                for( $idx = 0; $idx -lt $numErrors; ++$idx )
                {
                    $Global:Error.RemoveAt(0)
                }

                Start-Sleep -Milliseconds 100
            }
        }
        return $principals
    }
    finally
    {
        $searcher.Dispose()
        Write-Timing ('Get-CPrincipal')
    }
}


function Get-CPrivilege
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets an identity's privileges.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    These privileges are usually managed by Group Policy and control the system operations and types of logons a user/group can perform.
    
    Note: if a computer is not on a domain, this function won't work.
    
    .OUTPUTS
    System.String
    
    .LINK
    Carbon_Privilege

    .LINK
    Grant-CPrivilege
    
    .LINK
    Revoke-Prvileges
    
    .LINK
    Test-CPrivilege
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CPrivilege -Identity TheBeast
    
    Gets `TheBeast`'s privileges as an array of strings.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The identity whose privileges to return.
        $Identity
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    [Carbon.Security.Privilege]::GetPrivileges( $Identity )
}

Set-Alias -Name 'Get-Privileges' -Value 'Get-CPrivilege'




function Get-CProgramInstallInfo
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets information about the programs installed on the computer.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Get-CProgramInstallInfo` function is the PowerShell equivalent of the Programs and Features UI in the Control Panel. It inspects the registry to determine what programs are installed. It will return programs installed for *all* users, not just the current user. 
    
    `Get-CProgramInstallInfo` tries its best to get accurate data. The following properties either isn't stored consistently, is in strange formats, can't be parsed, etc.

     * The `ProductCode` property is set to `[Guid]::Empty` if the software doesn't have a product code.
     * The `User` property will only be set for software installed for specific users. For global software, the `User` property will be `[String]::Empty`.
     * The `InstallDate` property is set to `[DateTime]::MinValue` if the install date can't be determined.
     * The `Version` property is `$null` if the version can't be parsed

    .OUTPUTS
    Carbon.Computer.ProgramInstallInfo.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CProgramInstallInfo

    Demonstrates how to get a list of all the installed programs, similar to what the Programs and Features UI shows.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CProgramInstallInfo -Name 'Google Chrome'

    Demonstrates how to get a specific program. If the specific program isn't found, `$null` is returned.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CProgramInstallInfo -Name 'Microsoft*'

    Demonstrates how to use wildcards to search for multiple programs.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    [OutputType([Carbon.Computer.ProgramInstallInfo])]
    param(
        [string]
        # The name of a specific program to get. Wildcards supported.
        $Name
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( -not (Test-Path -Path 'hku:\') )
    {
        $null = New-PSDrive -Name 'HKU' -PSProvider Registry -Root 'HKEY_USERS'
    }

    ('HKLM:\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Uninstall','HKLM:\Software\Wow6432Node\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Uninstall','hku:\*\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Uninstall\*') |
        Where-Object { Test-Path -Path $_ -PathType Container } | 
        Get-ChildItem | 
        Where-Object { 
            $valueNames = $_.GetValueNames()

            [Microsoft.Win32.RegistryKey]$key = $_

            if( $valueNames -notcontains 'DisplayName' )
            {
                Write-Debug ('Skipping {0}: DisplayName not found.' -f $_.Name)
                return $false
            }

            $displayName = $_.GetValue( 'DisplayName' )

            if( $valueNames -contains 'ParentKeyName' )
            {
                Write-Debug ('Skipping {0} ({1}): found ParentKeyName property.' -f $displayName,$_.Name)
                return $false
            }

            if( $valueNames -contains 'SystemComponent' -and $_.GetValue( 'SystemComponent' ) -eq 1 )
            {
                Write-Debug ('Skipping {0} ({1}): SystemComponent property is 1.' -f $displayName,$_.Name)
                return $false
            }

            return $true
        } |
        Where-Object { 
                if( $Name ) 
                { 
                    return $_.GetValue('DisplayName') -like $Name 
                } 
                return $true
            } | 
        ForEach-Object { New-Object 'Carbon.Computer.ProgramInstallInfo' $_ }
}



function Get-CRegistryKeyValue
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets the value from a registry key.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    PowerShell's `Get-ItemProperty` cmdlet is a pain to use.  It doesn't actually return an object representing a registry key's value, but some other weird object that requires painful gyrations to get values from. This function returns just the value of a key.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CRegistryKeyValue -Path 'hklm:\Software\Carbon\Test' -Name 'Title'
    
    Returns the value of the 'hklm:\Software\Carbon\Test' key's `Title` value.  
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The path to the registry key where the value should be set.  Will be created if it doesn't exist.
        $Path,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the value being set.
        $Name
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( -not (Test-CRegistryKeyValue -Path $Path -Name $Name) )
    {
        return $null
    }
    
    $itemProperties = Get-ItemProperty -Path $Path -Name *
    $value = $itemProperties.$Name
    Write-Debug -Message ('[{0}@{1}: {2} -is {3}' -f $Path,$Name,$value,$value.GetType())
    return $value
}




function Get-CScheduledTask
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets the scheduled tasks for the current computer.

    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Get-CScheduledTask` function gets the scheduled tasks on the current computer. It returns `Carbon.TaskScheduler.TaskInfo` objects for each one.

    With no parameters, `Get-CScheduledTask` returns all scheduled tasks. To get a specific scheduled task, use the `Name` parameter, which must be the full name of the task, i.e. path plus name. The name parameter accepts wildcards. If a scheduled task with the given name isn't found, an error is written.

    By default, `Get-CScheduledTask` uses the `schtasks.exe` application to get scheduled task information. Beginning in Carbon 2.8.0, you can return `RegisteredTask` objects from the `Schedule.Service` COM API with the `AsComObject` switch. Using this switch is an order of magnitude faster. In the next major version of Carbon, this will become the default behavior.

    Before Carbon 2.7.0, this function has the same name as the built-in `Get-ScheduledTask` function that comes on Windows 2012/8 and later. It returns objects with the same properties, but if you want to use the built-in function, use the `ScheduledTasks` qualifier, e.g. `ScheduledTasks\Get-ScheduledTask`.

    .LINK
    Test-CScheduledTask

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CScheduledTask

    Demonstrates how to get all scheduled tasks.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CScheduledTask -Name 'AutoUpdateMyApp'

    Demonstrates how to get a specific task.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CScheduledTask -Name '*Microsoft*'

    Demonstrates how to get all tasks that match a wildcard pattern.

    .EXAMPLE
    ScheduledTasks\Get-CScheduledTask

    Demonstrates how to call the `Get-CScheduledTask` function in the `ScheduledTasks` module which ships on Windows 2012/8 and later.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    [OutputType([Carbon.TaskScheduler.TaskInfo])]
    param(
        [Parameter()]
        [Alias('TaskName')]
        [string]
        # The name of the scheduled task to return. Wildcards supported. This must be the *full task name*, i.e. the task's path/location and its name.
        $Name,

        [Switch]
        # Return the scheduled task as a [RegisteredTask Windows COM object](https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/desktop/taskschd/registeredtask), using the `Schedule.Service` COM API. This is faster and more reliable. See [Task Scheduler Reference](https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/desktop/taskschd/task-scheduler-reference) for more information.
        #
        # This parameter was introduced in Carbon 2.8.0.
        $AsComObject
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    function ConvertFrom-DurationSpec
    {
        param(
            $Duration
        )

        if( $Duration -match '^P((\d+)D)?T((\d+)H)?((\d+)M)?((\d+)S)?$' )
        {
            return New-Object 'TimeSpan' $Matches[2],$Matches[4],$Matches[6],$Matches[8]
        }
    }

    function ConvertFrom-RepetitionElement
    {
        param(
            [Xml.XmlElement]
            $TriggerElement
        )

        Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

        [Carbon.TaskScheduler.ScheduleType]$scheduleType = [Carbon.TaskScheduler.ScheduleType]::Unknown
        $interval = $null
        $modifier = $null
        $duration = $null
        $stopAtEnd = $false
        [TimeSpan]$delay = [TimeSpan]::Zero

        if( $TriggerElement.GetElementsByTagName('Repetition').Count -gt 0 )
        {
            $repetition = $TriggerElement.Repetition

            $interval = $repetition.Interval
            if( $interval -match 'PT(\d+)(.*)$' )
            {
                $modifier = $Matches[1]
                $unit = $Matches[2]

                $hour = 0
                $minute = 0
                $second = 0
                switch( $unit )
                {
                    'H' { $hour = $modifier }
                    'M' { $minute = $modifier }
                }

                $scheduleTypes = @{
                                        'H' = 'Hourly';
                                        'M' = 'Minute';
                                  }
                if( $scheduleTypes.ContainsKey( $unit ) )
                {
                    $scheduleType = $scheduleTypes[$unit]
                }
                $timespan = New-Object 'TimeSpan' $hour,$minute,$second
                switch( $scheduleType )
                {
                    'Hourly' { $modifier = $timespan.TotalHours }
                    'Minute' { $modifier = $timespan.TotalMinutes }
                }
            }
        
            if( $repetition | Get-Member -Name 'Duration' )
            {
                $duration = $repetition.Duration
                $durationAsTimeSpan = ConvertFrom-DurationSpec -Duration $repetition.Duration
                if( $durationAsTimeSpan -ne $null )
                {
                    $duration = $durationAsTimeSpan
                }
            }

            if( $repetition | Get-Member -Name 'StopAtDurationEnd' )
            {
                $stopAtEnd = ($repetition.StopAtDurationEnd -eq 'true')
            }
        }

        if( $TriggerElement | Get-Member -Name 'Delay' )
        {
            $delayAsTimeSpan = ConvertFrom-DurationSpec -Duration $TriggerElement.Delay
            if( $delayAsTimeSpan -ne $null )
            {
                $delay = $delayAsTimeSpan
            }
        }

        return $scheduleType,$modifier,$duration,$stopAtEnd,$delay
    }

    $optionalArgs = @()
    $wildcardSearch = $false
    if( $Name )
    {
        if( [Management.Automation.WildcardPattern]::ContainsWildcardCharacters($Name) )
        {
            $wildcardSearch = $true
        }
        else
        {
            $Name = Join-Path -Path '\' -ChildPath $Name
            $optionalArgs = @( '/tn', $Name )
        }
    }

    if( $AsComObject )
    {
        $taskScheduler = New-Object -ComObject 'Schedule.Service'
        $taskScheduler.Connect()


        function Get-Tasks
        {
            param(
                $Folder
            )
    
            $getHiddenTasks = 1
    
            $Folder.GetTasks($getHiddenTasks) | ForEach-Object { $_ }
    
            foreach( $subFolder in $Folder.GetFolders($getHiddenTasks) )
            {
                Get-Tasks -Folder $subFolder
            }
        }

        $tasks = Get-Tasks -Folder $taskScheduler.GetFolder("\") |
                    Where-Object { 
                        if( -not $Name )
                        {
                            return $true
                        }
                    
                        return $_.Path -like $Name
                    }

        if( -not $wildcardSearch -and -not $tasks )
        {
            Write-Error -Message ('Scheduled task "{0}" not found.' -f $Name) -ErrorAction $ErrorActionPreference
            return
        }

        return $tasks
    }

    $originalErrPreference = $ErrorActionPreference
    $originalEncoding = [Console]::OutputEncoding
    # Some tasks from Intel have special characters in them.
    $OutputEncoding = [Console]::OutputEncoding = [Text.Encoding]::GetEncoding(1252)
    $ErrorActionPreference = 'Continue'
    [object[]]$output = $null
    $errFile = Join-Path -Path $env:TEMP -ChildPath ('Carbon+Get-CScheduledTask+{0}' -f [IO.Path]::GetRandomFileName())
    try
    {
        $output = schtasks /query /v /fo csv $optionalArgs 2> $errFile | 
                    ConvertFrom-Csv | 
                    Where-Object { $_.HostName -ne 'HostName' } 
    }
    finally
    {
        $ErrorActionPreference = $originalErrPreference
        $OutputEncoding = [Console]::OutputEncoding = $originalEncoding
    }

    if( $LASTEXITCODE )
    {
        if( (Test-Path -Path $errFile -PathType Leaf) )
        {
            $error = (Get-Content -Path $errFile) -join ([Environment]::NewLine)
            try
            {
                if( $error -match 'The\ system\ cannot\ find\ the\ (file|path)\ specified\.' )
                {
                    Write-Error ('Scheduled task ''{0}'' not found.' -f $Name) -ErrorAction $ErrorActionPreference
                }
                else
                {
                    Write-Error ($error) -ErrorAction $ErrorActionPreference
                }
            }
            finally
            {
                Remove-Item -Path $errFile
            }
        }
        return
    }

    if( -not $output )
    {
        return
    }

    $comTasks = Get-CScheduledTask -AsComObject

    for( $idx = 0; $idx -lt $output.Count; ++$idx )
    {
        $csvTask = $output[$idx]

        $comTask = $comTasks | Where-Object { $_.Path -eq $csvTask.TaskName }
        if( $comTask )
        {
            $xmlDoc = [xml]$comTask.Xml
        }
        else
        {
            $xml = schtasks /query /tn $csvTask.TaskName /xml | Where-Object { $_ }
            $xml = $xml -join ([Environment]::NewLine)
            $xmlDoc = [xml]$xml            
        }

        $taskPath = Split-Path -Parent -Path $csvTask.TaskName
        # Get-CScheduledTask on Win2012/8 has a trailing slash so we include it here.
        if( $taskPath -ne '\' )
        {
            $taskPath = '{0}\' -f $taskPath
        }
        $taskName = Split-Path -Leaf -Path $csvTask.TaskName

        if( -not ($xmlDoc | Get-Member -Name 'Task') )
        {
            Write-Error -Message ('Unable to get information for scheduled task "{0}": XML task information is missing the "Task" element.' -f $csvTask.TaskName) -ErrorAction $ErrorActionPreference
            continue
        }

        $xmlTask = $xmlDoc.Task
        $principal = $xmlTask.Principals.Principal
        $isInteractive = $false
        $noPassword = $false
        if( $principal | Get-Member 'LogonType' )
        {
            $isInteractive = $principal.LogonType -eq 'InteractiveTokenOrPassword'
            $noPassword = $principal.LogonType -eq 'S4U'
        }

        $highestRunLevel = $false
        if( $principal | Get-Member 'RunLevel' )
        {
            $highestRunLevel = ($principal.RunLevel -eq 'HighestAvailable')
        }

        $createDate = [DateTime]::MinValue
        if( $xmlTask | Get-Member -Name 'RegistrationInfo' )
        {
            $regInfo = $xmlTask.RegistrationInfo 
            if( $regInfo | Get-Member -Name 'Date' )
            {
                $createDate = [datetime]$regInfo.Date
            }
        }

        $taskToRun = $csvTask.'Task To Run'
        if( ($xmlTask | Get-Member -Name 'Actions') -and $xmlTask.Actions.ChildNodes.Count -eq 1 )
        {
            $actions = $xmlTask.Actions
            if( ($actions | Get-Member -Name 'Exec') -and ($actions.Exec | Measure-Object | Select-Object -ExpandProperty 'Count') -eq 1)
            {
                $exec = $actions.Exec

                if( $exec | Get-Member -Name 'Command' )
                {
                    $taskToRun = $exec.Command
                }

                if( $exec | Get-Member -Name 'Arguments' )
                {
                    $taskToRun = '{0} {1}' -f $taskToRun,$exec.Arguments
                }
            }
        }

        $ctorArgs = @(
                        $csvTask.HostName,
                        $taskPath,
                        $taskName,
                        $csvTask.'Next Run Time',
                        $csvTask.Status,
                        $csvTask.'Logon Mode',
                        $csvTask.'Last Run Time',
                        $csvTask.Author,
                        $createDate,
                        $taskToRun,
                        $csvTask.'Start In',
                        $csvTask.Comment,
                        $csvTask.'Scheduled Task State',
                        $csvTask.'Idle Time',
                        $csvTask.'Power Management',
                        $csvTask.'Run As User',
                        $isInteractive,
                        $noPassword,
                        $highestRunLevel,
                        $csvTask.'Delete Task If Not Rescheduled'
                    )

        $task = New-Object -TypeName 'Carbon.TaskScheduler.TaskInfo' -ArgumentList $ctorArgs

        $scheduleIdx = 0
        while( $idx -lt $output.Count -and $output[$idx].TaskName -eq $csvTask.TaskName )
        {
            $csvTask = $output[$idx++]
            [Carbon.TaskScheduler.ScheduleType]$scheduleType = [Carbon.TaskScheduler.ScheduleType]::Unknown

            [int[]]$days = @()
            [int]$csvDay = 0
            if( [int]::TryParse($csvTask.Days, [ref]$csvDay) )
            {
                $days = @( $csvDay )
            }

            $duration = $csvTask.'Repeat: Until: Duration'
            [Carbon.TaskScheduler.Month[]]$months = @()
            $modifier = $null
            $stopAtEnd = $false
            [int]$interval = 0
            [TimeSpan]$endTime = [TimeSpan]::Zero
            [DayOfWeek[]]$daysOfWeek = @()
            [TimeSpan]$delay = [TimeSpan]::Zero
            [int]$idleTime = 0
            $eventChannelName = $null

            $triggers = $xmlTask.GetElementsByTagName('Triggers') | Select-Object -First 1
            if( -not $triggers -or $triggers.ChildNodes.Count -eq 0 )
            {
                $scheduleType = [Carbon.TaskScheduler.ScheduleType]::OnDemand
            }
            elseif( $triggers.ChildNodes.Count -gt 0 )
            {
                [Xml.XmlElement]$trigger = $triggers.ChildNodes.Item($scheduleIdx++)
                if( $trigger | Get-Member -Name 'EndBoundary' )
                {
                    $endDateTime = [datetime]$trigger.EndBoundary
                    $endTime = New-TimeSpan -Hours $endDateTime.Hour -Minutes $endDateTime.Minute -Seconds $endDateTime.Second
                }

                $scheduleType,$modifier,$duration,$stopAtEnd,$delay = ConvertFrom-RepetitionElement $trigger
                if( $trigger.Name -eq 'TimeTrigger' )
                {
                    $days = @( )
                    if( $csvTask.'Schedule Type' -eq 'One Time Only' )
                    {
                        $scheduleType = 'Once'
                        $interval = $modifier
                        $modifier = $null
                    }
                }
                elseif( $trigger.Name -eq 'LogonTrigger' )
                {
                    $scheduleType = 'OnLogon'
                    $interval = 0
                    $modifier = $null
                }
                elseif( $trigger.Name -eq 'BootTrigger' )
                {
                    $scheduleType = 'OnStart'
                    $interval = 0
                    $modifier = $null
                }
                elseif( $trigger.Name -eq 'IdleTrigger' )
                {
                    $scheduleType = 'OnIdle'
                    $interval = 0
                    $modifier = $null
                    $settingsNode = $xmlTask.Settings
                    if( $settingsNode | Get-Member 'IdleSettings' )
                    {
                        $idleSettingsNode = $settingsNode.IdleSettings
                        if( $idleSettingsNode | Get-Member 'Duration' )
                        {
                            $idleTimeAsTimeSpan = ConvertFrom-DurationSpec -Duration $xmlTask.Settings.IdleSettings.Duration
                            if( $idleTimeAsTimeSpan -ne $null )
                            {
                                $idleTime = $idleTimeAsTimeSpan.TotalMinutes
                            }
                        }
                    }
                }
                elseif( $trigger.Name -eq 'EventTrigger' )
                {
                    $scheduleType = 'OnEvent'
                    $subscription = [xml]$trigger.Subscription
                    $selectNode = $subscription.QueryList.Query.Select
                    $modifier = $selectNode.InnerText
                    $eventChannelName = $selectNode.GetAttribute('Path')
                }
                elseif( $trigger.Name -eq 'SessionStateChangeTrigger' )
                {
                    $scheduleType = [Carbon.TaskScheduler.ScheduleType]::SessionStateChange
                }
                elseif( $trigger.Name -eq 'RegistrationTrigger' )
                {
                    $scheduleType = [Carbon.TaskScheduler.ScheduleType]::Registration
                }
                elseif( $trigger.Name -eq 'CalendarTrigger' )
                {
                    if( $trigger.GetElementsByTagName('ScheduleByDay').Count -eq 1 )
                    {
                        $scheduleType = 'Daily'
                        $modifier = $trigger.ScheduleByDay.DaysInterval
                        $null,$interval,$null,$null = ConvertFrom-RepetitionElement $trigger
                    }
                    elseif( $trigger.GetElementsByTagName('ScheduleByWeek').Count -eq 1 )
                    {
                        $scheduleType = 'Weekly'
                        $interval = $modifier
                        $modifier = $trigger.ScheduleByWeek.WeeksInterval
                        $days = @( )
                        $daysOfWeek = $trigger.ScheduleByWeek.DaysOfWeek.ChildNodes | ForEach-Object { [DayOfWeek]$_.Name }
                    }
                    elseif( $trigger.GetElementsByTagName('ScheduleByMonth').Count -eq 1 )
                    {
                        $scheduleType = 'Monthly'
                        $monthsNode = $trigger.ScheduleByMonth.Months
                        $daysOfMonth = $trigger.ScheduleByMonth.DaysOfMonth.ChildNodes | ForEach-Object { $_.InnerText }
                        if( $daysOfMonth -eq 'Last' )
                        {
                            $interval = $modifier
                            $modifier = 'LastDay'
                            $days = @()
                        }
                        else
                        {
                            $days = $daysOfMonth | ForEach-Object { [int]$_ }
                            $interval = $modifier
                            # Monthly tasks.
                            if( $monthsNode.ChildNodes.Count -eq 12 )
                            {
                                $modifier = 1
                            }
                            else
                            {
                                # Non-monthly tasks.
                                $modifier = $null
                            }
                        }

                        [Carbon.TaskScheduler.Month[]]$months = $monthsNode.ChildNodes | ForEach-Object { ([Carbon.TaskScheduler.Month]$_.Name) }
                    }
                    elseif( $triggers.GetElementsByTagName('ScheduleByMonthDayOfWeek').Count -eq 1 )
                    {
                        $scheduleType = 'Monthly'
                        $interval = $modifier
                        $scheduleNode = $trigger.ScheduleByMonthDayOfWeek
                        $daysOfWeek = $scheduleNode.DaysOfWeek.ChildNodes | ForEach-Object { [DayOfWeek]$_.Name }
                        $months = $scheduleNode.Months.ChildNodes | ForEach-Object { ([Carbon.TaskScheduler.Month]$_.Name) }
                        switch( $scheduleNode.Weeks.Week )
                        {
                            1 { $modifier = 'First' }
                            2 { $modifier = 'Second' }
                            3 { $modifier = 'Third' }
                            4 { $modifier = 'Fourth' }
                            'Last' { $modifier = 'Last' }
                        }
                    }
                }
            }

            function ConvertFrom-SchtasksDate
            {
                param(
                    [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
                    [string]
                    $SchtasksDate,

                    [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
                    [DateTime]
                    $DefaultValue
                )

                Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

                [DateTime]$dateTime = $DefaultValue
                if( -not [DateTime]::TryParse( $SchtasksDate, [ref] $dateTime ) )
                {
                    return $DefaultValue
                }
                return New-Object 'DateTime' $dateTime.Year,$dateTime.Month,$dateTime.Day
            }

            function ConvertFrom-SchtasksTime
            {
                param(
                    [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
                    [string]
                    $SchtasksTime
                )

                Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

                [TimeSpan]$timespan = [TimeSpan]::Zero
                [DateTime]$dateTime = New-Object 'DateTime' 2015,11,6
                $schtasksTime = '{0} {1}' -f (Get-Date).ToString('d'),$SchtasksTime
                if( -not [DateTime]::TryParse( $SchtasksTime, [ref] $dateTime ) )
                {
                    return $timespan
                }

                return New-Object 'TimeSpan' $dateTime.Hour,$dateTime.Minute,$dateTime.Second
            }

            $startDate = ConvertFrom-SchtasksDate $csvTask.'Start Date' -DefaultValue ([DateTime]::MinValue)
            $startTime = ConvertFrom-SchtasksTime $csvTask.'Start Time'
            $endDate = ConvertFrom-SchtasksDate $csvTask.'End Date' -DefaultValue ([DateTime]::MaxValue)

            $scheduleCtorArgs = @(
                                    $csvTask.'Last Result',
                                    $csvTask.'Stop Task If Runs X Hours And X Mins',
                                    $scheduleType,
                                    $modifier,
                                    $interval,
                                    $startTime,
                                    $startDate,
                                    $endTime,
                                    $endDate,
                                    $daysOfWeek,
                                    $days,
                                    $months,
                                    $csvTask.'Repeat: Every',
                                    $csvTask.'Repeat: Until: Time',
                                    $duration,
                                    $csvTask.'Repeat: Stop If Still Running',
                                    $stopAtEnd,
                                    $delay,
                                    $idleTime,
                                    $eventChannelName
                                )

            $schedule = New-Object -TypeName 'Carbon.TaskScheduler.ScheduleInfo' -ArgumentList $scheduleCtorArgs 
            $task.Schedules.Add( $schedule )
        }
        --$idx;

        if( -not $wildcardSearch -or $task.FullName -like $Name )
        {
            $task
        }
    }

}



function Get-CServiceAcl
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets the discretionary access control list (i.e. DACL) for a service.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    You wanted it, you got it!  You probably want to use `Get-CServicePermission` instead.  If you want to chagne a service's permissions, use `Grant-CServicePermission` or `Revoke-ServicePermissions`.
    
    .LINK
    Get-CServicePermission
    
    .LINK
    Grant-CServicePermission
    
    .LINK
    Revoke-CServicePermission
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CServiceAcl -Name Hyperdrive
    
    Gets the `Hyperdrive` service's DACL.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The service whose DACL to return.
        $Name
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $rawSD = Get-CServiceSecurityDescriptor -Name $Name
    $rawDacl = $rawSD.DiscretionaryAcl
    New-Object Security.AccessControl.DiscretionaryAcl $false,$false,$rawDacl
}




function Get-CServiceConfiguration
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets a service's full configuration, e.g. username, path, failure actions, etc.

    .DESCRIPTION
    The .NET `ServiceController` object only returns basic information about a service. This function returns all the other service configuration as a `Carbon.Service.ServiceInfo` object, which has the following properties:
    
    * `DelayedAutoStart`: A boolean value indicating if the service starts automically delayed. This property was added in Carbon 2.5.
    * `Description`: The service's description.
    * `ErrorControl`: A `Carbon.Service.ErrorControl` value that indicates the severity of the error when the service fails to start.
    * `FailureProgram`: The program to run when the service fails.
    * `FirstFailure`: A `Carbon.Service.FailureAction` value indicating what will happen after the service's first failure.
    * `LoadOrderGroup`: The name of the load order group this service loads in.
    * `Name`: The name of the service.
    * `Path`: The path to the service executable (with arguments).
    * `RebootDelay`: The number of milliseconds after boot to wait before the service starts.
    * `RebootDelayMinutes`: `RebootDelay` expressed in minutes.
    * `ResetPeriod`: How often, in seconds, to reset the service's failure count to 0.
    * `ResetPeriodDays`: `ResetPeriod` expressed in number of days.
    * `RestartDelay`: The number of milliseconds to wait before restarting the service after it fails.
    * `RestartDelayMinutes`: `RestartDelay` expressed in minutes.
    * `RunCommandDelay`: The number of milliseconds to wait after a service fails before running the failure program.
    * `RunCommandDelayMinutes`: `RunCommandDelay` as expressed/converted in minutes.
    * `SecondFailure`: A `Carbon.Service.FailureAction` value indicating what will happen after the service's second failure.
    * `StartType`: A `Carbon.Service.StartType` value indicating how and when the service should be started.
    * `TagID`: The service's tag ID. This is the order the service will start in its load group.
    * `ThirdFailure`: A `Carbon.Service.FailureAction` value indicating what will happen after the service's third failure.
    * `UserName`: The name of the identity the service runs as.

    You can load a specific service using its name, or pipe in `ServiceController` objects.

    In addition to this function, Carbon also adds this information as extended type data properties onto the `ServiceController` class. To see it, 

        Get-Service | Get-Member

    The user running this function must have `QueryConfig`, `QueryStatus`, and `EnumerateDependents` permissions on the service. Use `Grant-CServicePermission` to grant these permissions.

    This function is new in Carbon 1.8.

    .LINK
    Grant-CServicePermission

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-Service | Get-CServiceConfiguration

    Demonstrates how you can pipe in a `ServiceController` object to load the service. This works for services on remote computers as well.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CServiceConfiguration -Name  'w3svc'

    Demonstrates how you can get a specific service's configuration.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CServiceConfiguration -Name 'w3svc' -ComputerName 'enterprise'

    Demonstrates how to get service configuration for a service on a remote computer.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    [OutputType([Carbon.Service.ServiceInfo])]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName=$true,Position=0)]
        [string]
        # The name of the service.
        $Name,

        [Parameter(ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName=$true)]
        [Alias('MachineName')]
        [string]
        # The name of the computer where the service lives.
        $ComputerName
    )

    begin
    {
        Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
        Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    }

    process
    {
        $optionalParams = @{ }
        if( $ComputerName )
        {
            $optionalParams['ComputerName'] = $ComputerName
        }

        if( -not (Get-Service -Name $Name @optionalParams -ErrorAction $ErrorActionPreference) )
        {
            return
        }

        New-Object 'Carbon.Service.ServiceInfo' $Name,$ComputerName
    }
}



function Get-CServicePermission
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets the permissions for a service.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    Uses the Win32 advapi32 API to query the permissions for a service.  Returns `Carbon.ServiceAccessRule` objects for each.  The two relavant properties on this object are
    
     * IdentityReference - The identity of the permission.
     * ServiceAccessRights - The permissions the user has.
     
    .OUTPUTS
    Carbon.Security.ServiceAccessRule.
    
    .LINK
    Grant-ServicePermissions
    
    .LINK
    Revoke-ServicePermissions
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CServicePermission -Name 'Hyperdrive'
    
    Gets the access rules for the `Hyperdrive` service.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CServicePermission -Name 'Hyperdrive' -Identity FALCON\HSolo
    
    Gets just Han's permissions to control the `Hyperdrive` service.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the service whose permissions to return.
        $Name,
        
        [string]
        # The specific identity whose permissions to get.
        $Identity
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $dacl = Get-CServiceAcl -Name $Name
    
    $account = $null
    if( $Identity )
    {
        $account = Resolve-CIdentity -Name $Identity
        if( -not $account )
        {
            return
        }
    }

    $dacl |
        ForEach-Object {
            $ace = $_
            
            $aceSid = $ace.SecurityIdentifier;
            if( $aceSid.IsValidTargetType([Security.Principal.NTAccount]) )
            {
                try
                {
                    $aceSid = $aceSid.Translate([Security.Principal.NTAccount])
                }
                catch [Security.Principal.IdentityNotMappedException]
                {
                    # user doesn't exist anymore.  So sad.
                }
            }

            if ($ace.AceType -eq [Security.AccessControl.AceType]::AccessAllowed)
            {
                $ruleType = [Security.AccessControl.AccessControlType]::Allow
            }
            elseif ($ace.AceType -eq [Security.AccessControl.AceType]::AccessDenied)
            {
                $ruleType = [Security.AccessControl.AccessControlType]::Deny
            }
            else
            {
                Write-Error ("Unsupported aceType {0}." -f $ace.AceType)
                return
            }
            New-Object Carbon.Security.ServiceAccessRule $aceSid,$ace.AccessMask,$ruleType            
        } |
        Where-Object { 
            if( $account )
            {
                return ($_.IdentityReference.Value -eq $account.FullName)
            }
            return $_
        }
}

Set-Alias -Name 'Get-ServicePermissions' -Value 'Get-CServicePermission'




function Get-CServiceSecurityDescriptor
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets the raw security descriptor for a service.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    You probably don't want to mess with the raw security descriptor.  Try `Get-CServicePermission` instead.  Much more useful.
    
    .OUTPUTS
    System.Security.AccessControl.RawSecurityDescriptor.
    
    .LINK
    Get-CServicePermission
    
    .LINK
    Grant-ServicePermissions
    
    .LINK
    Revoke-ServicePermissions
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CServiceSecurityDescriptor -Name 'Hyperdrive'
    
    Gets the hyperdrive service's raw security descriptor.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the service whose permissions to return.
        $Name
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $sdBytes = [Carbon.Service.ServiceSecurity]::GetServiceSecurityDescriptor($Name)
    New-Object Security.AccessControl.RawSecurityDescriptor $sdBytes,0
}




function Get-CSslCertificateBinding
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets the SSL certificate bindings on this computer.
   
    .DESCRIPTION
    Windows binds SSL certificates to an IP addresses/port combination.  This function gets all the SSL bindings on this computer, or a binding for a specific IP/port, or $null if one doesn't exist.  The bindings are returned as `Carbon.Certificates.SslCertificateBinding` objects.
    
    .OUTPUTS
    Carbon.Certificates.SslCertificateBinding.

    .EXAMPLE
    > Get-CSslCertificateBinding
    
    Gets all the SSL certificate bindings on the local computer.

    .EXAMPLE
    > Get-CSslCertificateBinding -IPAddress 42.37.80.47 -Port 443
   
    Gets the SSL certificate bound to 42.37.80.47, port 443.
   
    .EXAMPLE
    > Get-CSslCertificateBinding -Port 443
   
    Gets the default SSL certificate bound to ALL the computer's IP addresses on port 443.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    [OutputType([Carbon.Certificates.SslCertificateBinding])]
    param(
        [IPAddress]
        # The IP address whose certificate(s) to get.  Should be in the form IP:port. Optional.
        $IPAddress,
        
        [UInt16]
        # The port whose certificate(s) to get. Optional.
        $Port
    )
   
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    
    [Carbon.Certificates.SslCertificateBinding]::GetSslCertificateBindings() |
        Where-Object {
            if( $IPAddress )
            {
                $_.IPAddress -eq $IPAddress
            }
            else
            {
                return $true
            }
        } |
        Where-Object {
            if( $Port )
            {
                $_.Port -eq $Port
            }
            else
            {
                return $true
            }
        }
    
}

Set-Alias -Name 'Get-SslCertificateBindings' -Value 'Get-CSslCertificateBinding'



function Get-CTrustedHost
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Returns the current computer's trusted hosts list.

    .DESCRIPTION
    PowerShell stores its trusted hosts list as a comma-separated list of hostnames in the `WSMan` drive.  That's not very useful.  This function reads that list, splits it, and returns each item.

    .OUTPUTS
    System.String.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CTrustedHost

    If the trusted hosts lists contains `example.com`, `api.example.com`, and `docs.example.com`, returns the following:

        example.com
        api.example.com
        docs.example.com
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $trustedHosts = (Get-Item $TrustedHostsPath -Force).Value 
    if( $trustedHosts )
    {
        return $trustedHosts -split ','
    }
}

Set-Alias -Name 'Get-TrustedHosts' -Value 'Get-CTrustedHost'



function Get-CUser
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets *local* users.

    .DESCRIPTION
    `Get-CUser` gets all *local* users. Use the `UserName` parameter to get a specific user by its username.

    The objects returned by `Get-CUser` are instances of `System.DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.UserPrincipal`. These objects use external resources, which, if they are disposed of correctly, will cause memory leaks. When you're done using the objects returne by `Get-CUser`, call `Dispose()` on each one to clean up its external resources.

    `Get-CUser` is new in Carbon 2.0.

    .OUTPUTS
    System.DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.UserPrincipal.

    .LINK
    Install-CUser

    .LINK
    Test-CUser

    .LINK
    Uninstall-CUser

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CUser

    Demonstrates how to get all local users.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CUser -Username LSkywalker 

    Demonstrates how to get a specific user.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    [OutputType([System.DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.UserPrincipal])]
    param(
        [ValidateLength(1,20)]
        # The username for the user.
        [string]$UserName 
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    Write-Timing 'Get-CUser'
    
    Write-Timing ('           Creating searcher')
    $ctx = New-Object 'DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.PrincipalContext' ([DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.ContextType]::Machine)
    $query = New-Object 'DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.UserPrincipal' $ctx
    try
    {
        $users = Get-CPrincipal -Principal $query -Filter { 
            if( $UserName )
            {
                return $_.SamAccountName -eq $UserName
            }
            return $true
        }

        if( $UserName )
        {
            $usersCount = $users | Measure-Object | Select-Object -ExpandProperty 'Count'
            if( $usersCount -gt 1 )
            {
                Write-Error -Message ('Found {0} users with username "{1}".' -f $userCount,$UserName) -ErrorAction $ErrorActionPreference
            }
            if( $usersCount -eq 0 )
            {
                Write-Error -Message ('Local user "{0}" not found.' -f $Username) -ErrorAction $ErrorActionPreference
            }
        }

        return $users
    }
    finally
    {
        $query.Dispose()
        Write-Timing ('Get-CUser')
    }
}



# This function should only be available if the Windows PowerShell v3.0 Server Manager cmdlets aren't already installed.
if( -not (Get-Command -Name 'Get-WindowsFeature*' | Where-Object { $_.ModuleName -ne 'Carbon' }) )
{
    function Get-CWindowsFeature
    {
        <#
        .SYNOPSIS
        Gets a list of available Windows features, or details on a specific windows feature.
        
        .DESCRIPTION
        Different versions of Windows use different names for installing Windows features.  Use this function to get the list of functions for your operating system.
        
        With no arguments, will return a list of all Windows features.  You can use the `Name` parameter to return a specific feature or a list of features that match a wildcard.
        
        **This function is not available on Windows 8/2012.**
        
        .OUTPUTS
        PsObject.  A generic PsObject with properties DisplayName, Name, and Installed.
        
        .LINK
        Install-CWindowsFeature
        
        .LINK
        Test-CWindowsFeature
        
        .LINK
        Uninstall-CWindowsFeature
        
        .EXAMPLE
        Get-CWindowsFeature
        
        Returns a list of all available Windows features.
        
        .EXAMPLE
        Get-CWindowsFeature -Name MSMQ
        
        Returns the MSMQ feature.
        
        .EXAMPLE
        Get-CWindowsFeature -Name *msmq*
        
        Returns any Windows feature whose name matches the wildcard `*msmq*`.
        #>
        [CmdletBinding()]
        param(
            [Parameter()]
            [string]
            # The feature name to return.  Can be a wildcard.
            $Name
        )
        
        Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
        Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    
        Write-Warning -Message ('Get-CWindowsFeature is obsolete and will be removed in a future major version of Carbon.')

        if( -not (Assert-WindowsFeatureFunctionsSupported) )
        {
            return
        }
        
        if( $useOCSetup )
        {
            Get-WmiObject -Class Win32_OptionalFeature |
                Where-Object {
                    if( $Name )
                    {
                        return ($_.Name -like $Name)
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        return $true
                    }
                } |
                ForEach-Object {
                    $properties = @{
                        Installed = ($_.InstallState -eq 1);
                        Name = $_.Name;
                        DisplayName = $_.Caption;
                    }
                    New-Object PsObject -Property $properties
                }
        }
        elseif( $useServerManager )
        {
            servermanagercmd.exe -query | 
                Where-Object { 
                    if( $Name )
                    {
                        return ($_ -match ('\[{0}\]$' -f [Text.RegularExpressions.Regex]::Escape($Name)))
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        return $true
                    }
                } |
                Where-Object { $_ -match '\[(X| )\] ([^[]+) \[(.+)\]' } | 
                ForEach-Object { 
                    $properties = @{ 
                        Installed = ($matches[1] -eq 'X'); 
                        Name = $matches[3]
                        DisplayName = $matches[2]; 
                    }
                    New-Object PsObject -Property $properties
               }
        }
        else
        {
            Write-Error $supportNotFoundErrorMessage
        }        
    }

    Set-Alias -Name 'Get-WindowsFeature' -Value 'Get-CWindowsFeature'
}



function Get-CWmiLocalUserAccount
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets a WMI `Win32_UserAccount` object for a *local* user account.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Man, there are so many ways to get a user account in Windows.  This function uses WMI to get a local user account.  It returns a `Win32_UserAccount` object.  The username has to be less than 20 characters.  We don't remember why anymore, but it's probaly a restriction of WMI.  Or Windows.  Or both.

    You can do this with `Get-WmiObject`, but when you try to get a `Win32_UserAccount`, PowerShell reaches out to your domain and gets all the users it finds, even if you filter by name.  This is slow!  This function stops WMI from talking to your domain, so it is faster.

    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/aa394507(v=vs.85).aspx

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CWmiLocalUserAccount -Username Administrator

    Gets the local Administrator account as a `Win32_UserAccount` WMI object.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [ValidateLength(0,20)]
        [string]
        # The username of the local user to get.
        $Username
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    
    return Get-WmiObject Win32_UserAccount -Filter "Domain='$($env:ComputerName)' and Name='$Username'"
}




function Grant-CComPermission
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Grants COM access permissions.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    Calling this function is equivalent to opening Component Services (dcomcnfg), right-clicking `My Computer` under Component Services > Computers, choosing `Properties`, going to the `COM Security` tab, and modifying the permission after clicking the `Edit Limits...` or `Edit Default...` buttons under the `Access Permissions` section.
    
    You must set at least one of the `LocalAccess` or `RemoteAccess` switches.
    
    .OUTPUTS
    Carbon.Security.ComAccessRule.

    .LINK
    Get-CComPermission

    .LINK
    Revoke-CComPermission
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Grant-CComPermission -Access -Identity 'Users' -Allow -Default -Local
    
    Updates access permission default security to allow the local `Users` group local access permissions.

    .EXAMPLE
    Grant-CComPermission -LaunchAndActivation -Identity 'Users' -Limits -Deny -Local -Remote
    
    Updates access permission security limits to deny the local `Users` group local and remote access permissions.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]        
        $Identity,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='DefaultAccessPermissionAllow')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='MachineAccessRestrictionAllow')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='DefaultAccessPermissionDeny')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='MachineAccessRestrictionDeny')]
        [Switch]
        # Grants Access Permissions.
        $Access,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='DefaultLaunchPermissionAllow')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='MachineLaunchRestrictionAllow')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='DefaultLaunchPermissionDeny')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='MachineLaunchRestrictionDeny')]
        [Switch]
        # Grants Launch and Activation Permissions.
        $LaunchAndActivation,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='DefaultAccessPermissionAllow')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='DefaultLaunchPermissionAllow')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='DefaultAccessPermissionDeny')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='DefaultLaunchPermissionDeny')]
        [Switch]
        # Grants default security permissions.
        $Default,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='MachineAccessRestrictionAllow')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='MachineLaunchRestrictionAllow')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='MachineAccessRestrictionDeny')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='MachineLaunchRestrictionDeny')]
        [Switch]
        # Grants security limits permissions.
        $Limits,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='DefaultAccessPermissionAllow')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='MachineAccessRestrictionAllow')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='DefaultLaunchPermissionAllow')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='MachineLaunchRestrictionAllow')]
        [Switch]
        # If set, allows the given permissions.
        $Allow,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='DefaultAccessPermissionDeny')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='MachineAccessRestrictionDeny')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='DefaultLaunchPermissionDeny')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='MachineLaunchRestrictionDeny')]
        [Switch]
        # If set, denies the given permissions.
        $Deny,
                
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='DefaultAccessPermissionAllow')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='MachineAccessRestrictionAllow')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='DefaultAccessPermissionDeny')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='MachineAccessRestrictionDeny')]
        [Switch]
        # If set, grants local access permissions.  Only valid if `Access` switch is set.
        $Local,
        
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='DefaultAccessPermissionAllow')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='MachineAccessRestrictionAllow')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='DefaultAccessPermissionDeny')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='MachineAccessRestrictionDeny')]
        [Switch]
        # If set, grants remote access permissions.  Only valid if `Access` switch is set.
        $Remote,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='DefaultLaunchPermissionAllow')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='MachineLaunchRestrictionAllow')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='DefaultLaunchPermissionDeny')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='MachineLaunchRestrictionDeny')]
        [Switch]
        # If set, grants local launch permissions.  Only valid if `LaunchAndActivation` switch is set.
        $LocalLaunch,
        
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='DefaultLaunchPermissionAllow')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='MachineLaunchRestrictionAllow')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='DefaultLaunchPermissionDeny')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='MachineLaunchRestrictionDeny')]
        [Switch]
        # If set, grants remote launch permissions.  Only valid if `LaunchAndActivation` switch is set.
        $RemoteLaunch,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='DefaultLaunchPermissionAllow')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='MachineLaunchRestrictionAllow')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='DefaultLaunchPermissionDeny')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='MachineLaunchRestrictionDeny')]
        [Switch]
        # If set, grants local activation permissions.  Only valid if `LaunchAndActivation` switch is set.
        $LocalActivation,
        
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='DefaultLaunchPermissionAllow')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='MachineLaunchRestrictionAllow')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='DefaultLaunchPermissionDeny')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='MachineLaunchRestrictionDeny')]
        [Switch]
        # If set, grants remote activation permissions.  Only valid if `LaunchAndActivation` switch is set.
        $RemoteActivation,

        [Switch]
        # Return a `Carbon.Security.ComAccessRights` object for the permissions granted.
        $PassThru
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    
    $account = Resolve-CIdentity -Name $Identity -ErrorAction:$ErrorActionPreference
    if( -not $account )
    {
        return
    }

    $comArgs = @{ }
    if( $pscmdlet.ParameterSetName -like 'Default*' )
    {
        $typeDesc = 'default security permissions'
        $comArgs.Default = $true
    }
    else
    {
        $typeDesc = 'security limits'
        $comArgs.Limits = $true
    }
    
    if( $pscmdlet.ParameterSetName -like '*Access*' )
    {
        $permissionsDesc = 'Access'
        $comArgs.Access = $true
    }
    else
    {
        $permissionsDesc = 'Launch and Activation'
        $comArgs.LaunchAndActivation = $true
    }
    
    $currentSD = Get-CComSecurityDescriptor @comArgs -ErrorAction:$ErrorActionPreference

    $newSd = ([wmiclass]'win32_securitydescriptor').CreateInstance()
    $newSd.ControlFlags = $currentSD.ControlFlags
    $newSd.Group = $currentSD.Group
    $newSd.Owner = $currentSD.Owner

    $trustee = ([wmiclass]'win32_trustee').CreateInstance()
    $trustee.SIDString = $account.Sid.Value

    $ace = ([wmiclass]'win32_ace').CreateInstance()
    $accessMask = [Carbon.Security.ComAccessRights]::Execute
    if( $Local -or $LocalLaunch )
    {
        $accessMask = $accessMask -bor [Carbon.Security.ComAccessRights]::ExecuteLocal
    }
    if( $Remote -or $RemoteLaunch )
    {
        $accessMask = $accessMask -bor [Carbon.Security.ComAccessRights]::ExecuteRemote
    }
    if( $LocalActivation )
    {
        $accessMask = $accessMask -bor [Carbon.Security.ComAccessRights]::ActivateLocal
    }
    if( $RemoteActivation )
    {
        $accessMask = $accessMask -bor [Carbon.Security.ComAccessRights]::ActivateRemote
    }
    
    Write-Verbose ("Granting {0} {1} COM {2} {3}." -f $Identity,([Carbon.Security.ComAccessRights]$accessMask),$permissionsDesc,$typeDesc)

    $ace.AccessMask = $accessMask
    $ace.Trustee = $trustee

    # Remove DACL for this user, if it exists, so we can replace it.
    $newDacl = $currentSD.DACL | 
                    Where-Object { $_.Trustee.SIDString -ne $trustee.SIDString } | 
                    ForEach-Object { $_.PsObject.BaseObject }
    $newDacl += $ace.PsObject.BaseObject
    $newSd.DACL = $newDacl

    $converter = New-Object Management.ManagementClass 'Win32_SecurityDescriptorHelper'
    $sdBytes = $converter.Win32SDToBinarySD( $newSd )

    $regValueName = $pscmdlet.ParameterSetName -replace '(Allow|Deny)$',''
    Set-CRegistryKeyValue -Path $ComRegKeyPath -Name $regValueName -Binary $sdBytes.BinarySD -ErrorAction:$ErrorActionPreference
    
    if( $PassThru )
    {
        Get-CComPermission -Identity $Identity @comArgs -ErrorAction:$ErrorActionPreference
    }
}

Set-Alias -Name 'Grant-ComPermissions' -Value 'Grant-CComPermission'



function Grant-CHttpUrlPermission
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Grant a principal permission to bind to an HTTP URL.

    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Grant-CHttpUrlPermission` functions uses the HTTP Server API to grant a user permission to bind to an HTTP URL.

    [The HTTP Server API](https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa364510.aspx)

    > enables applications to communicate over HTTP without using Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS). Applications can register to receive HTTP requests for particular URLs, receive HTTP requests, and send HTTP responses.

    An application that uses the HTTP Server API must register all URLs it listens (i.e. binds, registers) to. A user can have three permissions: 
    
     * `Listen`, which allows the user to bind to the `$Url` url
     * `Delegate`, which allows the user to "reserve (delegate) a subtree of this URL for another user" (whatever that means)

    If the user already has the desired permissions, nothing happens. If the user has any permissions not specified by the `Permission` parameter, they are removed (i.e. if the user currently has delegate permission, but you don't pass that permission in, it will be removed).

    This command replaces the `netsh http (add|delete) urlacl` command.

    `Grant-CHttpUrlPermission` was introduced in Carbon 2.1.0.

    .LINK
    https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa364653.aspx

    .LINK
    Get-CHttpUrlAcl

    .LINK
    Revoke-CHttpUrlPermission

    .EXAMPLE
    Grant-CHttpUrlPermission -Url 'http://+:4833' -Principal 'FALCON\HSolo' -Permission [Carbon.Security.HttpUrlAccessRights]::Listen

    Demonstrates how to grant a user permission to listen to (i.e. "bind" or "register") an HTTP URL. In this case user `FALCON\HSolo` can listen to `http://+:4833`.

    .EXAMPLE
    Grant-CHttpUrlPermission -Url 'http://+:4833' -Principal 'FALCON\HSolo' -Permission [Carbon.Security.HttpUrlAccessRights]::Delegate

    Demonstrates how to grant a user permission to delegate an HTTP URL, but not the ability to bind to that URL. In this case user `FALCON\HSolo` can delegate `http://+:4833`, but can't bind to it.

    .EXAMPLE
    Grant-CHttpUrlPermission -Url 'http://+:4833' -Principal 'FALCON\HSolo' -Permission [Carbon.Security.HttpUrlAccessRights]::ListenAndDelegate

    Demonstrates how to grant a user permission to listen (i.e "bind" or "register") to *and* delegate an HTTP URL. In this case user `FALCON\HSolo` can listen to and delegate `http://+:4833`.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The URL.
        $Url,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [Alias('Identity')]
        [string]
        # The user receiving the permission.
        $Principal,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [Carbon.Security.HttpUrlAccessRights]
        # The permission(s) to grant the user. There are two permissions:
        #
        #  * `Listen`, which allows the user to bind to the `$Url` url
        #  * `Delegate`, which allows the user to "reserve (delegate) a subtree of this URL for another user" (whatever that means)
        #  * `ListenAndDelegate`, which grants both `Listen` and `Delegate` permissions
        $Permission
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( -not $Url.EndsWith("/") )
    {
        $Url = '{0}/' -f $Url
    }

    $acl = Get-CHttpUrlAcl -LiteralUrl $Url -ErrorAction Ignore
    if( -not $acl )
    {
        $acl = New-Object 'Carbon.Security.HttpUrlSecurity' $Url
    }

    $id = Resolve-CIdentity -Name $Principal
    if( -not $id )
    {
        return
    }

    $currentRule = $acl.Access | Where-Object { $_.IdentityReference -eq $id.FullName }
    $currentRights = ''
    if( $currentRule )
    {
        if( $currentRule.HttpUrlAccessRights -eq $Permission )
        {
            return
        }
        $currentRights = $currentRule.HttpUrlAccessRights
    }

    Write-Verbose -Message ('[{0}]  [{1}]  {2} -> {3}' -f $Url,$id.FullName,$currentRights,$Permission)
    $rule = New-Object 'Carbon.Security.HttpUrlAccessRule' $id.Sid,$Permission
    $modifiedRule = $null
    $acl.ModifyAccessRule( ([Security.AccessControl.AccessControlModification]::RemoveAll), $rule, [ref]$modifiedRule )
    $acl.SetAccessRule( $rule )
}



function Grant-CMsmqMessageQueuePermission
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Grants a user permissions on an MSMQ message queue.

    .DESCRIPTION
    If you want users to be able to access your queue, you need to grant them access.  This function will do that.

    The rights you can assign are specified using values from the [MessageQueueAccessRights enumeration](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.messaging.messagequeueaccessrights.aspx).  

    If your queue is private, make sure you set the `Private` switch.

    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.messaging.messagequeueaccessrights.aspx

    .EXAMPLE
    Grant-CMsmqMessageQueuePermission -Name MovieQueue -Username REGAL\Employees -AccessRights FullControl

    Grants Regal Cinema employees full control over the MovieQueue.

    .EXAMPLE
    Grant-CMsmqMessageQueuePermission -Name MovieQueue -Private -Username REGAL\Critics -AccessRights WriteMessage    

    Grants all of Regal's approved movie critics permission to write to the private critic's `MovieQueue`.  Lucky!
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The queue name.
        $Name,
        
        [Switch]
        # Is the queue private?
        $Private,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The user to grant permissions to.
        $Username,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [Messaging.MessageQueueAccessRights[]]
        # The rights to grant the user.
        $AccessRights
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    
    $queueArgs = @{ Name = $Name ; Private = $Private }
    $queue = Get-CMsmqMessageQueue @queueArgs
    if( -not $queue )
    {
        Write-Error "MSMQ queue '$Name' not found."
        return
    }
    
    if( $PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess( ('MSMQ queue ''{0}''' -f $Name), ("granting '{0}' rights to '{1}'" -f $AccessRights,$Username) ) )
    {
        $queue.SetPermissions( $Username, $AccessRights )
    }
}

Set-Alias -Name 'Grant-MsmqMessageQueuePermissions' -Value 'Grant-CMsmqMessageQueuePermission'




function Grant-CPermission
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Grants permission on a file, directory, registry key, or certificate's private key/key container.

    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Grant-CPermission` functions grants permissions to files, directories, registry keys, and certificate private key/key containers. It detects what you are setting permissions on by inspecting the path of the item. If the path is relative, it uses the current location to determine if file system, registry, or private keys permissions should be set.
    
    The `Permissions` attribute should be a list of [FileSystemRights](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.security.accesscontrol.filesystemrights.aspx), [RegistryRights](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.security.accesscontrol.registryrights.aspx), or [CryptoKeyRights](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.security.accesscontrol.cryptokeyrights.aspx), for files/directories, registry keys, and certificate private keys, respectively. These commands will show you the values for the appropriate permissions for your object:

        [Enum]::GetValues([Security.AccessControl.FileSystemRights])
        [Enum]::GetValues([Security.AccessControl.RegistryRights])
        [Enum]::GetValues([Security.AccessControl.CryptoKeyRights])

    Beginning with Carbon 2.0, permissions are only granted if they don't exist on an item (inherited permissions are ignored).  If you always want to grant permissions, use the `Force` switch.  

    Before Carbon 2.0, this function returned any new/updated access rules set on `Path`. In Carbon 2.0 and later, use the `PassThru` switch to get an access rule object back (you'll always get one regardless if the permissions changed or not).

    By default, permissions allowing access are granted. Beginning in Carbon 2.3.0, you can grant permissions denying access by passing `Deny` as the value of the `Type` parameter.

    Beginning in Carbon 2.7, you can append/add rules instead or replacing existing rules on files, directories, or registry items with the `Append` switch. 

    ## Directories and Registry Keys

    When setting permissions on a container (directory/registry key) you can control inheritance and propagation flags using the `ApplyTo` parameter. This parameter is designed to hide the complexities of the Windows' inheritance and propagation flags. There are 13 possible combinations.

    Given this tree

            C
           / \
          CC CL
         /  \
        GC  GL

    where
    
     * C is the **C**ontainer permissions are getting set on  
     * CC is a **C**hild **C**ontainer  
     * CL is a **C**hild **L**eaf  
     * GC is a **G**randchild **C**ontainer and includes all sub-containers below it  
     * GL is a **G**randchild **L**eaf  
    
    The `ApplyTo` parameter takes one of the following 13 values and applies permissions to:
    
     * **Container** - The container itself and nothing below it.
     * **SubContainers** - All sub-containers under the container, e.g. CC and GC. 
     * **Leaves** - All leaves under the container, e.g. CL and GL.
     * **ChildContainers** - Just the container's child containers, e.g. CC.
     * **ChildLeaves** - Just the container's child leaves, e.g. CL.
     * **ContainerAndSubContainers** - The container and all its sub-containers, e.g. C, CC, and GC.
     * **ContainerAndLeaves** - The container and all leaves under it, e.g. C and CL.
     * **SubContainerAndLeaves** - All sub-containers and leaves, but not the container itself, e.g. CC, CL, GC, and GL.
     * **ContainerAndChildContainers** - The container and all just its child containers, e.g. C and CC.
     * **ContainerAndChildLeaves** - The container and just its child leaves, e.g. C and CL.
     * **ContainerAndChildContainersAndChildLeaves** - The container and just its child containers/leaves, e.g. C, CC, and CL.
     * **ContainerAndSubContainersAndLeaves** - Everything, full inheritance/propogation, e.g. C, CC, GC, GL.  **This is the default.**
     * **ChildContainersAndChildLeaves**  - Just the container's child containers/leaves, e.g. CC and CL.

    The following table maps `ContainerInheritanceFlags` values to the actual `InheritanceFlags` and `PropagationFlags` values used:
         
        ContainerInheritanceFlags                   InheritanceFlags                 PropagationFlags
        -------------------------                   ----------------                 ----------------
        Container                                   None                             None
        SubContainers                               ContainerInherit                 InheritOnly
        Leaves                                      ObjectInherit                    InheritOnly
        ChildContainers                             ContainerInherit                 InheritOnly,
                                                                                     NoPropagateInherit
        ChildLeaves                                 ObjectInherit                    InheritOnly
        ContainerAndSubContainers                   ContainerInherit                 None
        ContainerAndLeaves                          ObjectInherit                    None
        SubContainerAndLeaves                       ContainerInherit,ObjectInherit   InheritOnly
        ContainerAndChildContainers                 ContainerInherit                 None
        ContainerAndChildLeaves                     ObjectInherit                    None
        ContainerAndChildContainersAndChildLeaves   ContainerInherit,ObjectInherit   NoPropagateInherit
        ContainerAndSubContainersAndLeaves          ContainerInherit,ObjectInherit   None
        ChildContainersAndChildLeaves               ContainerInherit,ObjectInherit   InheritOnly
    
    The above information adapated from [Manage Access to Windows Objects with ACLs and the .NET Framework](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/magazine/cc163885.aspx#S3), published in the November 2004 copy of *MSDN Magazine*.

    If you prefer to speak in `InheritanceFlags` or `PropagationFlags`, you can use the `ConvertTo-ContainerInheritaceFlags` function to convert your flags into Carbon's flags.

    ## Certificate Private Keys/Key Containers

    When setting permissions on a certificate's private key/key container, if a certificate doesn't have a private key, it is ignored and no permissions are set. Since certificate's are always leaves, the `ApplyTo` parameter is ignored.

    When using the `-Clear` switch, note that the local `Administrators` account will always remain. In testing on Windows 2012 R2, we noticed that when `Administrators` access was removed, you couldn't read the key anymore. 

    .OUTPUTS
    System.Security.AccessControl.AccessRule. When setting permissions on a file or directory, a `System.Security.AccessControl.FileSystemAccessRule` is returned. When setting permissions on a registry key, a `System.Security.AccessControl.RegistryAccessRule` returned. When setting permissions on a private key, a `System.Security.AccessControl.CryptoKeyAccessRule` object is returned.

    .LINK
    Carbon_Permission

    .LINK
    ConvertTo-CContainerInheritanceFlags

    .LINK
    Disable-CAclInheritance

    .LINK
    Enable-CAclInheritance

    .LINK
    Get-CPermission

    .LINK
    Revoke-CPermission

    .LINK
    Test-CPermission

    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.security.accesscontrol.filesystemrights.aspx
    
    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.security.accesscontrol.registryrights.aspx
    
    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.security.accesscontrol.cryptokeyrights.aspx
    
    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/magazine/cc163885.aspx#S3    
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Grant-CPermission -Identity ENTERPRISE\Engineers -Permission FullControl -Path C:\EngineRoom

    Grants the Enterprise's engineering group full control on the engine room.  Very important if you want to get anywhere.

    .EXAMPLE
    Grant-CPermission -Identity ENTERPRISE\Interns -Permission ReadKey,QueryValues,EnumerateSubKeys -Path rklm:\system\WarpDrive

    Grants the Enterprise's interns access to read about the warp drive.  They need to learn someday, but at least they can't change anything.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Grant-CPermission -Identity ENTERPRISE\Engineers -Permission FullControl -Path C:\EngineRoom -Clear
    
    Grants the Enterprise's engineering group full control on the engine room.  Any non-inherited, existing access rules are removed from `C:\EngineRoom`.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Grant-CPermission -Identity ENTERPRISE\Engineers -Permission FullControl -Path 'cert:\LocalMachine\My\1234567890ABCDEF1234567890ABCDEF12345678'
    
    Grants the Enterprise's engineering group full control on the `1234567890ABCDEF1234567890ABCDEF12345678` certificate's private key/key container.

    .EXAMPLE
    Grant-CPermission -Identity BORG\Locutus -Permission FullControl -Path 'C:\EngineRoom' -Type Deny

    Demonstrates how to grant deny permissions on an objecy with the `Type` parameter.

    .EXAMPLE
    Grant-CPermission -Path C:\Bridge -Identity ENTERPRISE\Wesley -Permission 'Read' -ApplyTo ContainerAndSubContainersAndLeaves -Append
    Grant-CPermission -Path C:\Bridge -Identity ENTERPRISE\Wesley -Permission 'Write' -ApplyTo ContainerAndLeaves -Append

    Demonstrates how to grant multiple access rules to a single identity with the `Append` switch. In this case, `ENTERPRISE\Wesley` will be able to read everything in `C:\Bridge` and write only in the `C:\Bridge` directory, not to any sub-directory.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    [OutputType([Security.AccessControl.AccessRule])]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The path on which the permissions should be granted.  Can be a file system, registry, or certificate path.
        $Path,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The user or group getting the permissions.
        $Identity,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string[]]
        # The permission: e.g. FullControl, Read, etc.  For file system items, use values from [System.Security.AccessControl.FileSystemRights](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.security.accesscontrol.filesystemrights.aspx).  For registry items, use values from [System.Security.AccessControl.RegistryRights](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.security.accesscontrol.registryrights.aspx).
		[Alias('Permissions')]
        $Permission,
        
        [Carbon.Security.ContainerInheritanceFlags]
        # How to apply container permissions.  This controls the inheritance and propagation flags.  Default is full inheritance, e.g. `ContainersAndSubContainersAndLeaves`. This parameter is ignored if `Path` is to a leaf item.
        $ApplyTo = ([Carbon.Security.ContainerInheritanceFlags]::ContainerAndSubContainersAndLeaves),

        [Security.AccessControl.AccessControlType]
        # The type of rule to apply, either `Allow` or `Deny`. The default is `Allow`, which will allow access to the item. The other option is `Deny`, which will deny access to the item.
        #
        # This parameter was added in Carbon 2.3.0.
        $Type = [Security.AccessControl.AccessControlType]::Allow,
        
        [Switch]
        # Removes all non-inherited permissions on the item.
        $Clear,

        [Switch]
        # Returns an object representing the permission created or set on the `Path`. The returned object will have a `Path` propery added to it so it can be piped to any cmdlet that uses a path. 
        #
        # The `PassThru` switch is new in Carbon 2.0.
        $PassThru,

        [Switch]
        # Grants permissions, even if they are already present.
        $Force,

        [Switch]
        # When granting permissions on files, directories, or registry items, add the permissions as a new access rule instead of replacing any existing access rules. This switch is ignored when setting permissions on certificates.
        #
        # This switch was added in Carbon 2.7.
        $Append
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    
    $Path = Resolve-Path -Path $Path
    if( -not $Path )
    {
        return
    }

    $providerName = Get-CPathProvider -Path $Path | Select-Object -ExpandProperty 'Name'
    if( $providerName -eq 'Certificate' )
    {
        $providerName = 'CryptoKey'
    }

    if( $providerName -ne 'Registry' -and $providerName -ne 'FileSystem' -and $providerName -ne 'CryptoKey' )
    {
        Write-Error "Unsupported path: '$Path' belongs to the '$providerName' provider.  Only file system, registry, and certificate paths are supported."
        return
    }

    $rights = $Permission | ConvertTo-ProviderAccessControlRights -ProviderName $providerName
    if( -not $rights )
    {
        Write-Error ('Unable to grant {0} {1} permissions on {2}: received an unknown permission.' -f $Identity,($Permission -join ','),$Path)
        return
    }

    if( -not (Test-CIdentity -Name $Identity ) )
    {
        Write-Error ('Identity ''{0}'' not found.' -f $Identity)
        return
    }

    $Identity = Resolve-CIdentityName -Name $Identity
    
    if( $providerName -eq 'CryptoKey' )
    {
        Get-Item -Path $Path |
            ForEach-Object {
                [Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509Certificate2]$certificate = $_

                if( -not $certificate.HasPrivateKey )
                {
                    Write-Warning ('Certificate {0} ({1}; {2}) does not have a private key.' -f $certificate.Thumbprint,$certificate.Subject,$Path)
                    return
                }

                if( -not $certificate.PrivateKey )
                {
                    Write-Error ('Access is denied to private key of certificate {0} ({1}; {2}).' -f $certificate.Thumbprint,$certificate.Subject,$Path)
                    return
                }

                [Security.AccessControl.CryptoKeySecurity]$keySecurity = $certificate.PrivateKey.CspKeyContainerInfo.CryptoKeySecurity
                if( -not $keySecurity )
                {
                    Write-Error ('Private key ACL not found for certificate {0} ({1}; {2}).' -f $certificate.Thumbprint,$certificate.Subject,$Path)
                    return
                }

                $rulesToRemove = @()
                if( $Clear )
                {
                    $rulesToRemove = $keySecurity.Access | 
                                        Where-Object { $_.IdentityReference.Value -ne $Identity } |
                                        # Don't remove Administrators access. 
                                        Where-Object { $_.IdentityReference.Value -ne 'BUILTIN\Administrators' }
                    if( $rulesToRemove )
                    {
                        $rulesToRemove | ForEach-Object { 
                            Write-Verbose ('[{0} {1}] [{1}]  {2} -> ' -f $certificate.IssuedTo,$Path,$_.IdentityReference,$_.CryptoKeyRights)
                            if( -not $keySecurity.RemoveAccessRule( $_ ) )
                            {
                                Write-Error ('Failed to remove {0}''s {1} permissions on ''{2}'' (3) certificate''s private key.' -f $_.IdentityReference,$_.CryptoKeyRights,$Certificate.Subject,$Certificate.Thumbprint)
                            }
                        }
                    }
                }
                
                $certPath = Join-Path -Path 'cert:' -ChildPath (Split-Path -NoQualifier -Path $certificate.PSPath)

                $accessRule = New-Object 'Security.AccessControl.CryptoKeyAccessRule' ($Identity,$rights,$Type) |
                                Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name 'Path' -Value $certPath -PassThru

                if( $Force -or $rulesToRemove -or -not (Test-CPermission -Path $certPath -Identity $Identity -Permission $Permission -Exact) )
                {
                    $currentPerm = Get-CPermission -Path $certPath -Identity $Identity
                    if( $currentPerm )
                    {
                        $currentPerm = $currentPerm."$($providerName)Rights"
                    }
                    Write-Verbose -Message ('[{0} {1}] [{2}]  {3} -> {4}' -f $certificate.IssuedTo,$certPath,$accessRule.IdentityReference,$currentPerm,$accessRule.CryptoKeyRights)
                    $keySecurity.SetAccessRule( $accessRule )
                    Set-CryptoKeySecurity -Certificate $certificate -CryptoKeySecurity $keySecurity -Action ('grant {0} {1} permission(s)' -f $Identity,($Permission -join ','))
                }

                if( $PassThru )
                {
                    return $accessRule
                }
            }
    }
    else
    {
        # We don't use Get-Acl because it returns the whole security descriptor, which includes owner information.
        # When passed to Set-Acl, this causes intermittent errors.  So, we just grab the ACL portion of the security descriptor.
        # See http://www.bilalaslam.com/2010/12/14/powershell-workaround-for-the-security-identifier-is-not-allowed-to-be-the-owner-of-this-object-with-set-acl/
        $currentAcl = (Get-Item $Path -Force).GetAccessControl("Access")
    
        $inheritanceFlags = [Security.AccessControl.InheritanceFlags]::None
        $propagationFlags = [Security.AccessControl.PropagationFlags]::None
        $testPermissionParams = @{ }
        if( Test-Path $Path -PathType Container )
        {
            $inheritanceFlags = ConvertTo-CInheritanceFlag -ContainerInheritanceFlag $ApplyTo
            $propagationFlags = ConvertTo-CPropagationFlag -ContainerInheritanceFlag $ApplyTo
            $testPermissionParams.ApplyTo = $ApplyTo
        }
        else
        {
            if( $PSBoundParameters.ContainsKey( 'ApplyTo' ) )
            {
                Write-Warning "Can't apply inheritance/propagation rules to a leaf. Please omit `ApplyTo` parameter when `Path` is a leaf."
            }
        }
    
        $rulesToRemove = $null
        $Identity = Resolve-CIdentity -Name $Identity
        if( $Clear )
        {
            $rulesToRemove = $currentAcl.Access |
                                Where-Object { $_.IdentityReference.Value -ne $Identity } |
                                Where-Object { -not $_.IsInherited }
        
            if( $rulesToRemove )
            {
                foreach( $ruleToRemove in $rulesToRemove )
                {
                    Write-Verbose ('[{0}] [{1}]  {2} -> ' -f $Path,$Identity,$ruleToRemove."$($providerName)Rights")
                    [void]$currentAcl.RemoveAccessRule( $ruleToRemove )
                }
            }
        }

        $accessRule = New-Object "Security.AccessControl.$($providerName)AccessRule" $Identity,$rights,$inheritanceFlags,$propagationFlags,$Type |
                        Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name 'Path' -Value $Path -PassThru

        $missingPermission = -not (Test-CPermission -Path $Path -Identity $Identity -Permission $Permission @testPermissionParams -Exact)

        $setAccessRule = ($Force -or $missingPermission)
        if( $setAccessRule )
        {
            if( $Append )
            {
                $currentAcl.AddAccessRule( $accessRule )
            }
            else
            {
                $currentAcl.SetAccessRule( $accessRule )
            }
        }

        if( $rulesToRemove -or $setAccessRule )
        {
            $currentPerm = Get-CPermission -Path $Path -Identity $Identity
            if( $currentPerm )
            {
                $currentPerm = $currentPerm."$($providerName)Rights"
            }
            if( $Append )
            {
                Write-Verbose -Message ('[{0}] [{1}]  + {2}' -f $Path,$accessRule.IdentityReference,$accessRule."$($providerName)Rights")
            }
            else
            {
                Write-Verbose -Message ('[{0}] [{1}]  {2} -> {3}' -f $Path,$accessRule.IdentityReference,$currentPerm,$accessRule."$($providerName)Rights")
            }
            Set-Acl -Path $Path -AclObject $currentAcl
        }

        if( $PassThru )
        {
            return $accessRule
        }
    }
}

Set-Alias -Name 'Grant-Permissions' -Value 'Grant-CPermission'




function Grant-CPrivilege
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Grants an identity priveleges to perform system operations.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    *Privilege names are **case-sensitive**.* Valid privileges are documented on Microsoft's website: [Privilege Constants](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/bb530716.aspx) and [Account Right Constants](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/bb545671.aspx). Here is the most current list, as of August 2014:

     * SeAssignPrimaryTokenPrivilege
     * SeAuditPrivilege
     * SeBackupPrivilege
     * SeBatchLogonRight
     * SeChangeNotifyPrivilege
     * SeCreateGlobalPrivilege
     * SeCreatePagefilePrivilege
     * SeCreatePermanentPrivilege
     * SeCreateSymbolicLinkPrivilege
     * SeCreateTokenPrivilege
     * SeDebugPrivilege
     * SeDenyBatchLogonRight
     * SeDenyInteractiveLogonRight
     * SeDenyNetworkLogonRight
     * SeDenyRemoteInteractiveLogonRight
     * SeDenyServiceLogonRight
     * SeEnableDelegationPrivilege
     * SeImpersonatePrivilege
     * SeIncreaseBasePriorityPrivilege
     * SeIncreaseQuotaPrivilege
     * SeIncreaseWorkingSetPrivilege
     * SeInteractiveLogonRight
     * SeLoadDriverPrivilege
     * SeLockMemoryPrivilege
     * SeMachineAccountPrivilege
     * SeManageVolumePrivilege
     * SeNetworkLogonRight
     * SeProfileSingleProcessPrivilege
     * SeRelabelPrivilege
     * SeRemoteInteractiveLogonRight
     * SeRemoteShutdownPrivilege
     * SeRestorePrivilege
     * SeSecurityPrivilege
     * SeServiceLogonRight
     * SeShutdownPrivilege
     * SeSyncAgentPrivilege
     * SeSystemEnvironmentPrivilege
     * SeSystemProfilePrivilege
     * SeSystemtimePrivilege
     * SeTakeOwnershipPrivilege
     * SeTcbPrivilege
     * SeTimeZonePrivilege
     * SeTrustedCredManAccessPrivilege
     * SeUndockPrivilege
     * SeUnsolicitedInputPrivilege

    .LINK
    Get-CPrivilege
    
    .LINK
    Revoke-CPrivilege
    
    .LINK
    Test-CPrivilege
    
    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/bb530716.aspx
    
    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/bb545671.aspx
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Grant-CPrivilege -Identity Batcomputer -Privilege SeServiceLogonRight
    
    Grants the Batcomputer account the ability to logon as a service. *Privilege names are **case-sensitive**.*
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The identity to grant a privilege.
        $Identity,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string[]]
        # The privileges to grant. *Privilege names are **case-sensitive**.*
        $Privilege
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    
    $account = Resolve-CIdentity -Name $Identity
    if( -not $account )
    {
        return
    }
    
    try
    {
        [Carbon.Security.Privilege]::GrantPrivileges( $account.FullName, $Privilege )
    }
    catch
    {
        $ex = $_.Exception
        do
        {
            if( $ex -is [ComponentModel.Win32Exception] -and $ex.Message -eq 'No such privilege. Indicates a specified privilege does not exist.' )
            {
                $msg = 'Failed to grant {0} {1} privilege(s): {2}  *Privilege names are **case-sensitive**.*' -f `
                        $account.FullName,($Privilege -join ','),$ex.Message
                Write-Error -Message $msg
                return
            }
            else
            {
                $ex = $ex.InnerException
            }
        }
        while( $ex )

        $ex = $_.Exception        
        Write-Error -Message ('Failed to grant {0} {1} privilege(s): {2}' -f $account.FullName,($Privilege -join ', '),$ex.Message)
        
        while( $ex.InnerException )
        {
            $ex = $ex.InnerException
            Write-Error -Exception $ex
        }
    }
}




function Grant-CServiceControlPermission
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Grants a user/group permission to start/stop (i.e. use PowerShell's `*-Service` cmdlets) a service.

    .DESCRIPTION
    By default, only Administrators are allowed to control a service. You may notice that when running the `Stop-Service`, `Start-Service`, or `Restart-Service` cmdlets as a non-Administrator, you get permissions errors. That's because you need to correct permissions.  This function grants just the permissions needed to use PowerShell's `Stop-Service`, `Start-Service`, and `Restart-Service` cmdlets to control a service.

    .LINK
    Get-CServicePermission
    
    .LINK
    Grant-CServicePermission
    
    .LINK
    Revoke-CServicePermission
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Grant-CServiceControlPermission -ServiceName CCService -Identity INITRODE\Builders

    Grants the INITRODE\Builders group permission to control the CruiseControl.NET service.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the service.
        $ServiceName,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The user/group name being given access.
        $Identity
    )
   
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( $pscmdlet.ShouldProcess( $ServiceName, "grant control service permissions to '$Identity'" ) )
    {
        Grant-CServicePermission -Name $ServiceName -Identity $Identity -QueryStatus -EnumerateDependents -Start -Stop
    }
}




function Grant-CServicePermission
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Grants permissions for an identity against a service.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    By default, only Administators are allowed to manage a service.  Use this function to grant specific identities permissions to manage a specific service.
    
    If you just want to grant a user the ability to start/stop/restart a service using PowerShell's `Start-Service`, `Stop-Service`, or `Restart-Service` cmdlets, use the `Grant-ServiceControlPermissions` function instead.
    
    Any previous permissions are replaced.
    
    .LINK
    Get-CServicePermission
    
    .LINK
    Grant-ServiceControlPermissions
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Grant-CServicePermission -Identity FALCON\Chewbacca -Name Hyperdrive -QueryStatus -EnumerateDependents -Start -Stop
    
    Grants Chewbacca the permissions to query, enumerate dependents, start, and stop the `Hyperdrive` service.  Coincedentally, these are the permissions that Chewbacca nees to run `Start-Service`, `Stop-Service`, `Restart-Service`, and `Get-Service` cmdlets against the `Hyperdrive` service.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the service to grant permissions to.
        $Name,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The identity to grant permissions for.
        $Identity,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='FullControl')]
        [Switch]
        # Grant full control on the service
        $FullControl,
        
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='PartialControl')]
        [Switch]
        # Grants permission to query the service's configuration.
        $QueryConfig,
        
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='PartialControl')]
        [Switch]
        # Grants permission to change the service's permission.
        $ChangeConfig,
        
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='PartialControl')]
        [Switch]
        # Grants permission to query the service's status.
        $QueryStatus,
        
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='PartialControl')]
        [Switch]
        # Grants permissionto enumerate the service's dependent services.
        $EnumerateDependents,
        
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='PartialControl')]
        [Switch]
        # Grants permission to start the service.
        $Start,
        
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='PartialControl')]
        [Switch]
        # Grants permission to stop the service.
        $Stop,
        
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='PartialControl')]
        [Switch]
        # Grants permission to pause/continue the service.
        $PauseContinue,
        
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='PartialControl')]
        [Switch]
        # Grants permission to interrogate the service (i.e. ask it to report its status immediately).
        $Interrogate,
        
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='PartialControl')]
        [Switch]
        # Grants permission to run the service's user-defined control.
        $UserDefinedControl,
        
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='PartialControl')]
        [Switch]
        # Grants permission to delete the service.
        $Delete,
        
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='PartialControl')]
        [Switch]
        # Grants permission to query the service's security descriptor.
        $ReadControl,
        
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='PartialControl')]
        [Switch]
        # Grants permission to set the service's discretionary access list.
        $WriteDac,
        
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='PartialControl')]
        [Switch]
        # Grants permission to modify the group and owner of a service.
        $WriteOwner
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $account = Resolve-CIdentity -Name $Identity
    if( -not $account )
    {
        return
    }
    
    if( -not (Assert-CService -Name $Name) )
    {
        return
    }
    
    $accessRights = [Carbon.Security.ServiceAccessRights]::FullControl
    if( $pscmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'PartialControl' )
    {
        $accessRights = 0
        [Enum]::GetValues( [Carbon.Security.ServiceAccessRights] ) |
            Where-Object { $PSBoundParameters.ContainsKey( $_ ) } |
            ForEach-Object { $accessRights = $accessRights -bor [Carbon.Security.ServiceAccessRights]::$_ }
    }
    
    $dacl = Get-CServiceAcl -Name $Name
    $dacl.SetAccess( [Security.AccessControl.AccessControlType]::Allow, $account.Sid, $accessRights, 'None', 'None' )
    
    Set-CServiceAcl -Name $Name -DACL $dacl
}





function Install-CCertificate
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Installs a certificate in a given store.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    Uses the .NET certificates API to add a certificate to a store for the machine or current user.  The user performing the action must have permission to modify the store or the installation will fail.

    To install a certificate on a remote computer, create a remoting session with the `New-PSSession` cmdlet, and pass the session object to this function's `Session` parameter. When installing to a remote computer, the certificate's binary data is converted to a base-64 encoded string and sent to the remote computer, where it is converted back into a certificate. If installing a certificate from a file, the file's bytes are converted to base-64, sent to the remote computer, saved as a temporary file, installed, and the temporary file is removed.

    The ability to install a certificate on a remote computer was added in Carbon 2.1.0.
    
    .OUTPUTS
    System.Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509Certificate2. An X509Certificate2 object representing the newly installed certificate.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    > Install-CCertificate -Path C:\Users\me\certificate.cer -StoreLocation LocalMachine -StoreName My -Exportable -Password [email protected]
    
    Installs the certificate (which is protected by a password) at C:\Users\me\certificate.cer into the local machine's Personal store.  The certificate is marked exportable.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CCertificate -Path C:\Users\me\certificate.cer -StoreLocation LocalMachine -StoreName My -ComputerName remote1,remote2
    
    Demonstrates how to install a certificate from a file on the local computer into the local machine's personal store on two remote cmoputers, remote1 and remote2. Use the `Credential` parameter to connect as a specific principal.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true,DefaultParameterSetName='FromFileInWindowsStore')]
    [OutputType([Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509Certificate2])]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,Position=0,ParameterSetName='FromFileInWindowsStore')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,Position=0,ParameterSetName='FromFileInCustomStore')]
        [string]
        # The path to the certificate file.
        $Path,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,Position=0,ParameterSetName='FromCertificateInWindowsStore')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,Position=0,ParameterSetName='FromCertificateInCustomStore')]
        [Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509Certificate2]
        # The certificate to install.
        $Certificate,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.StoreLocation]
        # The location of the certificate's store.  To see a list of acceptable values, run:
        #
        #   > [Enum]::GetValues([Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.StoreLocation])
        $StoreLocation,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='FromFileInWindowsStore')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='FromCertificateInWindowsStore')]
        [Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.StoreName]
        # The name of the certificate's store.  To see a list of acceptable values run:
        #
        #  > [Enum]::GetValues([Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.StoreName])
        $StoreName,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='FromFileInCustomStore')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='FromCertificateInCustomStore')]
        [string]
        # The name of the non-standard, custom store where the certificate should be installed.
        $CustomStoreName,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='FromFileInWindowsStore')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='FromFileInCustomStore')]
        [Switch]
        # Mark the private key as exportable. Only valid if loading the certificate from a file.
        $Exportable,
        
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='FromFileInWindowsStore')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='FromFileInCustomStore')]
        # The password for the certificate.  Should be a `System.Security.SecureString`.
        $Password,

        [Management.Automation.Runspaces.PSSession[]]
        # Use the `Session` parameter to install a certificate on remote computer(s) using PowerShell remoting. Use `New-PSSession` to create a session.
        #
        # This parameter was added in Carbon 2.1.0.
        $Session
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( $Password -and $Password -isnot [securestring] )
    {
        Write-Warning -Message ('You passed a plain text password to `Install-CCertificate`. A future version of Carbon will remove support for plain-text passwords. Please pass a `SecureString` instead.')
        $Password = ConvertTo-SecureString -String $Password -AsPlainText -Force
    }
    
    if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -like 'FromFile*' )
    {   
        $resolvedPath = Resolve-Path -Path $Path        
        if( -not $resolvedPath )
        {
            return
        }

        $Path = $resolvedPath.ProviderPath
        
        $fileBytes = [IO.File]::ReadAllBytes($Path)
        $encodedCert = [Convert]::ToBase64String( $fileBytes )

        $keyFlags = [Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509KeyStorageFlags]::MachineKeySet
        if( $StoreLocation -eq [Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.StoreLocation]::CurrentUser )
        {
            $keyFlags = [Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509KeyStorageFlags]::UserKeySet
        }
        $keyFlags = $keyFlags -bor [Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509KeyStorageFlags]::PersistKeySet
    
        if( $Exportable )
        {
            $keyFlags = $keyFlags -bor [Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509KeyStorageFlags]::Exportable
        }

        $Certificate = Get-CCertificate -Path $Path -Password $Password -KeyStorageFlags $keyFlags
        $fromFile = $true
    }
    else
    {
        $encodedCert = [Convert]::ToBase64String( $Certificate.RawData )
        $keyFlags = 0
        $fromFile = $false
    }

    $invokeCommandArgs = @{ }
    if( $Session )
    {
        $invokeCommandArgs['Session'] = $Session
    }


    Invoke-Command @invokeCommandArgs -ScriptBlock {
        [CmdletBinding()]
        param(
            [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
            [string]
            # The base-64 encoded certificate to install.
            $EncodedCertificate,

            # The password for the certificate.
            [securestring]
            $Password,

            [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
            [Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.StoreLocation]
            $StoreLocation,
        
            $StoreName,

            [string]
            $CustomStoreName,

            [Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509KeyStorageFlags]
            $KeyStorageFlags,

            [bool]
            $WhatIf,

            [Management.Automation.ActionPreference]
            $Verbosity
        )

        Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

        $WhatIfPreference = $WhatIf
        $VerbosePreference = $Verbosity

        $tempDir = 'Carbon+Install-CCertificate+{0}' -f [IO.Path]::GetRandomFileName()
        $tempDir = Join-Path -Path $env:TEMP -ChildPath $tempDir
        New-Item -Path $tempDir -ItemType 'Directory' -WhatIf:$false | Out-Null

        try
        {
            $certBytes = [Convert]::FromBase64String( $EncodedCertificate )
            $certFilePath = Join-Path -Path $tempDir -ChildPath ([IO.Path]::GetRandomFileName())
            [IO.File]::WriteAllBytes( $certFilePath, $certBytes )

            $cert = New-Object 'Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509Certificate2'
            $cert.Import( $certFilePath, $Password, $KeyStorageFlags )

            if( $CustomStoreName )
            {
                $store = New-Object 'Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509Store' $CustomStoreName,$StoreLocation
            }
            else
            {
                $store = New-Object 'Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509Store'  ([Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.StoreName]$StoreName),$StoreLocation
            }

            $store.Open( ([Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.OpenFlags]::ReadWrite) )

            $description = $cert.FriendlyName
            if( -not $description )
            {
                $description = $cert.Subject
            }

            if( $PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess( ('install into {0}''s {1} store' -f $StoreLocation,$StoreName), ('{0} ({1})' -f $description,$cert.Thumbprint) ) )
            {
                Write-Verbose ('Installing certificate ''{0}'' ({1}) into {2}''s {3} store.' -f $description,$cert.Thumbprint,$StoreLocation,$StoreName)
                $store.Add( $cert )
            }
            $store.Close()
        }
        finally
        {
            Remove-Item -Path $tempDir -Recurse -ErrorAction Ignore -WhatIf:$false -Force
        }

    } -ArgumentList $encodedCert,$Password,$StoreLocation,$StoreName,$CustomStoreName,$keyFlags,$WhatIfPreference,$VerbosePreference

    return $Certificate
}




function Install-CDirectory
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Creates a directory, if it doesn't exist.

    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Install-CDirectory` function creates a directory. If the directory already exists, it does nothing. If any parent directories don't exist, they are created, too.

    `Install-CDirectory` was added in Carbon 2.1.0.

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CDirectory -Path 'C:\Projects\Carbon'

    Demonstrates how to use create a directory. In this case, the directories `C:\Projects` and `C:\Projects\Carbon` will be created if they don't exist.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The path to the directory to create.
        $Path
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( -not (Test-Path -Path $Path -PathType Container) )
    {
        New-Item -Path $Path -ItemType 'Directory' | Out-String | Write-Verbose
    }
}



function Install-CFileShare
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Installs a file/SMB share.

    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Install-CFileShare` function installs a new file/SMB share. If the share doesn't exist, it is created. In Carbon 2.0, if a share does exist, its properties and permissions are updated in place, unless the share's path needs to change. Changing a share's path requires deleting and re-creating. Before Carbon 2.0, shares were always deleted and re-created.

    Use the `FullAccess`, `ChangeAccess`, and `ReadAccess` parameters to grant full, change, and read sharing permissions on the share. Each parameter takes a list of user/group names. If you don't supply any permissions, `Everyone` will get `Read` access. Permissions on existing shares are cleared before permissions are granted. Permissions don't apply to the file system, only to the share. Use `Grant-CPermission` to grant file system permissions. 

    Before Carbon 2.0, this function was called `Install-SmbShare`.

    .LINK
    Get-CFileShare

    .LINK
    Get-CFileSharePermission

    .LINK
    Grant-CPermission

    .LINK
    Test-CFileShare

    .LINK
    Uninstall-CFileShare

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-Share -Name TopSecretDocuments -Path C:\TopSecret -Description 'Share for our top secret documents.' -ReadAccess "Everyone" -FullAccess "Analysts"

    Shares the C:\TopSecret directory as `TopSecretDocuments` and grants `Everyone` read access and `Analysts` full control.  
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The share's name.
        $Name,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The path to the share.
        $Path,
            
        [string]
        # A description of the share
        $Description = '',
        
        [string[]]
        # The identities who have full access to the share.
        $FullAccess = @(),
        
        [string[]]
        # The identities who have change access to the share.
        $ChangeAccess = @(),
        
        [string[]]
        # The identities who have read access to the share
        $ReadAccess = @(),

        [Switch]
        # Deletes the share and re-creates it, if it exists. Preserves default beheavior in Carbon before 2.0.
        #
        # The `Force` switch is new in Carbon 2.0.
        $Force
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    function New-ShareAce
    {
        param(
            [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
            [AllowEmptyCollection()]
            [string[]]
            # The identity 
            $Identity,

            [Carbon.Security.ShareRights]
            # The rights to grant to Identity.
            $ShareRight
        )

        Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

        foreach( $identityName in $Identity )
        {
            $trustee = ([wmiclass]'Win32_Trustee').CreateInstance()
            [Security.Principal.SecurityIdentifier]$sid = Resolve-CIdentity -Name $identityName | Select-Object -ExpandProperty 'Sid'
            if( -not $sid )
            {
                continue
            }

            $sidBytes = New-Object 'byte[]' $sid.BinaryLength
            $sid.GetBinaryForm( $sidBytes, 0)

            $trustee.Sid = $sidBytes

            $ace = ([wmiclass]'Win32_Ace').CreateInstance()
            $ace.AccessMask = $ShareRight
            $ace.AceFlags = 0
            $ace.AceType = 0
            $ace.Trustee = $trustee

            $ace
        }
    }

    $errors = @{
                [uint32]2 = 'Access Denied';
                [uint32]8 = 'Unknown Failure';
                [uint32]9 = 'Invalid Name';
                [uint32]10 = 'Invalid Level';
                [uint32]21 = 'Invalid Parameter';
                [uint32]22 = 'Duplicate Share';
                [uint32]23 = 'Restricted Path';
                [uint32]24 = 'Unknown Device or Directory';
                [uint32]25 = 'Net Name Not Found';
            }

    $Path = Resolve-CFullPath -Path $Path
    $Path = $Path.Trim('\\')
    # When sharing drives, path must end with \. Otherwise, it shouldn't.
    if( $Path -eq (Split-Path -Qualifier -Path $Path ) )
    {
        $Path = Join-Path -Path $Path -ChildPath '\'
    }

    if( (Test-CFileShare -Name $Name) )
    {
        $share = Get-CFileShare -Name $Name
        [bool]$delete = $false
        
        if( $Force )
        {
            $delete = $true
        }

        if( $share.Path -ne $Path )
        {
            Write-Verbose -Message ('[SHARE] [{0}] Path         {1} -> {2}.' -f $Name,$share.Path,$Path)
            $delete = $true
        }

        if( $delete )
        {
            Uninstall-CFileShare -Name $Name
        }
    }

    $shareAces = Invoke-Command -ScriptBlock {
                                                New-ShareAce -Identity $FullAccess -ShareRight FullControl
                                                New-ShareAce -Identity $ChangeAccess -ShareRight Change
                                                New-ShareAce -Identity $ReadAccess -ShareRight Read
                                           }
    if( -not $shareAces )
    {
        $shareAces = New-ShareAce -Identity 'Everyone' -ShareRight Read
    }

    # if we don't pass a $null security descriptor, default Everyone permissions aren't setup correctly, and extra admin rights are slapped on.
    $shareSecurityDescriptor = ([wmiclass] "Win32_SecurityDescriptor").CreateInstance() 
    $shareSecurityDescriptor.DACL = $shareAces
    $shareSecurityDescriptor.ControlFlags = "0x4"

    if( -not (Test-CFileShare -Name $Name) )
    {
        if( -not (Test-Path -Path $Path -PathType Container) )
        {
            New-Item -Path $Path -ItemType Directory -Force | Out-String | Write-Verbose
        }
    
        $shareClass = Get-WmiObject -Class 'Win32_Share' -List
        Write-Verbose -Message ('[SHARE] [{0}]              Sharing {1}' -f $Name,$Path)
        $result = $shareClass.Create( $Path, $Name, 0, $null, $Description, $null, $shareSecurityDescriptor )
        if( $result.ReturnValue )
        {
            Write-Error ('Failed to create share ''{0}'' (Path: {1}). WMI returned error code {2} which means: {3}.' -f $Name,$Path,$result.ReturnValue,$errors[$result.ReturnValue])
            return
        }
    }
    else
    {
        $share = Get-CFileShare -Name $Name
        $updateShare = $false
        if( $share.Description -ne $Description )
        {
            Write-Verbose -Message ('[SHARE] [{0}] Description  {1} -> {2}' -f $Name,$share.Description,$Description)
            $updateShare = $true
        }

        # Check if the share is missing any of the new ACEs.
        foreach( $ace in $shareAces )
        {
            $identityName = Resolve-CIdentityName -SID $ace.Trustee.SID
            $permission = Get-CFileSharePermission -Name $Name -Identity $identityName

            if( -not $permission )
            {
                Write-Verbose -Message ('[SHARE] [{0}] Access       {1}:  -> {2}' -f $Name,$identityName,([Carbon.Security.ShareRights]$ace.AccessMask))
                $updateShare = $true
            }
            elseif( [int]$permission.ShareRights -ne $ace.AccessMask )
            {
                Write-Verbose -Message ('[SHARE] [{0}] Access       {1}: {2} -> {3}' -f $Name,$identityName,$permission.ShareRights,([Carbon.Security.ShareRights]$ace.AccessMask))
                $updateShare = $true
            }
        }

        # Now, check that there aren't any existing ACEs that need to get deleted.
        $existingAces = Get-CFileSharePermission -Name $Name
        foreach( $ace in $existingAces )
        {
            $identityName = $ace.IdentityReference.Value

            $existingAce = $ace
            if( $shareAces )
            {
                $existingAce = $shareAces | Where-Object { 
                                                        $newIdentityName = Resolve-CIdentityName -SID $_.Trustee.SID
                                                        return ( $newIdentityName -eq $ace.IdentityReference.Value )
                                                    }
            }

            if( -not $existingAce )
            {
                Write-Verbose -Message ('[SHARE] [{0}] Access       {1}: {2} ->' -f $Name,$identityName,$ace.ShareRights)
                $updateShare = $true
            }
        }

        if( $updateShare )
        {
            $result = $share.SetShareInfo( $share.MaximumAllowed, $Description, $shareSecurityDescriptor )
            if( $result.ReturnValue )
            {
                Write-Error ('Failed to create share ''{0}'' (Path: {1}). WMI returned error code {2} which means: {3}' -f $Name,$Path,$result.ReturnValue,$errors[$result.ReturnValue])
                return
            }
        }
    }
}

Set-Alias -Name 'Install-SmbShare' -Value 'Install-CFileShare'



function Install-CGroup
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Creates a new local group, or updates the settings for an existing group.

    .DESCRIPTION
    `Install-CGroup` creates a local group, or, updates a group that already exists.

    YOu can get a `System.DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.GroupPrincipal` object representing the group returned to you by using the `PassThru` switch. This object implements the `IDisposable` interface, which means it uses external resources that don't get garbage collected. When you're done using the object, make sure you call `Dispose()` to free those resources, otherwise you'll leak memory. All over the place.

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CGroup -Name TIEFighters -Description 'Users allowed to be TIE fighter pilots.' -Members EMPIRE\Pilots,EMPIRE\DarthVader

    If the TIE fighters group doesn't exist, it is created with the given description and default members.  If it already exists, its description is updated and the given members are added to it.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    [OutputType([DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.GroupPrincipal])]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the group.
        $Name,
        
        [string]
        # A description of the group.
        $Description = '',
        
        [Alias('Members')]
        [string[]]
        # Members of the group.
        $Member = @(),

        [Switch]
        # Return the group as a `System.DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.GroupPrincipal`.
        #
        # This object uses external resources that don't get cleaned up by .NET's garbage collector. In order to avoid memory leaks, make sure you call its `Dispose()` method when you're done with it.
        $PassThru
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    
    $group = Get-CGroup -Name $Name -ErrorAction Ignore

    if( $group )
    {
        $ctx = $group.Context
    }
    else
    {
        $ctx = New-Object 'DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.PrincipalContext' ([DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.ContextType]::Machine)
    }

    $operation = 'update'
    $save = $false
    $new = $false
    if( -not $group )
    {
        $operation = 'create'
        $new = $true
        $group = New-Object 'DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.GroupPrincipal' $ctx
        $group.Name = $Name
        $group.Description = $Description
        $save = $true
    }
    else
    {
        # We only update the description if one or the other has a value. This guards against setting description to $null from empty string and vice-versa.
        if( $group.Description -ne $Description -and ($group.Description -or $Description) )
        {
            Write-Verbose -Message ('[{0}] Description  {1} -> {2}' -f $Name,$group.Description,$Description)
            $group.Description = $Description
            $save = $true
        }
    }

    try
    {

        if( $save -and $PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess( ('local group {0}' -f $Name), $operation ) )
        {
            if( $new )
            {
                Write-Verbose -Message ('[{0}]              +' -f $Name)
            }
            $group.Save()
        }

        if( $Member -and $PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess( ('local group {0}' -f $Name), 'adding members' ) )
        {
            Add-CGroupMember -Name $Name -Member $Member
        }
    
        if( $PassThru )
        {
            return $group
        }
    }
    finally
    {
        if( -not $PassThru )
        {
            $group.Dispose()
            $ctx.Dispose()
        }

    }
}




function Install-CJunction
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Creates a junction, or updates an existing junction if its target is different.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    Creates a junction given by `-Link` which points to the path given by `-Target`.  If `Link` exists, deletes it and re-creates it if it doesn't point to `Target`.
    
    Both `-Link` and `-Target` parameters accept relative paths for values.  Any non-rooted paths are converted to full paths using the current location, i.e. the path returned by `Get-Location`.

    Beginning with Carbon 2.0, returns a `System.IO.DirectoryInfo` object for the target path, if one is created.  Returns a `System.IO.DirectoryInfo` object for the junction, if it is created and/or updated.

    .OUTPUTS
    System.IO.DirectoryInfo. To return a `DirectoryInfo` object for installed junction, use the `PassThru` switch.
    
    .LINK
    New-CJunction

    .LINK
    Remove-CJunction

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CJunction -Link 'C:\Windows\system32Link' -Target 'C:\Windows\system32'
    
    Creates the `C:\Windows\system32Link` directory, which points to `C:\Windows\system32`.

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CJunction -Link C:\Projects\Foobar -Target 'C:\Foo\bar' -Force

    This example demonstrates how to create the target directory if it doesn't exist.  After this example runs, the directory `C:\Foo\bar` and junction `C:\Projects\Foobar` will be created.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    [OutputType([IO.DirectoryInfo])]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [Alias("Junction")]
        [string]
        # The junction to create/update. Relative paths are converted to absolute paths using the current location.
        $Link,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The target of the junction, i.e. where the junction will point to.  Relative paths are converted to absolute paths using the curent location.
        $Target,

        [Switch]
        # Return a `DirectoryInfo` object for the installed junction. Returns nothing if `WhatIf` switch is used. This switch is new in Carbon 2.0.
        $PassThru,

        [Switch]
        # Create the target directory if it does not exist.
        $Force
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $Link = Resolve-CFullPath -Path $Link
    $Target = Resolve-CFullPath -Path $Target

    if( Test-Path -LiteralPath $Target -PathType Leaf )
    {
        Write-Error ('Unable to create junction {0}: target {1} exists and is a file.' -f $Link,$Target)
        return
    }

    if( -not (Test-Path -LiteralPath $Target -PathType Container) )
    {
        if( $Force )
        {
            New-Item -Path $Target -ItemType Directory -Force | Out-String | Write-Verbose
        }
        else
        {
            Write-Error ('Unable to create junction {0}: target {1} not found.  Use the `-Force` switch to create target paths that don''t exist.' -f $Link,$Target)
            return
        }
    }

    if( Test-Path -LiteralPath $Link -PathType Container )
    {
        $junction = Get-Item -LiteralPath $Link -Force
        if( -not $junction.IsJunction )
        {
            Write-Error ('Failed to create junction ''{0}'': a directory exists with that path and it is not a junction.' -f $Link)
            return
        }

        if( $junction.TargetPath -eq $Target )
        {
            return
        }

        Remove-CJunction -LiteralPath $Link
    }

    if( $PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess( $Target, ("creating '{0}' junction" -f $Link) ) )
    {
        $result = New-CJunction -Link $Link -Target $target -Verbose:$false
        if( $PassThru )
        {
            return $result
        }
    }
}




function Install-CMsi
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Installs software from an MSI file.

    .DESCRIPTION
    `Install-CMsi` installs software from an MSI file. If the install fails, it writes an error. Installation is always done in quiet mode, i.e. you won't see any UI.

    In Carbon 1.9 and earlier, this function was called `Invoke-WindowsInstaller`.

    Beginning with Carbon 2.0, `Install-CMsi` only runs the MSI if the software isn't installed. Use the `-Force` switch to always run the installer.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CMsi -Path Path\to\installer.msi
    
    Runs installer.msi, and waits untils for the installer to finish.  If the installer has a UI, it is shown to the user.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-ChildItem *.msi | Install-CMsi

    Demonstrates how to pipe MSI files into `Install-CMsi` for installation.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ValueFromPipeline=$true,ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName=$true)]
        [Alias('FullName')]
        [string[]]
        # The path to the installer to run. Wildcards supported.
        $Path,
        
        [Parameter(DontShow=$true)]
        [Switch]
        # OBSOLETE. Installers are run in quiet mode by default. This switch will be removed in a future major version of Carbon. 
        $Quiet,

        [Switch]
        # Install the MSI even if it has already been installed. Will cause a repair/reinstall to run.
        $Force
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( $PSBoundParameters.ContainsKey( 'Quiet' ) )
    {
        Write-Warning ('Install-CMsi''s `Quiet` switch is obsolete and will be removed in a future major version of Carbon. Installers are run in quiet mode by default. Please remove usages of the `Quiet` switch.')
    }

    Get-CMsi -Path $Path |
        Where-Object {
            if( $Force )
            {
                return $true
            }

            $installInfo = Get-CProgramInstallInfo -Name $_.ProductName -ErrorAction Ignore
            if( -not $installInfo )
            {
                return $true
            }

            $result = ($installInfo.ProductCode -ne $_.ProductCode)
            if( -not $result )
            {
                Write-Verbose -Message ('[MSI] [{0}] Installed {1}.' -f $installInfo.DisplayName,$installInfo.InstallDate)
            }
            return $result
        } |
        ForEach-Object {
            $msi = $_
            if( $PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess( $msi.Path, "install" ) )
            {
                Write-Verbose -Message ('[MSI] [{0}] Installing from {1}.' -f $msi.ProductName,$msi.Path)
                $msiProcess = Start-Process -FilePath "msiexec.exe" -ArgumentList "/quiet","/i",('"{0}"' -f $msi.Path) -NoNewWindow -Wait -PassThru

                if( $msiProcess.ExitCode -ne $null -and $msiProcess.ExitCode -ne 0 )
                {
                    Write-Error ("{0} {1} installation failed. (Exit code: {2}; MSI: {3})" -f $msi.ProductName,$msi.ProductVersion,$msiProcess.ExitCode,$msi.Path)
                }
            }
        }
}

Set-Alias -Name 'Invoke-WindowsInstaller' -Value 'Install-CMsi'



function Install-CMsmq
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Installs Microsoft's Message Queueing system/feature.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Microsoft's MSMQ is *not* installed by default.  It has to be turned on manually.   This function will enable the MSMQ feature.  There are two sub-features: Active Directory integration and HTTP support.  These can also be enabled by setting the `ActiveDirectoryIntegration` and `HttpSupport` switches, respectively.  If MSMQ will be working with queues on other machines, you'll need to enable DTC (the Distributed Transaction Coordinator) by passing the `DTC` switch.

     This function uses Microsoft's feature management command line utilities: `ocsetup.exe` or `servermanagercmd.exe`. **A word of warning**, however.  In our experience, **these tools do not seem to work as advertised**.  They are very slow, and, at least with MSMQ, we have intermittent errors installing it on our developer's Windows 7 computers.  We strongly recommend you install MSMQ manually on a base VM or computer image so that it's a standard part of your installation.  If that isn't possible in your environment, good luck!  let us know how it goes.

    If you know better ways of installing MSMQ or other Windows features, or can help us figure out why Microsoft's command line installation tools don't work consistently, we would appreciate it.

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CMsmq

    Installs MSMQ on this meachine.  In our experience, this may or may not work.  You'll want to check that the MSMQ service exists and is running after this.  Please help us make this better!

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CMsmq -HttpSupport -ActiveDirectoryIntegration -Dtc

    Installs MSMQ with the HTTP support and Active Directory sub-features.  Enables and starts the Distributed Transaction Coordinator.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Switch]
        # Enable HTTP Support
        $HttpSupport,
        
        [Switch]
        # Enable Active Directory Integrations
        $ActiveDirectoryIntegration,
        
        [Switch]
        # Will MSMQ be participating in external, distributed transactions? I.e. will it be sending messages to queues on other machines?
        $Dtc
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    Write-Warning -Message ('Install-CMsmq is obsolete and will be removed in a future major version of Carbon.')

    $optionalArgs = @{ }
    if( $HttpSupport )
    {
        $optionalArgs.MsmqHttpSupport = $true
    }
    
    if( $ActiveDirectoryIntegration )
    {
        $optionalArgs.MsmqActiveDirectoryIntegration = $true
    }
    
    Install-CWindowsFeature -Msmq @optionalArgs
    
    if( $Dtc )
    {
        Set-Service -Name MSDTC -StartupType Automatic
        Start-Service -Name MSDTC
        $svc = Get-Service -Name MSDTC
        $svc.WaitForStatus( [ServiceProcess.ServiceControllerStatus]::Running )
    }
}




function Install-CMsmqMessageQueue
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Installs an MSMQ queue.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Creates a new queue with name `Name`.  If a queue with that name already exists, it is deleted, and a new queue is created. 

    If the queue needs to be private, pass the `Private` switch.  If it needs to be transactional, set the `Transactional` switch.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CMsmqMessageQueue -Name MovieQueue

    Installs a public, non-transactional `MovieQueue`.

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CMsmqMessageQueue -Name CriticsQueue -Private -Transactional

    Installs a private, transactional `CriticsQueue` queue.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the queue.
        $Name,
        
        [Switch]
        # Makes a private queue.
        $Private,
        
        [Switch]
        # Makes a transactional queue.
        $Transactional
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $queueArgs = @{ Name = $Name ; Private = $Private }
    $path = Get-CMsmqMessageQueuePath @queueArgs 
    
    $cmdletArgs = @{ }
    if( $PSBoundParameters.ContainsKey( 'WhatIf' ) )
    {
        $cmdletArgs.WhatIf = $true
    }
    
    $logMessage = "MSMQ message queue '$Name'."
    if( Test-CMsmqMessageQueue @queueArgs )
    {
        Write-Verbose "Re-creating $logMessage"
        Uninstall-CMsmqMessageQueue @queueArgs @cmdletArgs
    }
    else
    {
        Write-Verbose "Creating $logMessage"
    }
    
    $MaxWait = [TimeSpan]'0:00:10'
    $endAt = (Get-Date) + $MaxWait
    $created = $false
    if( $pscmdlet.ShouldProcess( $path, 'install MSMQ queue' ) )
    {
        # If you remove a queue, sometimes you can't immediately re-create it.  So, we keep trying until we can.
        do
        {
            try
            {
                # Capture the return object, otherwise it gets sent down the pipeline and causes an error
                $queue = [Messaging.MessageQueue]::Create( $path, $Transactional )
                $created = $true
                break
            }
            catch 
            { 
                if( $_.Exception.Message -like '*A workgroup installation computer does not support the operation.*' )
                {
                    Write-Error ("Can't create MSMSQ queues on this computer.  {0}" -f $_.Exception.Message)
                    return
                }
            }
            Start-Sleep -Milliseconds 100
        }
        while( -not $created -and (Get-Date) -lt $endAt )
        
        if( -not $created )
        {
            Write-Error ('Unable to create MSMQ queue {0}.' -f $path)
            return
        }
        
        $endAt = (Get-Date) + $MaxWait
        $exists = $false
        do
        {
            Start-Sleep -Milliseconds 100
            if( (Test-CMsmqMessageQueue @queueArgs) )
            {
                $exists = $true
                break
            }
        }
        while( (Get-Date) -lt $endAt -and -not $exists )
        
        if( -not $exists )
        {
            Write-Warning ('MSMSQ queue {0} created, but can''t be found.  Please double-check that the queue was created.' -f $path)
        }
    }
}




function Install-CPerformanceCounter
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Installs a performance counter.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Creates a new performance counter with a specific name, description, and type under a given category.  The counter's category is re-created: its current counters are retrieved, the category is removed, a the category is re-created.  Unfortunately, we haven't been able to find any .NET APIs that allow us to delete and create an existing counter.
    
    If you're creating a performance counter that relies on an accompanying base counter, use the `BaseName`, `BaseDescription`, and `BaseType` parameters to properly add the base counter.
    
    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.diagnostics.performancecountertype.aspx

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CPerformanceCounter -CategoryName ToyotaCamry -Name MilesPerGallon -Description 'The miles per gallon fuel efficiency.' -Type NumberOfItems32

    Creates a new miles per gallon performance counter for the ToyotaCamry category.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CPerformanceCounter -CategoryName "Dispatcher" -Name "Average Dispatch time" -Type AverageTimer32 -BaseName "Average Dispatch Base" -BaseType AverageBase -Force
    
    Creates a counter to collect average timings, with a base counter.  Some counters require base counters, which have to be added a specific way to work properly.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true,DefaultParameterSetName='SimpleCounter')]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The category's name where the counter will be created.
        $CategoryName,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The performance counter's name.
        $Name,
        
        [string]
        # The performance counter's description (i.e. help message).
        $Description,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [Diagnostics.PerformanceCounterType]
        # The performance counter's type (from the Diagnostics.PerformanceCounterType enumeration).
        $Type,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='WithBaseCounter')]
        [string]
        # The base performance counter's name.
        $BaseName,
        
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='WithBaseCounter')]
        [string]
        # The base performance counter's description (i.e. help message).
        $BaseDescription,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='WithBaseCounter')]
        [Diagnostics.PerformanceCounterType]
        # The base performance counter's type (from the Diagnostics.PerformanceCounterType enumeration).
        $BaseType,
        
        [Switch]
        # Re-create the performance counter even if it already exists.
        $Force
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version Latest
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $currentCounters = @( Get-CPerformanceCounter -CategoryName $CategoryName )
    
    $counter = $currentCounters | 
                    Where-Object { 
                        $_.CounterName -eq $Name -and `
                        $_.CounterHelp -eq $Description -and `
                        $_.CounterType -eq $Type
                    }
            
    if( $counter -and -not $Force)
    {
        return
    }
    
    if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'WithBaseCounter' )
    {
        $baseCounter = $currentCounters | 
                        Where-Object { 
                            $_.CounterName -eq $BaseName -and `
                            $_.CounterHelp -eq $BaseDescription -and `
                            $_.CounterType -eq $BaseType
                        }
                        
        if( $baseCounter -and -not $Force)
        {
            return
        }
    }
    else
    {
        $BaseName = $null
    }
        
    $counters = New-Object Diagnostics.CounterCreationDataCollection 
    $currentCounters  | 
        Where-Object { $_.CounterName -ne $Name -and $_.CounterName -ne $BaseName } |
        ForEach-Object {
            $creationData = New-Object Diagnostics.CounterCreationData $_.CounterName,$_.CounterHelp,$_.CounterType
            [void] $counters.Add( $creationData )
        }
    
    $newCounterData = New-Object Diagnostics.CounterCreationData $Name,$Description,$Type
    [void] $counters.Add( $newCounterData )
    
    $baseMsg = ''
    if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'WithBaseCounter' )
    {
        $newBaseCounterData = New-Object Diagnostics.CounterCreationData $BaseName,$BaseDescription,$BaseType
        [void] $counters.Add( $newBaseCounterData )
        $baseMsg = ' with base counter ''{0}'' ({1})' -f $BaseName,$BaseType
    }
    
    $msg = "Installing '{0}' performance counter '{1}' ({2}){3}." -f $CategoryName,$Name,$Type,$baseMsg
    
    if( $pscmdlet.ShouldProcess( $CategoryName, "install performance counter '$Name'" ) )
    {
        Uninstall-CPerformanceCounterCategory -CategoryName $CategoryName

        [void] [Diagnostics.PerformanceCounterCategory]::Create( $CategoryName, '', $counters )
    }
}




function Install-CRegistryKey
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Creates a registry key.  If it already exists, does nothing.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    Given the path to a registry key, creates the key and all its parents.  If the key already exists, nothing happens.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CRegistryKey -Path 'hklm:\Software\Carbon\Test'
    
    Creates the `hklm:\Software\Carbon\Temp` registry key if it doesn't already exist.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldPRocess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The path to the registry key to create.
        $Path
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( -not (Test-Path -Path $Path -PathType Container) )
    {
        New-Item -Path $Path -ItemType RegistryKey -Force | Out-String | Write-Verbose
    }
}





function Install-CScheduledTask
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Installs a scheduled task on the current computer.

    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Install-CScheduledTask` function uses `schtasks.exe` to install a scheduled task on the current computer. If a task with the same name already exists, the existing task is left in place. Use the `-Force` switch to force `Install-CScheduledTask` to delete any existing tasks before installation.

    If a new task is created, a `Carbon.TaskScheduler.TaskInfo` object is returned.

    The `schtasks.exe` command line application is pretty limited in the kind of tasks it will create. If you need a scheduled task created with options not supported by `Install-CScheduledTask`, you can create an XML file using the [Task Scheduler Schema](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/aa383609.aspx) or create a task with the Task Scheduler MMC then export that task as XML with the `schtasks.exe /query /xml /tn <TaskName>`. Pass the XML file (or the raw XML) with the `TaskXmlFilePath` or `TaskXml` parameters, respectively.

    .LINK
    Get-CScheduledTask

    .LINK
    Test-CScheduledTask

    .LINK
    Uninstall-CScheduledTask

    .LINK
    http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc725744.aspx#BKMK_create
    
    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/aa383609.aspx

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CScheduledTask -Name 'CarbonSample' -TaskToRun 'C:\Windows\system32\notepad.exe' -Minute 5

    Creates a scheduled task "CarbonSample" to run notepad.exe every five minutes. No credential or principal is provided, so the task will run as `System`.

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CScheduledTask -Name 'CarbonSample' -TaskToRun 'C:\Windows\system32\notepad.exe' -Minute 1 -TaskCredential (Get-Credential 'runasuser')

    Demonstrates how to run a task every minute as a specific user with the `TaskCredential` parameter.

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CScheduledTask -Name 'CarbonSample' -TaskToRun 'C:\Windows\system32\notepad.exe' -Minute 1 -Principal LocalService

    Demonstrates how to run a task every minute as a built-in principal, in this case `Local Service`.

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CScheduledTask -Name 'CarbonSample' -TaskToRun 'calc.exe' -Minute 5 -StartTime '12:00' -EndTime '14:00' -StartDate '6/6/2006' -EndDate '6/6/2006' 

    Demonstrates how to run a task every 5 minutes between the given start date/time and end date/time. In this case, the task will run between noon and 2 pm on `6/6/2006`.

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CScheduledTask -Name 'CarbonSample' -TaskToRun 'notepad' -Hourly 1

    Creates a scheduled task `CarbonSample` which runs `notepad.exe` every hour as the `LocalService` user.

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CScheduledTask -Name 'CarbonSample' -TaskToRun 'notepad.exe' -Weekly 1

    Demonstrates how to run a task ever *N* weeks, in this case every week.

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CScheduledTask -Name 'CarbonSample' -TaskToRun 'notepad.exe' -Monthly

    Demonstrates how to run a task the 1st of every month.

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CScheduledTask -Name 'CarbonSample' -TaskToRun 'notepad.exe' -Monthly -DayOfMonth 15

    Demonstrates how to run a monthly task on a specific day of the month.

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CScheduledTask -Name 'CarbonSample' -TaskToRun 'notepad.exe' -Month 1,4,7,10 -DayOfMonth 5

    Demonstrates how to run a task on specific months of the year on a specific day of the month.

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CScheduledTask -Name 'CarbonSample' -TaskToRun 'notepad.exe' -WeekOfMonth First -DayOfWeek Sunday

    Demonstrates how to run a task on a specific week of each month. In this case, the task will run the first Sunday of every month.

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CScheduledTask -Name 'CarbonSample' -TaskToRun 'notepad.exe' -Month 1,5,9 -WeekOfMonth First -DayOfWeek Sunday

    Demonstrates how to run a task on a specific week of specific months. In this case, the task will run the first Sunday of January, May, and September.

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CScheduledTask -Name 'CarbonSample' -TaskToRun 'notepad.exe' -LastDayOfMonth

    Demonstrates how to run a task the last day of every month.

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CScheduledTask -Name 'CarbonSample' -TaskToRun 'notepad.exe' -LastDayOfMonth -Month 1,6

    Demonstrates how to run a task the last day of specific months. In this case, the task will run the last day of January and June.

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CScheduledTask -Name 'CarbonSample' -TaskToRun 'notepad.exe' -Once -StartTime '0:00'

    Demonstrates how to run a task once. In this case, the task will run at midnight of today (which means it probably won't run since it is always past midnight).

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CScheduledTask -Name 'CarbonSample' -TaskToRun 'notepad.exe' -OnStart

    Demonstrates how to run a task when the computer starts up.

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CScheduledTask -Name 'CarbonSample' -TaskToRun 'notepad.exe' -OnStart -Delay '0:30'

    Demonstrates how to run a task when the computer starts up after a certain amount of time passes. In this case, the task will run 30 minutes after the computer starts.

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CScheduledTask -Name 'CarbonSample' -TaskToRun 'notepad.exe' -OnLogon -TaskCredential (Get-Credential 'runasuser')

    Demonstrates how to run a task when the user running the task logs on. Usually you want to pass a credential when setting up a logon task, since the built-in users never log in.

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CScheduledTask -Name 'CarbonSample' -TaskToRun 'notepad.exe' -OnLogon -Delay '1:45' -TaskCredential (Get-Credential 'runasuser')

    Demonstrates how to run a task after a certain amount of time passes after a user logs in. In this case, the task will run after 1 hour and 45 minutes after `runasuser` logs in.

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CScheduledTask -Name 'CarbonSample' -TaskToRun 'notepad.exe' -OnIdle

    Demonstrates how to run a task when the computer is idle.

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CScheduledTask -Name 'CarbonSample' -TaskToRun 'notepad.exe' -OnIdle -Delay '0:05'

    Demonstrates how to run a task when the computer has been idle for a desired amount of time. In this case, the task will run after the computer has been idle for 5 minutes.

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CScheduledTask -Name 'CarbonSample' -TaskToRun 'wevtvwr.msc' -OnEvent -EventChannelName System -EventXPathQuery '*[Sytem/EventID=101]'

    Demonstrates how to run an event when certain events are written to the event log. In this case, wevtvwr.msc will run whenever an event with ID `101` is published in the System event channel.

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CScheduledTask -Name 'CarbonSample' -TaskToRun 'notepad.exe' -TaskXmlFilePath $taskXmlPath

    Demonstrates how to create a task using the [Task Scheduler XML schema](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/aa383609.aspx) for a task that runs as a built-in principal. You can export task XML with the `schtasks /query /xml /tn <Name>` command.

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CScheduledTask -Name 'CarbonSample' -TaskToRun 'notepad.exe' -TaskXmlFilePath $taskXmlPath -TaskCredential (Get-Credential 'runasuser')

    Demonstrates how to create a task using the [Task Scheduler XML schema](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/aa383609.aspx) for a task that will run as a specific user. The username in the XML file should match the username in the credential.

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CScheduledTask -Name 'CarbonSample' -TaskToRun 'notepad.exe' -TaskXml $taskXml

    Demonstrates how to create a task using raw XML that conforms to the [Task Scheduler XML schema](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/aa383609.aspx) for a task that will run as a built-in principal. In this case, `$taskXml` should be an XML document.

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CScheduledTask -Name 'CarbonSample' -TaskToRun 'notepad.exe' -TaskXml $taskXml -TaskCredential (Get-Credential 'runasuser')

    Demonstrates how to create a task using raw XML that conforms to the [Task Scheduler XML schema](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/aa383609.aspx) for a task that will run as a specific user. In this case, `$taskXml` should be an XML document.  The username in the XML document should match the username in the credential.

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CScheduledTask -Name 'CarbonTasks\CarbonSample' -TaskToRun 'notepad.exe' -Monthly

    Demonstrates how to create tasks under a folder/directory: use a path for the `Name` parameter.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    [OutputType([Carbon.TaskScheduler.TaskInfo])]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [ValidateLength(1,238)]
        [Alias('TaskName')]
        [string]
        # The name of the scheduled task to create. Paths are allowed to create tasks under folders.
        $Name,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='Minute')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='Hourly')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='Daily')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='Weekly')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='Monthly')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='Month')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='LastDayOfMonth')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='WeekOfMonth')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='Once')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='OnStart')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='OnLogon')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='OnIdle')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='OnEvent')]
        [ValidateLength(1,262)]
        [string]
        # The task/program to execute, including arguments/parameters.
        $TaskToRun,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Minute',Mandatory=$true)]
        [ValidateRange(1,1439)]
        [int]
        # Create a scheduled task that runs every N minutes.
        $Minute,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Hourly',Mandatory=$true)]
        [ValidateRange(1,23)]
        [int]
        # Create a scheduled task that runs every N hours.
        $Hourly,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Minute')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Hourly')]
        [Switch]
        # Stops the task at the `EndTime` or `Duration` if it is still running.
        $StopAtEnd,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Daily',Mandatory=$true)]
        [ValidateRange(1,365)]
        [int]
        # Creates a scheduled task that runs every N days.
        $Daily,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Weekly',Mandatory=$true)]
        [ValidateRange(1,52)]
        [int]
        # Creates a scheduled task that runs every N weeks.
        $Weekly,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Monthly',Mandatory=$true)]
        [Switch]
        # Create a scheduled task that runs every month.
        $Monthly,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='LastDayOfMonth',Mandatory=$true)]
        [Switch]
        # Create a scheduled task that runs on the last day of every month. To run on specific months, specify the `Month` parameter.
        $LastDayOfMonth,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Month',Mandatory=$true)]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='LastDayOfMonth')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='WeekOfMonth')]
        [Carbon.TaskScheduler.Month[]]
        # Create a scheduled task that runs on specific months. To create a monthly task, use the `Monthly` switch.
        $Month,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Monthly')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Month',Mandatory=$true)]
        [ValidateRange(1,31)]
        [int]
        # The day of the month to run a monthly task.
        $DayOfMonth,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='WeekOfMonth',Mandatory=$true)]
        [Carbon.TaskScheduler.WeekOfMonth]
        # Create a scheduled task that runs a particular week of the month.
        $WeekOfMonth,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='WeekOfMonth',Mandatory=$true)]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Weekly')]
        [DayOfWeek[]]
        # The day of the week to run the task. Default is today.
        $DayOfWeek,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Once',Mandatory=$true)]
        [Switch]
        # Create a scheduled task that runs once.
        $Once,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='OnStart',Mandatory=$true)]
        [Switch]
        # Create a scheduled task that runs at startup.
        $OnStart,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='OnLogon',Mandatory=$true)]
        [Switch]
        # Create a scheduled task that runs when the user running the task logs on.  Requires the `TaskCredential` parameter.
        $OnLogon,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='OnIdle',Mandatory=$true)]
        [ValidateRange(1,999)]
        [int]
        # Create a scheduled task that runs when the computer is idle for N minutes.
        $OnIdle,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='OnEvent',Mandatory=$true)]
        [Switch]
        # Create a scheduled task that runs when events appear in the Windows event log.
        $OnEvent,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='OnEvent',Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the event channel to look at.
        $EventChannelName,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='OnEvent',Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The XPath event query to use to determine when to fire `OnEvent` tasks.
        $EventXPathQuery,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='XmlFile')]
        [string]
        # Install the task from this XML path.
        $TaskXmlFilePath,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='Xml')]
        [xml]
        # Install the task from this XML.
        $TaskXml,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Daily')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Weekly')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Monthly')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Month')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='LastDayOfMonth')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='WeekOfMonth')]
        [ValidateRange(1,599940)]
        [int]
        # Re-run the task every N minutes.
        $Interval,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Minute')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Hourly')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Daily')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Weekly')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Monthly')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Month')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='LastDayOfMonth')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='WeekOfMonth')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Once')]
        [DateTime]
        # The date the task can start running.
        $StartDate,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Minute')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Hourly')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Daily')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Weekly')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Monthly')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Month')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='LastDayOfMonth')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='WeekOfMonth')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Once',Mandatory=$true)]
        [ValidateScript({ $_ -lt [timespan]'1' })]
        [TimeSpan]
        # The start time to run the task. Must be less than `24:00`.
        $StartTime,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Minute')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Hourly')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Daily')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Weekly')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Monthly')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Month')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='LastDayOfMonth')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='WeekOfMonth')]
        [TimeSpan]
        # The duration to run the task. Usually used with `Interval` to repeatedly run a task over a given time span. By default, re-runs for an hour. Can't be used with `EndTime`.
        $Duration,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Minute')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Hourly')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Daily')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Weekly')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Monthly')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Month')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='LastDayOfMonth')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='WeekOfMonth')]
        [DateTime]
        # The last date the task should run.
        $EndDate,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Minute')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Hourly')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Daily')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Weekly')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Monthly')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Month')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='LastDayOfMonth')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='WeekOfMonth')]
        [ValidateScript({ $_ -lt [timespan]'1' })]
        [TimeSpan]
        # The end time to run the task. Must be less than `24:00`. Can't be used with `Duration`.
        $EndTime,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Minute')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Hourly')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Daily')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Weekly')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Monthly')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Month')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='LastDayOfMonth')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='WeekOfMonth')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Once')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='OnStart')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='OnLogon')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='OnIdle')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='OnEvent')]
        [Switch]
        # Enables the task to run interactively only if the user is currently logged on at the time the job runs. The task will only run if the user is logged on. Must be used with `TaskCredential` parameter.
        $Interactive,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Minute')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Hourly')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Daily')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Weekly')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Monthly')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Month')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='LastDayOfMonth')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='WeekOfMonth')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Once')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='OnStart')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='OnLogon')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='OnIdle')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='OnEvent')]
        [Switch]
        # No password is stored. The task runs non-interactively as the given user, who must be logged in. Only local resources are available. Must be used with `TaskCredential` parameter.
        $NoPassword,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Minute')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Hourly')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Daily')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Weekly')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Monthly')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Month')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='LastDayOfMonth')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='WeekOfMonth')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Once')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='OnStart')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='OnLogon')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='OnIdle')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='OnEvent')]
        [Switch]
        # If the user is an administrator, runs the task with full administrator rights. The default is to run with limited administrative privileges. 
        #
        # If UAC is enabled, an administrator has two security tokens: a filtered token that gets used by default and grants standard user rights and a full token that grants administrative rights that is only used when a program is "Run as administrator". Using this switch runs the scheduled task with the adminisrators full token. (Information taken from [How does "Run with the highest privileges" really work in Task Scheduler ?](https://social.technet.microsoft.com/Forums/windows/en-US/7167bb31-f375-4f77-b430-0339092e16b9/how-does-run-with-the-highest-privileges-really-work-in-task-scheduler-).)
        $HighestAvailableRunLevel,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='OnStart')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='OnLogon')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='OnEvent')]
        [ValidateScript({ $_ -lt '6.22:40:00'})]
        [timespan]
        # The wait time to delay the running of the task after the trigger is fired.  Must be less than 10,000 minutes (6 days, 22 hours, and 40 minutes).
        $Delay,

        [Management.Automation.PSCredential]
        # The principal the task should run as. Use `Principal` parameter to run as a built-in security principal. Required if `Interactive` or `NoPassword` switches are used.
        $TaskCredential,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Minute')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Hourly')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Daily')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Weekly')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Monthly')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Month')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='LastDayOfMonth')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='WeekOfMonth')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Once')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='OnStart')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='OnLogon')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='OnIdle')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='OnEvent')]
        [ValidateSet('System','LocalService','NetworkService')]
        [string]
        # The built-in identity to use. The default is `System`. Use the `TaskCredential` parameter to run as non-built-in security principal.
        $Principal = 'System',

        [Switch]
        # Create the task even if a task with the same name already exists (i.e. delete any task with the same name before installation).
        $Force
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( (Test-CScheduledTask -Name $Name) )
    {
        if( $Force )
        {
            Uninstall-CScheduledTask -Name $Name
        }
        else
        {
            Write-Verbose ('Scheduled task ''{0}'' already exists. Use -Force switch to re-create it.' -f $Name)
            return
        }
    }

    $parameters = New-Object 'Collections.ArrayList'

    if( $TaskCredential )
    {
        [void]$parameters.Add( '/RU' )
        [void]$parameters.Add( $TaskCredential.UserName )
        [void]$parameters.Add( '/RP' )
        [void]$parameters.Add( $TaskCredential.GetNetworkCredential().Password )
        Grant-CPrivilege -Identity $TaskCredential.UserName -Privilege 'SeBatchLogonRight'
    }
    elseif( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -notlike 'Xml*' )
    {
        [void]$parameters.Add( '/RU' )
        [void]$parameters.Add( (Resolve-CIdentityName -Name $Principal) )
    }

    function ConvertTo-SchtasksCalendarNameList
    {
        param(
            [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
            [object[]]
            $InputObject
        )

        Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

        $list = $InputObject | ForEach-Object { $_.ToString().Substring(0,3).ToUpperInvariant() }
        return $list -join ','
    }

    $scheduleType = $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName.ToUpperInvariant()
    $modifier = $null
    switch -Wildcard ( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName )
    {
        'Minute'
        {
            $modifier = $Minute
        }
        'Hourly'
        {
            $modifier = $Hourly
        }
        'Daily'
        {
            $modifier = $Daily
        }
        'Weekly'
        {
            $modifier = $Weekly
            if( $PSBoundParameters.ContainsKey('DayOfWeek') )
            {
                [void]$parameters.Add( '/D' )
                [void]$parameters.Add( (ConvertTo-SchtasksCalendarNameList $DayOfWeek) )
            }
        }
        'Monthly'
        {
            $modifier = 1
            if( $DayOfMonth )
            {
                [void]$parameters.Add( '/D' )
                [void]$parameters.Add( ($DayOfMonth -join ',') )
            }
        }
        'Month'
        {
            $scheduleType = 'MONTHLY'
            [void]$parameters.Add( '/M' )
            [void]$parameters.Add( (ConvertTo-SchtasksCalendarNameList $Month) )
            if( ($Month | Select-Object -Unique | Measure-Object).Count -eq 12 )
            {
                Write-Error ('It looks like you''re trying to schedule a monthly task, since you passed all 12 months as the `Month` parameter. Please use the `-Monthly` switch to schedule a monthly task.')
                return
            }

            if( $DayOfMonth )
            {
                [void]$parameters.Add( '/D' )
                [void]$parameters.Add( ($DayOfMonth -join ',') )
            }
        }
        'LastDayOfMonth'
        {
            $modifier = 'LASTDAY'
            $scheduleType = 'MONTHLY'
            [void]$parameters.Add( '/M' )
            if( $Month )
            {
                [void]$parameters.Add( (ConvertTo-SchtasksCalendarNameList $Month) )
            }
            else
            {
                [void]$parameters.Add( '*' )
            }
        }
        'WeekOfMonth'
        {
            $scheduleType = 'MONTHLY'
            $modifier = $WeekOfMonth
            [void]$parameters.Add( '/D' )
            if( $DayOfWeek.Count -eq 1 -and [Enum]::IsDefined([DayOfWeek],$DayOfWeek[0]) )
            {
                [void]$parameters.Add( (ConvertTo-SchtasksCalendarNameList $DayOfWeek[0]) )
            }
            else
            {
                Write-Error ('Tasks that run during a specific week of the month can only occur on a single weekday (received {0} days: {1}). Please pass one weekday with the `-DayOfWeek` parameter.' -f $DayOfWeek.Length,($DayOfWeek -join ','))
                return
            }
        }
        'OnIdle'
        {
            $scheduleType = 'ONIDLE'
            [void]$parameters.Add( '/I' )
            [void]$parameters.Add( $OnIdle )
        }
        'OnEvent'
        {
            $modifier = $EventXPathQuery
        }
        'Xml*'
        {
            if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'Xml' )
            {
                $TaskXmlFilePath = 'Carbon+Install-CScheduledTask+{0}.xml' -f [IO.Path]::GetRandomFileName()
                $TaskXmlFilePath = Join-Path -Path $env:TEMP -ChildPath $TaskXmlFilePath
                $TaskXml.Save($TaskXmlFilePath)
            }

            $scheduleType = $null
            $TaskXmlFilePath = Resolve-Path -Path $TaskXmlFilePath
            if( -not $TaskXmlFilePath )
            {
                return
            }

            [void]$parameters.Add( '/XML' )
            [void]$parameters.Add( $TaskXmlFilePath )
        }
    }

    try
    {
        if( $modifier )
        {
            [void]$parameters.Add( '/MO' )
            [void]$parameters.Add( $modifier )
        }

        if( $PSBoundParameters.ContainsKey('TaskToRun') )
        {
            [void]$parameters.Add( '/TR' )
            [void]$parameters.Add( $TaskToRun )
        }

        if( $scheduleType )
        {
            [void]$parameters.Add( '/SC' )
            [void]$parameters.Add( $scheduleType )
        }


        $parameterNameToSchtasksMap = @{
                                            'StartTime' = '/ST';
                                            'Interval' = '/RI';
                                            'EndTime' = '/ET';
                                            'Duration' = '/DU';
                                            'StopAtEnd' = '/K';
                                            'StartDate' = '/SD';
                                            'EndDate' = '/ED';
                                            'EventChannelName' = '/EC';
                                            'Interactive' = '/IT';
                                            'NoPassword' = '/NP';
                                            'Force' = '/F';
                                            'Delay' = '/DELAY';
                                      }

        foreach( $parameterName in $parameterNameToSchtasksMap.Keys )
        {
            if( -not $PSBoundParameters.ContainsKey( $parameterName ) )
            {
                continue
            }

            $schtasksParamName = $parameterNameToSchtasksMap[$parameterName]
            $value = $PSBoundParameters[$parameterName]
            if( $value -is [timespan] )
            {
                if( $parameterName -eq 'Duration' )
                {
                    $totalHours = ($value.Days * 24) + $value.Hours
                    $value = '{0:0000}:{1:00}' -f $totalHours,$value.Minutes
                }
                elseif( $parameterName -eq 'Delay' )
                {
                    $totalMinutes = ($value.Days * 24 * 60) + ($value.Hours * 60) + $value.Minutes
                    $value = '{0:0000}:{1:00}' -f $totalMinutes,$value.Seconds
                }
                else
                {
                    $value = '{0:00}:{1:00}' -f $value.Hours,$value.Minutes
                }
            }
            elseif( $value -is [datetime] )
            {
                $value = $value.ToString('MM/dd/yyyy')
            }

            [void]$parameters.Add( $schtasksParamName )

            if( $value -isnot [switch] )
            {
                [void]$parameters.Add( $value )
            }
        }

        if( $PSBoundParameters.ContainsKey('HighestAvailableRunLevel') -and $HighestAvailableRunLevel )
        {
            [void]$parameters.Add( '/RL' )
            [void]$parameters.Add( 'HIGHEST' )
        }

        $originalEap = $ErrorActionPreference
        $ErrorActionPreference = 'Continue'
        $paramLogString = $parameters -join ' '
        if( $TaskCredential )
        {
            $paramLogString = $paramLogString -replace ([Text.RegularExpressions.Regex]::Escape($TaskCredential.GetNetworkCredential().Password)),'********'
        }
        Write-Verbose ('/TN {0} {1}' -f $Name,$paramLogString)
        # Warnings get written by schtasks to the error stream. Fortunately, errors and warnings 
        # are prefixed with ERRROR and WARNING, so we can combine output/error streams and parse 
        # it later. We just have to make sure we remove any errors added to the $Error variable.
        $preErrorCount = $Global:Error.Count
        $output = schtasks /create /TN $Name $parameters 2>&1
        $postErrorCount = $Global:Error.Count
        if( $postErrorCount -gt $preErrorCount )
        {
            $numToDelete = $postErrorCount - $preErrorCount
            for( $idx = 0; $idx -lt $numToDelete; ++$idx )
            {
                $Global:Error.RemoveAt(0)
            }
        }
        $ErrorActionPreference = $originalEap

        $createFailed = $false
        if( $LASTEXITCODE )
        {
            $createFailed = $true
        }

        $output | ForEach-Object { 
            if( $_ -match '\bERROR\b' )
            {
                Write-Error $_
            }
            elseif( $_ -match '\bWARNING\b' )
            {
                Write-Warning ($_ -replace '^WARNING: ','')
            }
            else
            {
                Write-Verbose $_
            }
        }

        if( -not $createFailed )
        {
            Get-CScheduledTask -Name $Name
        }
    }
    finally
    {
        if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'Xml' -and (Test-Path -Path $TaskXmlFilePath -PathType Leaf) )
        {
            Remove-Item -Path $TaskXmlFilePath -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue
        }
    }
}



function Install-CService
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Installs a Windows service.

    .DESCRIPTION
    `Install-CService` uses `sc.exe` to install a Windows service. If a service with the given name already exists, it is stopped, its configuration is updated to match the parameters passed in, and then re-started. Settings whose parameters are omitted are reset to their default values.
    
    Beginning in Carbon 2.0, use the `PassThru` switch to return a `ServiceController` object for the new/updated service.

    By default, the service is installed to run as `NetworkService`. Use the `Credential` parameter to run as a different account (if you don't have a `Credential` parameter, upgrade to Carbon 2.0 or use the `UserName` and `Password` parameters). This user will be granted the logon as a service right. To run as a system account other than `NetworkService`, provide just the account's name as the `UserName` parameter.

    The minimum required information to install a service is its name and path.

    [Managed service accounts and virtual accounts](http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd548356.aspx) should be supported (we don't know how to test, so can't be sure).  Simply omit the `-Password` parameter when providing a custom account name with the `-Username` parameter.

    `Manual` services are not started. `Automatic` services are started after installation. If an existing manual service is running when configuration begins, it is re-started after re-configured. If a service is stopped when configuration begins, it remains stopped when configuration ends. To start the service if it is stopped, use the `-EnsureRunning` switch (which was added in version 2.5.0).

    The ability to provide service arguments/parameters via the `ArgumentList` parameter was added in Carbon 2.0.

    .LINK
    Carbon_Service

    .LINK
    New-CCredential

    .LINK
    Uninstall-CService

    .LINK
    http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd548356.aspx

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CService -Name DeathStar -Path C:\ALongTimeAgo\InAGalaxyFarFarAway\DeathStar.exe

    Installs the Death Star service, which runs the service executable at `C:\ALongTimeAgo\InAGalaxyFarFarAway\DeathStar.exe`.  The service runs as `NetworkService` and will start automatically.

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CService -Name DeathStar -Path C:\ALongTimeAgo\InAGalaxyFarFarAway\DeathStar.exe -StartupType Manual

    Install the Death Star service to startup manually.  You certainly don't want the thing roaming the galaxy, destroying thing willy-nilly, do you?

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CService -Name DeathStar -Path C:\ALongTimeAgo\InAGalaxyFarFarAway\DeathStar.exe -StartupType Automatic -Delayed

    Demonstrates how to set a service startup typemode to automatic delayed. Set the `StartupType` parameter to `Automatic` and provide the `Delayed` switch. This behavior was added in Carbon 2.5.

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CService -Name DeathStar -Path C:\ALongTimeAgo\InAGalaxyFarFarAway\DeathStar.exe -Credential $tarkinCredentials

    Installs the Death Star service to run as Grand Moff Tarkin, who is given the log on as a service right.

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CService -Name DeathStar -Path C:\ALongTimeAgo\InAGalaxyFarFarAway\DeathStar.exe -Username SYSTEM

    Demonstrates how to install a service to run as a system account other than `NetworkService`. Installs the DeathStart service to run as the local `System` account.

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CService -Name DeathStar -Path C:\ALongTimeAgo\InAGalaxyFarFarAway\DeathStar.exe -OnFirstFailure RunCommand -RunCommandDelay 5000 -Command 'engage_hyperdrive.exe "Corruscant"' -OnSecondFailure Restart -RestartDelay 30000 -OnThirdFailure Reboot -RebootDelay 120000 -ResetFailureCount (60*60*24)

    Demonstrates how to control the service's failure actions. On the first failure, Windows will run the `engage-hyperdrive.exe "Corruscant"` command after 5 seconds (`5,000` milliseconds). On the second failure, Windows will restart the service after 30 seconds (`30,000` milliseconds). On the third failure, Windows will reboot after two minutes (`120,000` milliseconds). The failure count gets reset once a day (`60*60*24` seconds).

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CService -Name DeathStar -Path C:\ALongTimeAgo\InAGalaxyFarFarAway\DeathStar.exe -EnsureRunning

    Demonstrates how to ensure a service gets started after installation/configuration. Normally, `Install-CService` leaves the service in whatever state the service was in. The `EnsureRunnnig` switch will attempt to start the service even if it was stopped to begin with.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true,DefaultParameterSetName='NetworkServiceAccount')]
    [OutputType([ServiceProcess.ServiceController])]
    [Diagnostics.CodeAnalysis.SuppressMessageAttribute("PSAvoidUsingUserNameAndPassWordParams","")]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the service.
        $Name,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The path to the service.
        $Path,

        [string[]]
        # The arguments/startup parameters for the service. Added in Carbon 2.0.
        $ArgumentList,
        
        [ServiceProcess.ServiceStartMode]
        # The startup type: automatic, manual, or disabled.  Default is automatic.
        #
        # To start the service as automatic delayed, use the `-Delayed` switch and set this parameter to `Automatic`. The ability to set a service's startup type to automatic delayed was added in Carbon 2.5.
        $StartupType = [ServiceProcess.ServiceStartMode]::Automatic,

        [Switch]
        # When the startup type is automatic, further configure the service start type to be automatic delayed. This parameter is ignored unless `StartupType` is `Automatic`.
        #
        # This switch was added in Carbon 2.5.
        $Delayed,
        
        [Carbon.Service.FailureAction]
        # What to do on the service's first failure.  Default is to take no action.
        $OnFirstFailure = [Carbon.Service.FailureAction]::TakeNoAction,
        
        [Carbon.Service.FailureAction]
        # What to do on the service's second failure. Default is to take no action.
        $OnSecondFailure = [Carbon.Service.FailureAction]::TakeNoAction,
        
        [Carbon.Service.FailureAction]
        # What to do on the service' third failure.  Default is to take no action.
        $OnThirdFailure = [Carbon.Service.FailureAction]::TakeNoAction,

        [int]
        # How many seconds after which the failure count is reset to 0.
        $ResetFailureCount = 0,
        
        [int]
        # How many milliseconds to wait before restarting the service.  Default is 60,0000, or 1 minute.
        $RestartDelay = 60000,
        
        [int]
        # How many milliseconds to wait before handling the second failure.  Default is 60,000 or 1 minute.
        $RebootDelay = 60000,

        [Alias('Dependencies')]
        [string[]]
        # What other services does this service depend on?
        $Dependency,
        
        [string]
        # The command to run when a service fails, including path to the command and arguments.
        $Command,
        
        [int]
        # How many milliseconds to wait before running the failure command. Default is 0, or immediately.
        $RunCommandDelay = 0,

        [string]
        # The service's description. If you don't supply a value, the service's existing description is preserved.
        #
        # The `Description` parameter was added in Carbon 2.0.
        $Description,

        [string]
        # The service's display name. If you don't supply a value, the display name will set to Name.
        #
        # The `DisplayName` parameter was added in Carbon 2.0.
        $DisplayName,
        
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='CustomAccount',Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The user the service should run as. Default is `NetworkService`.
        $UserName,
        
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='CustomAccount',DontShow=$true)]
        [string]
        # OBSOLETE. The `Password` parameter will be removed in a future major version of Carbon. Use the `Credential` parameter instead.
        $Password,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='CustomAccountWithCredential',Mandatory=$true)]
        [pscredential]
        # The credential of the account the service should run as.
        #
        # The `Credential` parameter was added in Carbon 2.0.
        $Credential,

        [Switch]
        # Update the service even if there are no changes.
        $Force,

        [Switch]
        # Return a `System.ServiceProcess.ServiceController` object for the configured service.
        $PassThru,

        [Switch]
        # Start the service after install/configuration if it is not running. This parameter was added in Carbon 2.5.0.
        $EnsureRunning
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    function ConvertTo-FailureActionArg($action)
    {
        if( $action -eq 'Reboot' )
        {
            return "reboot/{0}" -f $RebootDelay
        }
        elseif( $action -eq 'Restart' )
        {
            return "restart/{0}" -f $RestartDelay
        }
        elseif( $action -eq 'RunCommand' )
        {
            return 'run/{0}' -f $RunCommandDelay
        }
        elseif( $action -eq 'TakeNoAction' )
        {
            return '""/0'
        }
        else
        {
            Write-Error "Service failure action '$action' not found/recognized."
            return ''
        }
    }

    if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -like 'CustomAccount*' )
    {
        if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -like '*WithCredential' )
        {
            $UserName = $Credential.UserName
        }
        elseif( $Password )
        {
            Write-Warning ('`Install-CService` function''s `Password` parameter is obsolete and will be removed in a future major version of Carbon. Please use the `Credential` parameter instead.')
            $Credential = New-CCredential -UserName $UserName -Password $Password
        }
        else
        {
            $Credential = $null
        }


        $identity = Resolve-CIdentity -Name $UserName

        if( -not $identity )
        {
            Write-Error ("Identity '{0}' not found." -f $UserName)
            return
        }
    }
    else
    {
        $identity = Resolve-CIdentity "NetworkService"
    }
    
    if( -not (Test-Path -Path $Path -PathType Leaf) )
    {
        Write-Warning ('Service ''{0}'' executable ''{1}'' not found.' -f $Name,$Path)
    }
    else
    {
        $Path = Resolve-Path -Path $Path | Select-Object -ExpandProperty ProviderPath
    }


    if( $ArgumentList )	
    {	
        $binPathArg = Invoke-Command -ScriptBlock {	
                            $Path	
                            $ArgumentList 	
                        } |	
                        ForEach-Object { 	
                            if( $_.Contains(' ') )	
                            {	
                                return '"{0}"' -f $_.Trim('"')	
                            }	
                            return $_	
                        }	
        $binPathArg = $binPathArg -join ' '	
    }	
    else	
    {	
        $binPathArg = $Path	
    }

    $doInstall = $false
    if( -not $Force -and (Test-CService -Name $Name) )
    {
        Write-Debug -Message ('Service {0} exists. Checking if configuration has changed.' -f $Name)
        $service = Get-Service -Name $Name
        $serviceConfig = Get-CServiceConfiguration -Name $Name
        $dependedOnServiceNames = $service.ServicesDependedOn | Select-Object -ExpandProperty 'Name'

        if( $service.Path -ne $binPathArg )
        {
            Write-Verbose ('[{0}] Path              {1} -> {2}' -f $Name,$serviceConfig.Path,$binPathArg)
            $doInstall = $true
        }

        # DisplayName, if not set, defaults to the service name. This makes it a little bit tricky to update.
        # If provided, make sure display name matches.
        # If not provided, reset it to an empty/default value.
        if( $PSBoundParameters.ContainsKey('DisplayName') )
        {
            if( $service.DisplayName -ne $DisplayName )
            {
                Write-Verbose ('[{0}] DisplayName       {1} -> {2}' -f $Name,$service.DisplayName,$DisplayName)
                $doInstall = $true
            }
        }
        elseif( $service.DisplayName -ne $service.Name )
        {
            Write-Verbose ('[{0}] DisplayName       {1} -> ' -f $Name,$service.DisplayName)
            $doInstall = $true
        }

        if( $serviceConfig.FirstFailure -ne $OnFirstFailure )
        {
            Write-Verbose ('[{0}] OnFirstFailure    {1} -> {2}' -f $Name,$serviceConfig.FirstFailure,$OnFirstFailure)
            $doInstall = $true
        }

        if( $serviceConfig.SecondFailure -ne $OnSecondFailure )
        {
            Write-Verbose ('[{0}] OnSecondFailure   {1} -> {2}' -f $Name,$serviceConfig.SecondFailure,$OnSecondFailure)
            $doInstall = $true
        }

        if( $serviceConfig.ThirdFailure -ne $OnThirdFailure )
        {
            Write-Verbose ('[{0}] OnThirdFailure    {1} -> {2}' -f $Name,$serviceConfig.ThirdFailure,$OnThirdFailure)
            $doInstall = $true
        }

        if( $serviceConfig.ResetPeriod -ne $ResetFailureCount )
        {
            Write-Verbose ('[{0}] ResetFailureCount {1} -> {2}' -f $Name,$serviceConfig.ResetPeriod,$ResetFailureCount)
            $doInstall = $true
        }
        
        $failureActions = $OnFirstFailure,$OnSecondFailure,$OnThirdFailure
        if( ($failureActions | Where-Object { $_ -eq [Carbon.Service.FailureAction]::Reboot }) -and $serviceConfig.RebootDelay -ne $RebootDelay )
        {
            Write-Verbose ('[{0}] RebootDelay       {1} -> {2}' -f $Name,$serviceConfig.RebootDelay,$RebootDelay)
            $doInstall = $true
        }

        if( ($failureActions | Where-Object { $_ -eq [Carbon.Service.FailureAction]::Restart }) -and $serviceConfig.RestartDelay -ne $RestartDelay)
        {
            Write-Verbose ('[{0}] RestartDelay      {1} -> {2}' -f $Name,$serviceConfig.RestartDelay,$RestartDelay)
            $doInstall = $true
        }

        if( $failureActions | Where-Object { $_ -eq [Carbon.Service.FailureAction]::RunCommand } )
        {
            if( $serviceConfig.FailureProgram -ne $Command )
            {
                Write-Verbose ('[{0}] Command           {1} -> {2}' -f $Name,$serviceConfig.FailureProgram,$Command)
                $doInstall = $true
            }

            if( $serviceConfig.RunCommandDelay -ne $RunCommandDelay )
            {
                Write-Verbose ('[{0}] RunCommandDelay   {1} -> {2}' -f $Name,$serviceConfig.RunCommandDelay,$RunCommandDelay)
                $doInstall = $true
            }
        }

        if( $service.StartMode -ne $StartupType )
        {
            Write-Verbose ('[{0}] StartupType       {1} -> {2}' -f $Name,$serviceConfig.StartType,$StartupType)
            $doInstall = $true
        }

        if( $StartupType -eq [ServiceProcess.ServiceStartMode]::Automatic -and $Delayed -ne $serviceConfig.DelayedAutoStart )
        {
            Write-Verbose ('[{0}] DelayedAutoStart  {1} -> {2}' -f $Name,$service.DelayedAutoStart,$Delayed)
            $doInstall = $true
        }

        if( ($Dependency | Where-Object { $dependedOnServiceNames -notcontains $_ }) -or `
            ($dependedOnServiceNames | Where-Object { $Dependency -notcontains $_ })  )
        {
            Write-Verbose ('[{0}] Dependency        {1} -> {2}' -f $Name,($dependedOnServiceNames -join ','),($Dependency -join ','))
            $doInstall = $true
        }

        if( $Description -and $serviceConfig.Description -ne $Description )
        {
            Write-Verbose ('[{0}] Description       {1} -> {2}' -f $Name,$serviceConfig.Description,$Description)
            $doInstall = $true
        }

        $currentIdentity = Resolve-CIdentity $serviceConfig.UserName
        if( $currentIdentity.FullName -ne $identity.FullName )
        {
            Write-Verbose ('[{0}] UserName          {1} -> {2}' -f $Name,$currentIdentity.FullName,$identity.FullName)
            $doinstall = $true
        }
    }
    else
    {
        $doInstall = $true
    }

    try
    {
        if( -not $doInstall )
        {
            Write-Debug -Message ('Skipping {0} service configuration: settings unchanged.' -f $Name)
            return
        }

        if( $Dependency )
        {
            $missingDependencies = $false
            $Dependency | 
                ForEach-Object {
                    if( -not (Test-CService -Name $_) )
                    {
                        Write-Error ('Dependent service {0} not found.' -f $_)
                        $missingDependencies = $true
                    }
                }
            if( $missingDependencies )
            {
                return
            }
        }
    
        $sc = Join-Path $env:WinDir system32\sc.exe -Resolve
    
        $startArg = 'auto'
        if( $StartupType -eq [ServiceProcess.ServiceStartMode]::Automatic -and $Delayed )
        {
            $startArg = 'delayed-auto'
        }
        elseif( $StartupType -eq [ServiceProcess.ServiceStartMode]::Manual )
        {
            $startArg = 'demand'
        }
        elseif( $StartupType -eq [ServiceProcess.ServiceStartMode]::Disabled )
        {
            $startArg = 'disabled'
        }
    
        $passwordArgName = ''
        $passwordArgValue = ''
        if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -like 'CustomAccount*' )
        {
            if( $Credential )
            {
                $passwordArgName = 'password='
                $passwordArgValue = $Credential.GetNetworkCredential().Password -replace '"', '\"'
            }
        
            if( $PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess( $identity.FullName, "grant the log on as a service right" ) )
            {
                Grant-CPrivilege -Identity $identity.FullName -Privilege SeServiceLogonRight
            }
        }
    
        if( $PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess( $Path, ('grant {0} ReadAndExecute permissions' -f $identity.FullName) ) )
        {
            Grant-CPermission -Identity $identity.FullName -Permission ReadAndExecute -Path $Path
        }
    
        $service = Get-Service -Name $Name -ErrorAction Ignore
    
        $operation = 'create'
        $serviceIsRunningStatus = @(
                                      [ServiceProcess.ServiceControllerStatus]::Running,
                                      [ServiceProcess.ServiceControllerStatus]::StartPending
                                   )

        if( -not $EnsureRunning )
        {
            $EnsureRunning = ($StartupType -eq [ServiceProcess.ServiceStartMode]::Automatic)
        }

        if( $service )
        {
            $EnsureRunning = ( $EnsureRunning -or ($serviceIsRunningStatus -contains $service.Status) )
            if( $StartupType -eq [ServiceProcess.ServiceStartMode]::Disabled )
            {
                $EnsureRunning = $false
            }

            if( $service.CanStop )
            {
                Stop-Service -Name $Name -Force -ErrorAction Ignore
                if( $? )
                {
                    $service.WaitForStatus( 'Stopped' )
                }
            }

            if( -not ($service.Status -eq [ServiceProcess.ServiceControllerStatus]::Stopped) )
            {
                Write-Warning "Unable to stop service '$Name' before applying config changes.  You may need to restart this service manually for any changes to take affect."
            }
            $operation = 'config'
        }
    
        $dependencyArgValue = '""'
        if( $Dependency )
        {
            $dependencyArgValue = $Dependency -join '/'
        }

        $displayNameArgName = 'DisplayName='
        $displayNameArgValue = '""'
        if( $DisplayName )
        {
            $displayNameArgValue = $DisplayName
        }

        $binPathArg = $binPathArg -replace '"','\"'
        if( $PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess( "$Name [$Path]", "$operation service" ) )
        {
            Write-Verbose "$sc $operation $Name binPath= $binPathArg start= $startArg obj= $($identity.FullName) $passwordArgName $('*' * $passwordArgValue.Length) depend= $dependencyArgValue $displayNameArgName $displayNameArgValue" -Verbose
            & $sc $operation $Name binPath= $binPathArg start= $startArg obj= $identity.FullName $passwordArgName $passwordArgValue depend= $dependencyArgValue $displayNameArgName $displayNameArgValue |
                Write-Verbose
            $scExitCode = $LastExitCode
            if( $scExitCode -ne 0 )
            {
                $reason = net helpmsg $scExitCode 2>$null | Where-Object { $_ }
                Write-Error ("Failed to {0} service '{1}'. {2} returned exit code {3}: {4}" -f $operation,$Name,$sc,$scExitCode,$reason)
                return
            }

            if( $Description )
            {
                & $sc 'description' $Name $Description | Write-Verbose
                $scExitCode = $LastExitCode
                if( $scExitCode -ne 0 )
                {
                    $reason = net helpmsg $scExitCode 2>$null | Where-Object { $_ }
                    Write-Error ("Failed to set {0} service's description. {1} returned exit code {2}: {3}" -f $Name,$sc,$scExitCode,$reason)
                    return
                }
            }
        }
    
        $firstAction = ConvertTo-FailureActionArg $OnFirstFailure
        $secondAction = ConvertTo-FailureActionArg $OnSecondFailure
        $thirdAction = ConvertTo-FailureActionArg $OnThirdFailure

        if( -not $Command )
        {
            $Command = '""'
        }

        if( $PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess( $Name, "setting service failure actions" ) )
        {
            & $sc failure $Name reset= $ResetFailureCount actions= $firstAction/$secondAction/$thirdAction command= $Command |
                Write-Verbose
            $scExitCode = $LastExitCode
            if( $scExitCode -ne 0 )
            {
                $reason = net helpmsg $scExitCode 2>$null | Where-Object { $_ }
                Write-Error ("Failed to set {0} service's failure actions. {1} returned exit code {2}: {3}" -f $Name,$sc,$scExitCode,$reason)
                return
            }
        }
    }
    finally
    {
        if( $EnsureRunning )
        {
            if( $PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess( $Name, 'start service' ) )
            {
                Start-Service -Name $Name -ErrorAction $ErrorActionPreference
                if( (Get-Service -Name $Name).Status -ne [ServiceProcess.ServiceControllerStatus]::Running )
                {
                    if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -like 'CustomAccount*' -and -not $Credential )
                    {
                        Write-Warning ('Service ''{0}'' didn''t start and you didn''t supply a password to Install-CService.  Is ''{1}'' a managed service account or virtual account? (See http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd548356.aspx.)  If not, please use the `Credential` parameter to pass the account''s credentials.' -f $Name,$UserName)
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        Write-Warning ('Failed to re-start service ''{0}''.' -f $Name)
                    }
                }
            }
        }
        else
        {
            Write-Verbose ('Not re-starting {0} service. Its startup type is {1} and it wasn''t running when configuration began. To always start a service after configuring it, use the -EnsureRunning switch.' -f $Name,$StartupType)
        }

        if( $PassThru )
        {
            Get-Service -Name $Name -ErrorAction Ignore
        }
    }
}



function Install-CUser
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Installs a *local* user account.

    .DESCRIPTION
    `Install-CUser` creates a new *local* user account, or updates an existing *local* user account. 
    
    Returns the user if `-PassThru` switch is used. The object returned, an instance of `System.DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.UserPrincipal`, uses external resources, which means it can leak memory when garbage collected. When you're done using the user object you get, call its `Dispose()` method so its external resources are cleaned up properly.

    The `UserCannotChangePassword` and `PasswordExpires` switches were added in Carbon 2.0.

    .OUTPUTS
    System.DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.UserPrincipal.

    .LINK
    Get-CUser

    .LINK
    New-CCredential

    .LINK
    Test-CUser

    .LINK
    Uninstall-CUser

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CUser -Credential $lukeCredentials -Description "Luke Skywalker's account."

    Creates a new `LSkywalker` user account with the given password and description.  Luke's password is set to never expire.  

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CUser -Credential $lukeCredentials -UserCannotChangePassword -PasswordExpires

    Demonstrates how to create an account for a user who cannot change his password and whose password will expire.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true,DefaultParameterSetName='WithUserNameAndPassword')]
    [OutputType([System.DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.UserPrincipal])]
    [Diagnostics.CodeAnalysis.SuppressMessageAttribute("PSAvoidUsingUserNameAndPassWordParams","")]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='WithUserNameAndPassword',DontShow=$true)]
        [ValidateLength(1,20)]
        [string]
        # OBSOLETE. The `UserName` parameter will be removed in a future major version of Carbon. Use the `Credential` parameter instead.
        $UserName,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='WithUserNameAndPassword',DontShow=$true)]
        [string]
        # OBSOLETE. The `Password` parameter will be removed in a future major version of Carbon. Use the `Credential` parameter instead.
        $Password,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='WithCredential')]
        [pscredential]
        # The user's credentials.
        #
        # The `Credential` parameter was added in Carbon 2.0.
        $Credential,
        
        [string]
        # A description of the user.
        $Description,
        
        [string]
        # The full name of the user.
        $FullName,

        [Switch]
        # Prevent the user from changing his password. New in Carbon 2.0.
        $UserCannotChangePassword,

        [Switch]
        # Set to true if the user's password should expire. New in Carbon 2.0.
        $PasswordExpires,

        [Switch]
        # Return the user. New in Carbon 2.0.
        $PassThru
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    Write-Timing 'Install-CUser Start'
    
    if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'WithCredential' )
    {
        $UserName = $Credential.UserName
    }


    Write-Timing '              Getting user'
    $user = Get-CUser -userName $UserName -ErrorAction Ignore
    
    Write-Timing '              Creating PrincipalContext'
    if( $user )
    {
        $ctx = $user.Context
    }
    else
    {
        $ctx = New-Object 'DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.PrincipalContext' ([DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.ContextType]::Machine)
    }

    try
    {
        $operation = 'update'
        if( -not $user )
        {
            Write-Timing '              Creating UserPrincipal'
            $operation = 'create'
            $user = New-Object 'DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.UserPrincipal' $ctx
            $creating = $true
        }

        $user.SamAccountName = $UserName
        $user.DisplayName = $FullName
        $user.Description = $Description
        $user.UserCannotChangePassword = $UserCannotChangePassword
        $user.PasswordNeverExpires = -not $PasswordExpires

        Write-Timing '              Setting password'
        if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'WithUserNameAndPassword' )
        {
            Write-Warning ('Install-CUser function''s `UserName` and `Password` parameters are obsolete and will be removed in a future version of Carbon. Please use the `Credential` parameter instead.')
            $user.SetPassword( $Password )
        }
        else
        {
            $user.SetPassword( $Credential.GetNetworkCredential().Password )
        }


        if( $PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess( $Username, "$operation local user" ) )
        {
            Write-Timing '              Saving'
            $user.Save()
        }

        if( $PassThru )
        {
            return $user
        }
    }
    finally
    {
        Write-Timing '              Finally'
        if( -not $PassThru )
        {
            $user.Dispose()
            $ctx.Dispose()
        }
        Write-Timing 'Install-CUser Done'
    }
}




# This function should only be available if the Windows PowerShell v3.0 Server Manager cmdlets aren't already installed.
if( -not (Get-Command -Name 'Get-WindowsFeature*' | Where-Object { $_.ModuleName -ne 'Carbon' }) )
{
    function Install-CWindowsFeature
    {
        <#
        .SYNOPSIS
        Installs an optional Windows component/feature.

        .DESCRIPTION
        This function will install Windows features.  Note that the name of these features can differ between different versions of Windows. Use `Get-CWindowsFeature` to get the list of features on your operating system.

        **This function is not available on Windows 8/2012.**
        
        .LINK
        Get-CWindowsFeature
        
        .LINK
        Test-CWindowsFeature
        
        .LINK
        Uninstall-CWindowsFeature
        
        .EXAMPLE
        Install-CWindowsFeature -Name TelnetClient

        Installs Telnet.

        .EXAMPLE
        Install-CWindowsFeature -Name TelnetClient,TFTP

        Installs Telnet and TFTP

        .EXAMPLE
        Install-CWindowsFeature -Iis

        Installs IIS.
        #>
        [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true,DefaultParameterSetName='ByName')]
        param(
            [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ByName')]
            [string[]]
            # The components to enable/install.  Feature names are case-sensitive.
            [Alias('Features')]
            $Name,
            
            [Parameter(ParameterSetName='ByFlag')]
            [Switch]
            # Installs IIS.
            $Iis,
            
            [Parameter(ParameterSetName='ByFlag')]
            [Switch]
            # Installs IIS's HTTP redirection feature.
            $IisHttpRedirection,
            
            [Parameter(ParameterSetName='ByFlag')]
            [Switch]
            # Installs MSMQ.
            $Msmq,
            
            [Parameter(ParameterSetName='ByFlag')]
            [Switch]
            # Installs MSMQ HTTP support.
            $MsmqHttpSupport,
            
            [Parameter(ParameterSetName='ByFlag')]
            [Switch]
            # Installs MSMQ Active Directory Integration.
            $MsmqActiveDirectoryIntegration
        )
        
        Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
        Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    
        Write-Warning -Message ('Install-CWindowsFeature is obsolete and will be removed in a future major version of Carbon.')

        if( -not (Assert-WindowsFeatureFunctionsSupported) )
        {
            return
        }
        
        if( $pscmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'ByFlag' )
        {
            $Name = Resolve-WindowsFeatureName -Name $PSBoundParameters.Keys
        }
        
        $componentsToInstall = $Name | 
                                    ForEach-Object {
                                        if( (Test-CWindowsFeature -Name $_) )
                                        {
                                            $_
                                        }
                                        else
                                        {
                                            Write-Error ('Windows feature {0} not found.' -f $_)
                                        } 
                                    } |
                                    Where-Object { -not (Test-CWindowsFeature -Name $_ -Installed) }
       
        if( -not $componentsToInstall -or $componentsToInstall.Length -eq 0 )
        {
            return
        }
        
        if( $pscmdlet.ShouldProcess( "Windows feature(s) '$componentsToInstall'", "install" ) )
        {
            if( $useServerManager )
            {
                servermanagercmd.exe -install $componentsToInstall
            }
            else
            {
                $featuresArg = $componentsToInstall -join ';'
                & ocsetup.exe $featuresArg
                $ocsetup = Get-Process 'ocsetup' -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue
                if( -not $ocsetup )
                {
                    Write-Error "Unable to find process 'ocsetup'.  It looks like the Windows Optional Component setup program didn't start."
                    return
                }
                $ocsetup.WaitForExit()
            }
        }
    }
    
    Set-Alias -Name 'Install-WindowsFeatures' -Value 'Install-CWindowsFeature'
    Set-Alias -Name 'Install-WindowsFeature' -Value 'Install-CWindowsFeature'
}



function Invoke-CAppCmd
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    OBSOLETE. Will be removed in a future major version of Carbon. Use `Get-CIisConfigurationSection` with the `Microsoft.Web.Administration` API instead.

    .DESCRIPTION
    OBSOLETE. Will be removed in a future major version of Carbon. Use `Get-CIisConfigurationSection` with the `Microsoft.Web.Administration` API instead.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CIisConfigurationSection -SiteName 'Peanuts' -Section 'system.webServer'

    Demonstrates the `Invoke-CAppCmd` is OBSOLETE and will be removed in a future major version of Carbon. Use `Get-CIisConfigurationSection` with the `Microsoft.Web.Administration` API instead.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(ValueFromRemainingArguments=$true)]
        # The arguments to pass to appcmd.
        $AppCmdArgs
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    Write-Warning ('Invoke-CAppCmd is obsolete and will be removed in a future major version of Carbon. Use Carbon''s IIS functions, or `Get-CIisConfigurationSection` to get `ConfigurationElement` objects to manipulate using the `Microsoft.Web.Administration` API.')

    Write-Verbose ($AppCmdArgs -join " ")
    & (Join-Path $env:SystemRoot 'System32\inetsrv\appcmd.exe') $AppCmdArgs
    if( $LastExitCode -ne 0 )
    {
        Write-Error "``AppCmd $($AppCmdArgs)`` exited with code $LastExitCode."
    }
}




function Invoke-ConsoleCommand
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    INTERNAL.

    .DESCRIPTION
    INTERNAL.

    .EXAMPLE
    INTERNAL.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The target of the action.
        $Target,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The action/command being performed.
        $Action,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [scriptblock]
        # The command to run.
        $ScriptBlock
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( -not $PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess( $Target, $Action ) )
    {
        return
    }

    $output = Invoke-Command -ScriptBlock $ScriptBlock
    if( $LASTEXITCODE )
    {
        $output = $output -join [Environment]::NewLine
        Write-Error ('Failed action ''{0}'' on target ''{1}'' (exit code {2}): {3}' -f $Action,$Target,$LASTEXITCODE,$output)
    }
    else
    {
        $output | Where-Object { $_ -ne $null } | Write-Verbose
    }
}



function Invoke-CPowerShell
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Invokes a script block, script, command, or encoded command under a new `powershell.exe` process.
    
    .DESCRIPTION

    The `Invoke-CPowerShell` scripts executes `powershell.exe`. All processes are started with powershell.exe's `-NoProfile` paramter. You can specify values for powershell.exe's `OutputFormat`, `ExecutionPolicy`, and `NonInteractive` paramters via parameters of the same name on the `Invoke-CPowerShell` function. Use the `Runtime` parameter to run `powershell.exe` version 2.
    
    To run a script, pass the path to the script with the `-FilePath` paramter. Pass any script arguments with the `ArgumentList` parameter. You must escape any parameters. They are passed to `powershell.exe` as-is.
    
    To run a script block, pass the script block with the `-ScriptBlock` parameter. Pass any script block arguments with the `ArgumentList` parameter. You must escape any parameters. They are passed to `powershell.exe` as-is.
    
    To run a command (Carbon 2.3.0 and later only), pass the command (i.e. string of PowerShell code) with the `Command` parameter. Any arguments to your command must be in the command itself. You must do any escaping.
    
    To run an encoded command (Carbon 2.3.0 and later only), pass the command (i.e. string of PowerShell code) with the `Command` parameter and the `-Encode` switch. `Invoke-CPowerShell` will base-64 encode your command for you and pass it to `powershell.exe` with its `-EncodedCommand` parameter.
    
    Beginning in Carbon 2.3.0, you can run scripts, commands, and encoded commands as another user. Pass that user's credentials with the `Credential` parameter.
    
    On 64-bit operating systems, use the `-x86` switch to run the new `powershell.exe` process under 32-bit PowerShell. If this switch is ommitted, `powershell.exe` will be run under a 64-bit PowerShell process (even if called from a 32-bit process). On 32-bit operating systems, this switch is ignored.
    
    The `Runtime` paramter controls what version of the .NET framework `powershell.exe` should use. Pass `v2.0` and `v4.0` to run under .NET versions 2.0 or 4.0, respectivey. Those frameworks must be installed. When running under PowerShell 2, `Invoke-CPowerShell` uses a temporary [activation configuration file](https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ff361644(v=vs.100).aspx) to force PowerShell 2 to use .NET 4. When run under PowerShell 3 and later, `powershell.exe` is run with the `-Version` switch set to `2.0` to run `powershell.exe` under .NET 2.

    If using PowerShell v3.0 or later with a version of Carbon before 2.0, you can *only* run script blocks under a `v4.0` CLR.  PowerShell converts script blocks to an encoded command, and when running encoded commands, PowerShell doesn't allow the `-Version` parameter for running PowerShell under a different version.  To run code under a .NET 2.0 CLR from PowerShell 3, use the `FilePath` parameter to run a specfic script.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Invoke-CPowerShell -ScriptBlock { $PSVersionTable }
    
    Runs a separate PowerShell process which matches the architecture of the operating system, returning the $PSVersionTable from that process.  This will fail under 32-bit PowerShell on a 64-bit operating system.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Invoke-CPowerShell -ScriptBlock { $PSVersionTable } -x86
    
    Runs a 32-bit PowerShell process, return the $PSVersionTable from that process.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Invoke-CPowerShell -ScriptBlock { $PSVersionTable } -Runtime v4.0
    
    Runs a separate PowerShell process under the v4.0 .NET CLR, returning the $PSVersionTable from that process.  Should return a CLRVersion of `4.0`.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Invoke-CPowerShell -FilePath C:\Projects\Carbon\bin\Set-CDotNetConnectionString.ps1 -ArgumentList '-Name','myConn','-Value',"'data source=.\DevDB;Integrated Security=SSPI;'"
    
    Runs the `Set-CDotNetConnectionString.ps1` script with `ArgumentList` as arguments/parameters.
    
    Note that you have to double-quote any arguments with spaces.  Otherwise, the argument gets interpreted as multiple arguments.

    .EXAMPLE
    Invoke-CPowerShell -FilePath Get-PsVersionTable.ps1 -x86 -ExecutionPolicy RemoteSigned

    Shows how to run powershell.exe with a custom executin policy, in case the running of scripts is disabled.

    .EXAMPLE
    Invoke-CPowerShell -FilePath Get-PsVersionTable.ps1 -Credential $cred

    Demonstrates that you can run PowerShell scripts as a specific user with the `Credential` parameter.

    .EXAMPLE
    Invoke-CPowerShell -FilePath Get-PsVersionTable.ps1 -Credential $cred

    Demonstrates that you can run PowerShell scripts as a specific user with the `Credential` parameter.

    .EXAMPLE 
    Invoke-CPowerShell -Command '$PSVersionTable'
    
    Demonstrates how to run a PowerShell command contained in a string. You are responsible for quoting things correctly.

    .EXAMPLE
    Invoke-CPowerShell -Command '$PSVersionTable' -Encode

    Demonstrates how to run a base-64 encode then run PowerShell command contained in a string. This runs the command using PowerShell's `-EncodedCommand` parameter. `Invoke-CPowerShell` does the base-64 encoding for you.

    .EXAMPLE
    Invoke-CPowerShell -Command '$env:USERNAME' -Credential $credential

    Demonstrates how to run a PowerShell command as another user. Uses `Start-Process` to launch `powershell.exe` as the user. 
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParameterSetName='ScriptBlock')]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ScriptBlock')]
        [ScriptBlock]
        # The script block to pass to `powershell.exe`.
        $ScriptBlock,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='Command')]
        [object]
        # The command to run, as a string. Passed to PowerShell.exe as the value to the `-Command` parameter. 
        #
        # Use the `-Encode` switch to avoid complicated quoting, and have `Invoke-CPowerShell` encode this command for you and pass it to powershell.exe's `-EncodedCommand parameter.
        #
        # This parameter was introduced in Carbon 2.3.0. In previous versions, this parameter was an alias to the `ScriptBlock` parameter. To maintain backwards-compatibility, if you pass a `ScriptBlock` to this parameter, `Invoke-CPowerShell` will run the script block as a script block. In the next major version of Carbon, this parameter will stop accepting `ScriptBlock` objects.
        $Command,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='FilePath')]
        [string]
        # The script to run.
        $FilePath,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Command')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='ScriptBlock')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='FilePath')]
        [object[]]
        [Alias('Args')]
        # Any arguments to pass to the script or command. These *are not* powershell.exe arguments. They are passed to powershell.exe as-is, so you'll need to escape them.
        $ArgumentList,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Command')]
        [Switch]
        # Base-64 encode the command in `Command` and run it with powershell.exe's `-EncodedCommand` switch.
        #
        # This parameter was added in Carbon 2.3.0.
        $Encode,
        
        [string]
        # Determines how output from the PowerShel command is formatted. The value of this parameter is passed as-is to `powershell.exe` with its `-OutputFormat` paramter.
        $OutputFormat,

        [Microsoft.PowerShell.ExecutionPolicy]
        # The execution policy to use when running `powershell.exe`. Passed to `powershell.exe` with its `-ExecutionPolicy` parameter.
        $ExecutionPolicy,

        [Switch]
        # Run `powershell.exe` non-interactively. This passes the `-NonInteractive` switch to powershell.exe.
        $NonInteractive,

        [Switch]
        # Run the x86 (32-bit) version of PowerShell. if not provided, the version which matches the OS architecture is used, *regardless of the architecture of the currently running process*. I.e. this command is run under a 32-bit PowerShell on a 64-bit operating system, without this switch, `Invoke-Command` will start a 64-bit `powershell.exe`.
        $x86,
        
        [string]
        [ValidateSet('v2.0','v4.0')]
        # The CLR to use.  Must be one of `v2.0` or `v4.0`.  Default is the current PowerShell runtime.
        #
        # Beginning with Carbon 2.3.0, this parameter is ignored, since Carbon 2.0 and later only supports PowerShell 4 and you can't run PowerShell 4 under .NET 2.0. 
        #
        # This parameter is OBSOLETE and will be removed in a future major version of Carbon.
        $Runtime,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='FilePath')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='Command')]
        [pscredential]
        # Run `powershell.exe` as a specific user. Pass that user's credentials with this parameter.
        #
        # This parameter is new in Carbon 2.3.0.
        $Credential
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $powerShellv3Installed = Test-Path -Path HKLM:\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\PowerShell\3
    $currentRuntime = 'v{0}.0' -f $PSVersionTable.CLRVersion.Major
    if( $powerShellv3Installed )
    {
        $currentRuntime = 'v4.0'
    }

    # Check that the selected runtime is installed.
    if( $PSBoundParameters.ContainsKey('Runtime') )
    {
        $runtimeInstalled = switch( $Runtime )
        {
            'v2.0' { Test-CDotNet -V2 }
            'v4.0' { Test-CDotNet -V4 -Full }
            default { Write-Error ('Unknown runtime value ''{0}''.' -f $Runtime) }
        }

        if( -not $runtimeInstalled )
        {
            Write-Error ('.NET {0} not found.' -f $Runtime)
            return
        }
    }


    if( -not $Runtime )
    {
        $Runtime = $currentRuntime
    }

    if(  $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'ScriptBlock' -and `
         $Host.Name -eq 'Windows PowerShell ISE Host' -and `
         $Runtime -eq 'v2.0' -and `
         $powerShellv3Installed )
    {
        Write-Error ('The PowerShell ISE v{0} can''t run script blocks under .NET {1}. Please run from the PowerShell console, or save your script block into a file and re-run Invoke-CPowerShell using the `FilePath` parameter.' -f `
                        $PSVersionTable.PSVersion,$Runtime)
        return
    }

    $comPlusAppConfigEnvVarName = 'COMPLUS_ApplicationMigrationRuntimeActivationConfigPath'
    $activationConfigDir = Join-Path $env:TEMP ([IO.Path]::GetRandomFileName())
    $activationConfigPath = Join-Path $activationConfigDir powershell.exe.activation_config
    $originalCOMAppConfigEnvVar = [Environment]::GetEnvironmentVariable( $comPlusAppConfigEnvVarName )
    if( -not $powerShellv3Installed -and $currentRuntime -ne $Runtime )
    {
        $null = New-Item -Path $activationConfigDir -ItemType Directory
        @"
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<configuration>
  <startup useLegacyV2RuntimeActivationPolicy="true">
    <supportedRuntime version="{0}" />
  </startup>
</configuration>
"@ -f $Runtime | Out-File -FilePath $activationConfigPath -Encoding OEM
        Set-CEnvironmentVariable -Name $comPlusAppConfigEnvVarName -Value $activationConfigDir -ForProcess
    }
    
    $params = @{ }
    if( $x86 )
    {
        $params.x86 = $true
    }
    
    try
    {
        $psPath = Get-CPowerShellPath @params
        if( $ArgumentList -eq $null )
        {
            $ArgumentList = @()
        }

        $runningAScriptBlock = $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'ScriptBlock' 
        if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'Command' -and $Command -is [scriptblock] )
        {
            Write-Warning -Message ('Passing a script block to the Command parameter is OBSOLETE and will be removed in a future major version of Carbon. Use the `ScriptBlock` parameter instead.')
            $ScriptBlock = $Command
            $runningAScriptBlock = $true
            if( $Credential )
            {
                Write-Error -Message ('It looks like you''re trying to run a script block as another user. `Start-Process` is used to start powershell.exe as that user. Start-Process requires all arguments to be strings. Converting a script block to a string automatically is unreliable. Please convert the script block to a command string or omit the Credential parameter.')
                return
            }
        }

        $powerShellArgs = Invoke-Command -ScriptBlock {
            if( $powerShellv3Installed -and $Runtime -eq 'v2.0' )
            {
                '-Version'
                '2.0'
            }

            # Can't run a script block in non-interactive mode. Because reasons.
            if( $NonInteractive -and -not $runningAScriptBlock )
            {
                '-NonInteractive'
            }

            '-NoProfile'

            if( $OutputFormat )
            {
                '-OutputFormat'
                $OutputFormat
            }

            if( $ExecutionPolicy -and $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -ne 'ScriptBlock' )
            {
                '-ExecutionPolicy'
                $ExecutionPolicy
            }
        }

        if( $runningAScriptBlock )
        {
            Write-Debug -Message ('& {0} {1} -Command {2} -Args {3}' -f $psPath,($powerShellArgs -join ' '),$ScriptBlock,($ArgumentList -join ' '))
            & $psPath $powerShellArgs -Command $ScriptBlock -Args $ArgumentList
            Write-Debug -Message ('LASTEXITCODE: {0}' -f $LASTEXITCODE)
        }
        elseif( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'FilePath' )
        {
            if( $Credential )
            {
                Start-PowerShellProcess -CommandLine ('{0} -File "{1}" {2}' -f ($powerShellArgs -join " "),$FilePath,($ArgumentList -join " ")) -Credential $Credential
            }
            else
            {
                Write-Debug ('{0} {1} -File {2} {3}' -f $psPath,($powerShellArgs -join " "),$FilePath,($ArgumentList -join ' '))
                & $psPath $powerShellArgs -File $FilePath $ArgumentList
                Write-Debug ('LASTEXITCODE: {0}' -f $LASTEXITCODE)
            }
        }
        else
        {
            if( $ArgumentList )
            {
                Write-Error -Message ('Can''t use ArgumentList parameter with Command parameter because powershell.exe''s -Command parameter doesn''t support it. Please embed the argument list in your command string, or convert your command to a script block and use the `ScriptBlock` parameter.')
                return
            }

            $argName = '-Command'
            if( $Encode )
            {
                $Command = ConvertTo-CBase64 -Value $Command
                $argName = '-EncodedCommand'
            }
            if( $Credential )
            {
                Start-PowerShellProcess -CommandLine ('{0} {1} {2}' -f ($powerShellArgs -join " "),$argName,$Command) -Credential $Credential
            }
            else
            {
                Write-Debug ('{0} {1} {2} {3}' -f $psPath,($powerShellArgs -join " "),$argName,$Command)
                & $psPath $powerShellArgs $argName $Command
                Write-Debug ('LASTEXITCODE: {0}' -f $LASTEXITCODE)
            }
        }
    }
    finally
    {
        if( Test-Path -Path $activationConfigDir -PathType Leaf )
        {
            Remove-Item -Path $activationConfigDir -Recurse -Force
        }

        if( Test-Path -Path env:$comPlusAppConfigEnvVarName )
        {
            if( $originalCOMAppConfigEnvVar )
            {
                Set-CEnvironmentVariable -Name $comPlusAppConfigEnvVarName -Value $originalCOMAppConfigEnvVar -ForProcess
            }
            else
            {
                Remove-CEnvironmentVariable -Name $comPlusAppConfigEnvVarName -ForProcess
            }
        }
    }
}




function New-CCredential
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Creates a new `PSCredential` object from a given username and password.

    .DESCRIPTION
    `New-CCredential` will create a credential for you from a username and password, converting a password stored as a `String` into a `SecureString`.

    PowerShell commands use `PSCredential` objects instead of username/password. Although Microsoft recommends using `Get-Credential` to get credentials, when automating installs, there's usually no one around to answer that prompt, so secrets are often pulled from encrypted stores. 

    Beginning with Carbon 2.0, you can pass a `SecureString` as the value for the `Password` parameter.

    Beginning with Carbon 2.0, you can pipe passwords to `New-CCredential`, e.g.

        Read-EncrptedPassword | Unprotect-CString | New-CCredential -Username 'fubar'

    We do *not* recommend passing plaintext passwords around. Beginning ing with Carbon 2.0, you can use `Unprotect-CString` to decrypt secrets securely to `SecureStrings` and then use those secure strings with `New-CCredential` to create a credential.

    .LINK
    Protect-CString

    .LINK
    Unprotect-CString

    .OUTPUTS
    System.Management.Automation.PSCredential.

    .EXAMPLE
    New-CCredential -User ENTERPRISE\picard -Password 'earlgrey'

    Creates a new credential object for Captain Picard.

    .EXAMPLE
    Read-EncryptedPassword | Unprotect-CString | New-CCredential -UserName 'ENTERPRISE\picard'

    Demonstrates how to securely decrypt a secret into a new credential object.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    [OutputType([Management.Automation.PSCredential])]
    [Diagnostics.CodeAnalysis.SuppressMessageAttribute("PSAvoidUsingUserNameAndPassWordParams","")]
    param(
        [Alias('User')]
        [string]
        # The username. Beginning with Carbon 2.0, this parameter is optional. Previously, this parameter was required.
        $UserName, 

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ValueFromPipeline=$true)]
        # The password. Can be a `[string]` or a `[System.Security.SecureString]`.
        $Password
    )

    begin
    {
        Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

        Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    }

    process
    {
        if( $Password -is [string] )
        {
            $Password = ConvertTo-SecureString -AsPlainText -Force -String $Password
        }
        elseif( $Password -isnot [securestring] )
        {
            Write-Error ('Value for Password parameter must be a [String] or [System.Security.SecureString]. You passed a [{0}].' -f $Password.GetType())
            return
        }

        return New-Object 'Management.Automation.PsCredential' $UserName,$Password
    }
    
    end
    {
    }
}




function New-CJunction
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Creates a new junction.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    Creates a junction given by `-Link` which points to the path given by `-Target`.  If something already exists at `Link`, an error is written.  

    Returns a `System.IO.DirectoryInfo` object for the junction, if one is created.

    .OUTPUTS
    System.IO.DirectoryInfo.
    
    .LINK
    Install-CJunction

    .LINK
    Remove-CJunction

    .EXAMPLE
    New-CJunction -Link 'C:\Windows\system32Link' -Target 'C:\Windows\system32'
    
    Creates the `C:\Windows\system32Link` directory, which points to `C:\Windows\system32`.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [Alias("Junction")]
        [string]
        # The new junction to create
        $Link,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The target of the junction, i.e. where the junction will point to
        $Target
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( Test-Path -LiteralPath $Link -PathType Container )
    {
        Write-Error "'$Link' already exists."
    }
    else
    {
        Write-Verbose -Message "Creating junction $Link <=> $Target"
        [Carbon.IO.JunctionPoint]::Create( $Link, $Target, $false )
        if( Test-Path $Link -PathType Container ) 
        { 
            Get-Item $Link 
        } 
    }
}




function New-CRsaKeyPair
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Generates a public/private RSA key pair.

    .DESCRIPTION
    The `New-CRsaKeyPair` function uses the `certreq.exe` program to generate an RSA public/private key pair suitable for use in encrypting/decrypting CMS messages, credentials in DSC resources, etc. It uses the following `.inf` file as input (taken from the first example in the help for the `Protect-CmsMessage` cmdlet):

        [Version]
        Signature = "$Windows NT$"

        [Strings]
        szOID_ENHANCED_KEY_USAGE = "2.5.29.37"
        szOID_DOCUMENT_ENCRYPTION = "1.3.6.1.4.1.311.80.1"

        [NewRequest]
        Subject = $Subject
        MachineKeySet = false
        KeyLength = $Length
        KeySpec = AT_KEYEXCHANGE
        HashAlgorithm = $Algorithm
        Exportable = true
        RequestType = Cert
        KeyUsage = "CERT_KEY_ENCIPHERMENT_KEY_USAGE | CERT_DATA_ENCIPHERMENT_KEY_USAGE"
        ValidityPeriod = Days
        ValidityPeriodUnits = 

        [Extensions]
        %szOID_ENHANCED_KEY_USAGE% = "{{text}}%szOID_DOCUMENT_ENCRYPTION%"

    You can control the subject (via the `-Subject` parameter), key length (via the `-Length` parameter), the hash algorithm (via the `-Algorithm` parameter), and the expiration date of the keys (via the `-ValidTo` parameter). The subject is always required and should begin with "CN=". The length, hash algorithm, and expiration date are optional, and default to `4096`, `sha512`, and `12/31/9999`, respectively.

    The `certreq.exe` command stores the private key in the current user's `My` certificate store. This function exports that private key to a file and removes it from the current user's `My` store. The private key is protected with the password provided via the `-Password` parameter. If you don't provide a password, you will be prompted for one. To not protect the private key with a password, pass `$null` as the value of the `-Password` parameter.

    The public key is saved as an X509Certificate. The private key is saved as a PFX file. Both can be loaded by .NET's `X509Certificate` class. Returns `System.IO.FileInfo` objects for the public and private key, in that order.

    Before Carbon 2.1, this function used the `makecert.exe` and `pvk2pfx.exe` programs, from the Windows SDK. These programs prompt multiple times for the private key password, so if you're using a version before 2.1, you can't run this function non-interactively. 

    .OUTPUTS
    System.IO.FileInfo

    .LINK
    Get-CCertificate

    .LINK
    Install-CCertificate

    .EXAMPLE
    New-CRsaKeyPair -Subject 'CN=MyName' -PublicKeyFile 'MyName.cer' -PrivateKeyFile 'MyName.pfx' -Password $secureString

    Demonstrates the minimal parameters needed to generate a key pair. The key will use a sha512 signing algorithm, have a length of 4096 bits, and expire on `12/31/9999`. The public key will be saved in the current directory as `MyName.cer`. The private key will be saved to the current directory as `MyName.pfx` and protected with password in `$secureString`.

    .EXAMPLE
    New-CRsaKeyPair -Subject 'CN=MyName' -PublicKeyFile 'MyName.cer' -PrivateKeyFile 'MyName.pfx' -Password $null

    Demonstrates how to save the private key unprotected (i.e. without a password). You must set the password to `$null`. This functionality was introduced in Carbon 2.1.

    .EXAMPLE
    New-CRsaKeyPair -Subject 'CN=MyName' -PublicKeyFile 'MyName.cer' -PrivateKeyFile 'MyName.pfx' -Algorithm 'sha1' -ValidTo (Get-Date -Year 2015 -Month 12 -Day 31) -Length 1024 -Password $secureString

    Demonstrates how to use all the parameters to create a truly customized key pair. The generated certificate will use the sha1 signing algorithm, becomes effective 1/1/2015, expires 12/31/2015, and is 1024 bits in length.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    [OutputType([IO.FileInfo])]
    [Diagnostics.CodeAnalysis.SuppressMessageAttribute("PSAvoidUsingUserNameAndPassWordParams","")]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,Position=0)]
        [ValidatePattern('^CN=')]
        [string]
        # The key's subject. Should be of the form `CN=Name,OU=Name,O=SuperMagicFunTime,ST=OR,C=US`. Only the `CN=Name` part is required.
        $Subject,

        [ValidateSet('md5','sha1','sha256','sha384','sha512')]
        [string]
        # The signature algorithm. Default is `sha512`.
        $Algorithm = 'sha512',

        [Parameter(DontShow=$true)]
        [DateTime]
        # The date/time the keys will become valid. Default is now. 
        #
        # This parameter was made obsolete in Carbon 2.1.
        $ValidFrom = (Get-Date),

        [DateTime]
        # The date/time the keys should expire. Default is `DateTime::MaxValue`.
        $ValidTo = ([DateTime]::MaxValue),

        [int]
        # The length, in bits, of the generated key length. Default is `4096`.
        $Length = 4096,

        [Parameter(DontShow=$true)]
        [ValidateSet('commercial','individual')]
        [string]
        # The signing authority of the certificate. Must be `commercial` (for certificates used by commercial software publishers) or `individual`, for certificates used by individual software publishers. Default is `individual`.
        #
        # This parameter was made obsolete in Carbon 2.1.
        $Authority = 'individual',

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,Position=1)]
        [string]
        # The file where the public key should be stored. Saved as an X509 certificate.
        $PublicKeyFile,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,Position=2)]
        [string]
        # The file where the private key should be stored. The private key will be saved as an X509 certificate in PFX format and will include the public key.
        $PrivateKeyFile,

        [securestring]
        # The password for the private key. If one is not provided, you will be prompted for one. Pass `$null` to not protect your private key with a password.
        #
        # This parameter was introduced in Carbon 2.1.
        $Password,

        [Switch]
        # Overwrites `PublicKeyFile` and/or `PrivateKeyFile`, if they exist.
        $Force
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( $PSBoundParameters.ContainsKey('ValidFrom') )
    {
        Write-Warning -Message ('New-CRsaKeyPair: The -ValidFrom parameter is obsolete and will be removed in a future version of Carbon. Please remove usages of this parameter.')
    }

    if( $PSBoundParameters.ContainsKey('Authority') )
    {
        Write-Warning -Message ('New-CRsaKeyPair: The -Authority parameter is obsolete and will be removed in a future version of Carbon. Please remove usages of this parameter.')
    }

    function Resolve-KeyPath
    {
        param(
            [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
            [string]
            $Path
        )

        Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

        $Path = Resolve-CFullPath -Path $Path

        if( (Test-Path -Path $Path -PathType Leaf) )
        {
            if( -not $Force )
            {
                Write-Error ('File ''{0}'' exists. Use the -Force switch to overwrite.' -f $Path)
                return
            }
        }
        else
        {
            $root = Split-Path -Parent -Path $Path
            if( -not (Test-Path -Path $root -PathType Container) )
            {
                New-Item -Path $root -ItemType 'Directory' -Force | Out-Null
            }
        }

        return $Path
    }

    $PublicKeyFile = Resolve-KeyPath -Path $PublicKeyFile
    if( -not $PublicKeyFile )
    {
        return
    }

    $PrivateKeyFile = Resolve-KeyPath -Path $PrivateKeyFile
    if( -not $PrivateKeyFile )
    {
        return
    }

    if( (Test-Path -Path $PrivateKeyFile -PathType Leaf) )
    {
        if( -not $Force )
        {
            Write-Error ('Private key file ''{0}'' exists. Use the -Force switch to overwrite.' -f $PrivateKeyFile)
            return
        }
    }

    $tempDir = '{0}-{1}' -f (Split-Path -Leaf -Path $PSCommandPath),([IO.Path]::GetRandomFileName())
    $tempDir = Join-Path -Path $env:TEMP -ChildPath $tempDir
    New-Item -Path $tempDir -ItemType 'Directory' | Out-Null
    $tempInfFile = Join-Path -Path $tempDir -ChildPath 'temp.inf'

    try
    {
        $certReqPath = Get-Command -Name 'certreq.exe' | Select-Object -ExpandProperty 'Path'
        if( -not $certReqPath )
        {
            return
        }

        # Taken from example 1 of the Protect-CmsMessage help topic.
        [int]$daysValid = [Math]::Floor(($ValidTo - $ValidFrom).TotalDays)
        [int]$MaxDaysValid = [Math]::Floor(([DateTime]::MaxValue - [DateTime]::UtcNow).TotalDays)
        Write-Debug -Message ('Days Valid:              {0}' -f $daysValid)
        Write-Debug -Message ('Max Days Valid:          {0}' -f $MaxDaysValid)
        if( $daysValid -gt $MaxDaysValid )
        {
            Write-Debug -Message ('Adjusted Days Valid:     {0}' -f $daysValid)
            $daysValid = $MaxDaysValid
        }
        (@'
[Version]
Signature = "$Windows NT$"

[Strings]
szOID_ENHANCED_KEY_USAGE = "2.5.29.37"
szOID_DOCUMENT_ENCRYPTION = "1.3.6.1.4.1.311.80.1"

[NewRequest]
Subject = "{0}"
MachineKeySet = false
KeyLength = {1}
KeySpec = AT_KEYEXCHANGE
HashAlgorithm = {2}
Exportable = true
RequestType = Cert
KeyUsage = "CERT_KEY_ENCIPHERMENT_KEY_USAGE | CERT_DATA_ENCIPHERMENT_KEY_USAGE"
ValidityPeriod = Days
ValidityPeriodUnits = {3}

[Extensions]
%szOID_ENHANCED_KEY_USAGE% = "{{text}}%szOID_DOCUMENT_ENCRYPTION%"
'@ -f $Subject,$Length,$Algorithm,$daysValid) | Set-Content -Path $tempInfFile

        Get-Content -Raw -Path $tempInfFile | Write-Debug

        $output = & $certReqPath -q -new $tempInfFile $PublicKeyFile 
        if( $LASTEXITCODE -or -not (Test-Path -Path $PublicKeyFile -PathType Leaf) )
        {
            Write-Error ('Failed to create public/private key pair:{0}{1}' -f ([Environment]::NewLine),($output -join ([Environment]::NewLine)))
            return
        }
        else
        {
            $output | Write-Debug
        }

        $publicKey = Get-CCertificate -Path $PublicKeyFile
        if( -not $publicKey )
        {
            Write-Error ('Failed to load public key ''{0}'':{1}{2}' -f $PublicKeyFile,([Environment]::NewLine),($output -join ([Environment]::NewLine)))
            return
        }

        $privateCertPath = Join-Path -Path 'cert:\CurrentUser\My' -ChildPath $publicKey.Thumbprint
        if( -not (Test-Path -Path $privateCertPath -PathType Leaf) )
        {
            Write-Error -Message ('Private key ''{0}'' not found. Did certreq.exe fail to install the private key there?' -f $privateCertPath)
            return
        }

        try
        {
            $privateCert = Get-Item -Path $privateCertPath
            if( -not $privateCert.HasPrivateKey )
            {
                Write-Error -Message ('Certificate ''{0}'' doesn''t have a private key.' -f $privateCertPath)
                return
            }

            if( -not $PSBoundParameters.ContainsKey('Password') )
            {
                $Password = Read-Host -Prompt 'Enter private key password' -AsSecureString
            }

            $privateCertBytes = $privateCert.Export( 'PFX', $Password )
            [IO.File]::WriteAllBytes( $PrivateKeyFile, $privateCertBytes )

            Get-Item $PublicKeyFile
            Get-Item $PrivateKeyFile
        }
        finally
        {
            Remove-Item -Path $privateCertPath
        }
    }
    finally
    {
        Remove-Item -Path $tempDir -Recurse
    }
}



function New-CTempDirectory
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Creates a new temporary directory with a random name.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    A new temporary directory is created in the current user's `env:TEMP` directory.  The directory's name is created using the `Path` class's [GetRandomFileName method](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.io.path.getrandomfilename.aspx).

    To add a custom prefix to the directory name, use the `Prefix` parameter. If you pass in a path, only its name will be used. In this way, you can pass `$MyInvocation.MyCommand.Definition` (PowerShell 2) or `$PSCommandPath` (PowerShell 3+), which will help you identify what scripts are leaving cruft around in the temp directory.

    Added `-WhatIf` support in Carbon 2.0.
    
    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.io.path.getrandomfilename.aspx
    
    .EXAMPLE
    New-CTempDirectory

    Demonstrates how to create a new temporary directory, e.g. `C:\Users\ajensen\AppData\Local\Temp\5pobd3tu.5rn`.

    .EXAMPLE
    New-CTempDirectory -Prefix 'Carbon'

    Demonstrates how to create a new temporary directory with a custom prefix for its name, e.g. `C:\Users\ajensen\AppData\Local\Temp\Carbon5pobd3tu.5rn`.

    .EXAMPLE
    New-CTempDirectory -Prefix $MyInvocation.MyCommand.Definition

    Demonstrates how you can use `$MyInvocation.MyCommand.Definition` in PowerShell 2 to create a new, temporary directory, named after the currently executing scripts, e.g. `C:\Users\ajensen\AppData\Local\Temp\New-CTempDirectory.ps15pobd3tu.5rn`. 

    .EXAMPLE
    New-CTempDirectory -Prefix $PSCommandPath

    Demonstrates how you can use `$PSCommandPath` in PowerShell 3+ to create a new, temporary directory, named after the currently executing scripts, e.g. `C:\Users\ajensen\AppData\Local\Temp\New-CTempDirectory.ps15pobd3tu.5rn`. 
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    [OutputType([IO.DirectoryInfo])]
    param(
        [string]
        # A prefix to use, so you can more easily identify *what* created the temporary directory. If you pass in a path, it will be converted to a file name.
        $Prefix
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $tempDir = [IO.Path]::GetRandomFileName()
    if( $Prefix )
    {
        $Prefix = Split-Path -Leaf -Path $Prefix
        $tempDir = '{0}{1}' -f $Prefix,$tempDir
    }

    $tempDir = Join-Path -Path $env:TEMP -ChildPath $tempDir
    New-Item -Path $tempDir -ItemType 'Directory' -Verbose:$VerbosePreference
}

Set-Alias -Name 'New-TempDir' -Value 'New-CTempDirectory'



filter Protect-CString
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Encrypts a string.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Protect-CString` function encrypts a string using the Data Protection API (DPAPI), RSA, or AES. In Carbon 2.3.0 or earlier, the plaintext string to encrypt is passed to the `String` parameter. Beginning in Carbon 2.4.0, you can also pass a `SecureString`. When encrypting a `SecureString`, it is converted to an array of bytes, encrypted, then the array of bytes is cleared from memory (i.e. the plaintext version of the `SecureString` is only in memory long enough to encrypt it).
    
    ##  DPAPI 

    The DPAPI hides the encryptiong/decryption keys from you. As such, anything encrpted with via DPAPI can only be decrypted on the same computer it was encrypted on. Use the `ForUser` switch so that only the user who encrypted can decrypt. Use the `ForComputer` switch so that any user who can log into the computer can decrypt. To encrypt as a specific user on the local computer, pass that user's credentials with the `Credential` parameter. (Note this method doesn't work over PowerShell remoting.)

    ## RSA

    RSA is an assymetric encryption/decryption algorithm, which requires a public/private key pair. The secret is encrypted with the public key, and can only be decrypted with the corresponding private key. The secret being encrypted can't be larger than the RSA key pair's size/length, usually 1024, 2048, or 4096 bits (128, 256, and 512 bytes, respectively). `Protect-CString` encrypts with .NET's `System.Security.Cryptography.RSACryptoServiceProvider` class.

    You can specify the public key in three ways: 
    
     * with a `System.Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509Certificate2` object, via the `Certificate` parameter
     * with a certificate in one of the Windows certificate stores, passing its unique thumbprint via the `Thumbprint` parameter, or via the `PublicKeyPath` parameter cn be certificat provider path, e.g. it starts with `cert:\`.
     * with a X509 certificate file, via the `PublicKeyPath` parameter

    You can generate an RSA public/private key pair with the `New-CRsaKeyPair` function.

    ## AES

    AES is a symmetric encryption/decryption algorithm. You supply a 16-, 24-, or 32-byte key/password/passphrase with the `Key` parameter, and that key is used to encrypt. There is no limit on the size of the data you want to encrypt. `Protect-CString` encrypts with .NET's `System.Security.Cryptography.AesCryptoServiceProvider` class.

    Symmetric encryption requires a random, unique initialization vector (i.e. IV) everytime you encrypt something. `Protect-CString` generates one for you. This IV must be known to decrypt the secret, so it is pre-pendeded to the encrypted text.

    This code demonstrates how to generate a key:

        $key = (New-Object 'Security.Cryptography.AesManaged').Key

    You can save this key as a string by encoding it as a base-64 string:

        $base64EncodedKey = [Convert]::ToBase64String($key)

    If you base-64 encode your string, it must be converted back to bytes before passing it to `Protect-CString`.

        Protect-CString -String 'the secret sauce' -Key ([Convert]::FromBase64String($base64EncodedKey))

    The ability to encrypt with AES was added in Carbon 2.3.0.
   
    .LINK
    New-CRsaKeyPair

    .LINK
    Unprotect-CString
    
    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.security.cryptography.protecteddata.aspx

    .EXAMPLE
    Protect-CString -String 'TheStringIWantToEncrypt' -ForUser | Out-File MySecret.txt
    
    Encrypts the given string and saves the encrypted string into MySecret.txt.  Only the user who encrypts the string can unencrypt it.

    .EXAMPLE
    Protect-CString -String $credential.Password -ForUser | Out-File MySecret.txt

    Demonstrates that `Protect-CString` can encrypt a `SecureString`. This functionality was added in Carbon 2.4.0. 
    
    .EXAMPLE
    $cipherText = Protect-CString -String "MySuperSecretIdentity" -ForComputer
    
    Encrypts the given string and stores the value in $cipherText.  Because the encryption scope is set to LocalMachine, any user logged onto the local computer can decrypt `$cipherText`.

    .EXAMPLE
    Protect-CString -String 's0000p33333r s33333cr33333t' -Credential (Get-Credential 'builduser')

    Demonstrates how to use `Protect-CString` to encrypt a secret as a specific user. This is useful for situation where a secret needs to be encrypted by a user other than the user running `Protect-CString`. Encrypting as a specific user won't work over PowerShell remoting.

    .EXAMPLE
    Protect-CString -String 'the secret sauce' -Certificate $myCert

    Demonstrates how to encrypt a secret using RSA with a `System.Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509Certificate2` object. You're responsible for creating/loading it. The `New-CRsaKeyPair` function will create a key pair for you, if you've got a Windows SDK installed.

    .EXAMPLE
    Protect-CString -String 'the secret sauce' -Thumbprint '44A7C27F3353BC53F82318C14490D7E2500B6D9E'

    Demonstrates how to encrypt a secret using RSA with a certificate in one of the Windows certificate stores. All local machine and user stores are searched.

    .EXAMPLE
    Protect-CString -String 'the secret sauce' -PublicKeyPath 'C:\Projects\Security\publickey.cer'

    Demonstrates how to encrypt a secret using RSA with a certificate file. The file must be loadable by the `System.Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509Certificate` class.

    .EXAMPLE
    Protect-CString -String 'the secret sauce' -PublicKeyPath 'cert:\LocalMachine\My\44A7C27F3353BC53F82318C14490D7E2500B6D9E'

    Demonstrates how to encrypt a secret using RSA with a certificate in the store, giving its exact path.

    .EXAMPLE
    Protect-CString -String 'the secret sauce' -Key 'gT4XPfvcJmHkQ5tYjY3fNgi7uwG4FB9j'

    Demonstrates how to encrypt a secret with a key, password, or passphrase. In this case, we are encrypting with a plaintext password. This functionality was added in Carbon 2.3.0.

    .EXAMPLE
    Protect-CString -String 'the secret sauce' -Key (Read-Host -Prompt 'Enter password (must be 16, 24, or 32 characters long):' -AsSecureString)

    Demonstrates that you can use a `SecureString` as the key, password, or passphrase. This functionality was added in Carbon 2.3.0.

    .EXAMPLE
    Protect-CString -String 'the secret sauce' -Key ([byte[]]@(163,163,185,174,205,55,157,219,121,146,251,116,43,203,63,38,73,154,230,112,82,112,151,29,189,135,254,187,164,104,45,30))

    Demonstrates that you can use an array of bytes as the key, password, or passphrase. This functionality was added in Carbon 2.3.0.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true, Position=0, ValueFromPipeline = $true)]
        [object]
        # The string to encrypt. Any non-string object you pass will be converted to a string before encrypting by calling the object's `ToString` method.
        #
        # Beginning in Carbon 2.4.0, this can also be a `SecureString` object. The `SecureString` is converted to an array of bytes, the bytes are encrypted, then the plaintext bytes are cleared from memory (i.e. the plaintext password is in memory for the amount of time it takes to encrypt it).
        $String,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='DPAPICurrentUser')]
        # Encrypts for the current user so that only he can decrypt.
        [Switch]
        $ForUser,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='DPAPILocalMachine')]
        # Encrypts for the current computer so that any user logged into the computer can decrypt.
        [Switch]
        $ForComputer,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='DPAPIForUser')]
        [Management.Automation.PSCredential]
        # Encrypts for a specific user.
        $Credential,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='RSAByCertificate')]
        [Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509Certificate2]
        # The public key to use for encrypting.
        $Certificate,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='RSAByThumbprint')]
        [string]
        # The thumbprint of the certificate, found in one of the Windows certificate stores, to use when encrypting. All certificate stores are searched.
        $Thumbprint,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='RSAByPath')]
        [string]
        # The path to the public key to use for encrypting. Must be to an `X509Certificate2` object.
        $PublicKeyPath,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='RSAByCertificate')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='RSAByThumbprint')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='RSAByPath')]
        [Switch]
        # If true, uses Direct Encryption (PKCS#1 v1.5) padding. Otherwise (the default), uses OAEP (PKCS#1 v2) padding. See [Encrypt](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.security.cryptography.rsacryptoserviceprovider.encrypt(v=vs.110).aspx) for information.
        $UseDirectEncryptionPadding,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='Symmetric')]
        # The key to use to encrypt the secret. Can be a `SecureString`, a `String`, or an array of bytes. Must be 16, 24, or 32 characters/bytes in length.
        [object]
        $Key
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    Add-Type -AssemblyName 'System.Security'

    if( $String -is [System.Security.SecureString] )
    {
        $stringBytes = [Carbon.Security.SecureStringConverter]::ToBytes($String)   
    }
    else
    {
        $stringBytes = [Text.Encoding]::UTF8.GetBytes( $String.ToString() )
    }
    
    try
    {    

        if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -like 'DPAPI*' )
        {
            if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'DPAPIForUser' ) 
            {
                $protectStringPath = Join-Path -Path $CarbonBinDir -ChildPath 'Protect-String.ps1' -Resolve
                $encodedString = Protect-CString -String $String -ForComputer
                $argumentList = '-ProtectedString {0}' -f $encodedString
                Invoke-CPowerShell -ExecutionPolicy 'ByPass' -NonInteractive -FilePath $protectStringPath -ArgumentList $argumentList -Credential $Credential |
                    Select-Object -First 1
                return
            }
            else
            {
                $scope = [Security.Cryptography.DataProtectionScope]::CurrentUser
                if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'DPAPILocalMachine' )
                {
                    $scope = [Security.Cryptography.DataProtectionScope]::LocalMachine
                }

                $encryptedBytes = [Security.Cryptography.ProtectedData]::Protect( $stringBytes, $null, $scope )
            }
        }
        elseif( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -like 'RSA*' )
        {
            if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'RSAByThumbprint' )
            {
                $Certificate = Get-ChildItem -Path ('cert:\*\*\{0}' -f $Thumbprint) -Recurse | Select-Object -First 1
                if( -not $Certificate )
                {
                    Write-Error ('Certificate with thumbprint ''{0}'' not found.' -f $Thumbprint)
                    return
                }
            }
            elseif( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'RSAByPath' )
            {
                $Certificate = Get-CCertificate -Path $PublicKeyPath
                if( -not $Certificate )
                {
                    return
                }
            }

            $rsaKey = $Certificate.PublicKey.Key
            if( $rsaKey -isnot ([Security.Cryptography.RSACryptoServiceProvider]) )
            {
                Write-Error ('Certificate ''{0}'' (''{1}'') is not an RSA key. Found a public key of type ''{2}'', but expected type ''{3}''.' -f $Certificate.Subject,$Certificate.Thumbprint,$rsaKey.GetType().FullName,[Security.Cryptography.RSACryptoServiceProvider].FullName)
                return
            }

            try
            {
                $encryptedBytes = $rsaKey.Encrypt( $stringBytes, (-not $UseDirectEncryptionPadding) )
            }
            catch
            {
                if( $_.Exception.Message -match 'Bad Length\.' -or $_.Exception.Message -match 'The parameter is incorrect\.')
                {
                    [int]$maxLengthGuess = ($rsaKey.KeySize - (2 * 160 - 2)) / 8
                    Write-Error -Message ('Failed to encrypt. String is longer than maximum length allowed by RSA and your key size, which is {0} bits. We estimate the maximum string size you can encrypt with certificate ''{1}'' ({2}) is {3} bytes. You may still get errors when you attempt to decrypt a string within a few bytes of this estimated maximum.' -f $rsaKey.KeySize,$Certificate.Subject,$Certificate.Thumbprint,$maxLengthGuess)
                    return
                }
                else
                {
                    Write-Error -Exception $_.Exception
                    return
                }
            }
        }
        elseif( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'Symmetric' )
        {
            $Key = ConvertTo-Key -InputObject $Key -From 'Protect-CString'
            if( -not $Key )
            {
                return
            }
                
            $aes = New-Object 'Security.Cryptography.AesCryptoServiceProvider'
            try
            {
                $aes.Padding = [Security.Cryptography.PaddingMode]::PKCS7
                $aes.KeySize = $Key.Length * 8
                $aes.Key = $Key

                $memoryStream = New-Object 'IO.MemoryStream'
                try
                {
                    $cryptoStream = New-Object 'Security.Cryptography.CryptoStream' $memoryStream,$aes.CreateEncryptor(),([Security.Cryptography.CryptoStreamMode]::Write)
                    try
                    {
                        $cryptoStream.Write($stringBytes,0,$stringBytes.Length)
                    }
                    finally
                    {
                        $cryptoStream.Dispose()
                    }

                    $encryptedBytes = Invoke-Command -ScriptBlock {
                                                                     $aes.IV
                                                                     $memoryStream.ToArray()
                                                                  }
                }
                finally
                {
                    $memoryStream.Dispose()
                }
            }
            finally
            {
                $aes.Dispose()
            }
        }

        return [Convert]::ToBase64String( $encryptedBytes )
    }
    finally
    {
        $stringBytes.Clear()
    }
}




function Read-CFile
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Reads the contents of a text file, retrying if the read fails.

    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Read-CFile` function reads the contents of a text file, and will retry if the read fails. Use this function if you need to read files that can be intermittently locked, like the Windows hosts file. The file is returned line-by-line. Use the `Raw` switch to return the entrie file as a single string.
    
    By default, it will retry 30 times, waiting 100 milliseconds between each try. YOu can control the number of retries and the wait between retries with the `MaximumTries` and `RetryDelayMilliseconds` parameters. 

    All errors raised while trying to read the file are ignored, except the error raised on the last try.

    This function was introduced in Carbon 2.2.0.

    .EXAMPLE
    Read-CFile -Path 'C:\Path\to\my\file'

    Demonstrates how to read each line from a text file.

    .EXAMPLE
    Read-CFile -Path 'C:\Path\to\my\file' -Raw

    Demonstrates how to read the entire contents of a text file into a single string.

    .EXAMPLE
    Read-CFile -Path 'C:\Path\to\my\file' -MaximumRetries 10 -RetryDelayMilliseconds 1000

    Demonstrates how to control how long to retry reading the text file. In this case, `Read-CFile` will try 10 times, waiting one second between tries.

    .EXAMPLE
    Read-CFile -Path 'C:\Path\to\my\file' -ErrorVariable 'readErrors'

    Demonstrates how to check if the read failed. In this case, errors are copied to a 'readErrors' variable, so you would check if this error variable has any items.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    [OutputType([string])]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        # The path to the file to read.
        $Path,

        # The number of tries before giving up reading the file. The default is 30.
        [int]
        $MaximumTries = 30,

        # The number of milliseconds to wait between tries. Default is 100 milliseconds.
        [int]
        $RetryDelayMilliseconds = 100,

        [Switch]
        # Return the file as one string. Otherwise, by default, the file is returned line-by-line.
        $Raw
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $Path = Resolve-Path -Path $Path
    if( -not $Path )
    {
        return
    }

    $tryNum = 1
    $output = @()
    do
    {
        $lastTry = $tryNum -eq $MaximumTries
        if( $lastTry )
        {
            $errorAction = @{}
        }

        $cmdErrors = @()
        $numErrorsAtStart = $Global:Error.Count
        try
        {

            if( $Raw )
            {
                $output = [IO.File]::ReadAllText($Path)
            }
            else
            {
                $output = Get-Content -Path $Path -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue -ErrorVariable 'cmdErrors'
                if( $cmdErrors -and $lastTry )
                {
                    foreach( $item in $cmdErrors )
                    {
                        $Global:Error.RemoveAt(0)
                    }
                    $cmdErrors | Write-Error 
                }
            }
        }
        catch
        {
            if( $lastTry )
            {
                Write-Error -ErrorRecord $_
            }
        }

        $numErrors = $Global:Error.Count - $numErrorsAtStart

        if( -not $lastTry )
        {
            for( $idx = 0; $idx -lt $numErrors; ++$idx )
            {
                $Global:Error[0] | Out-String | Write-Debug
                $Global:Error.RemoveAt(0)
            }
        }

        # If $Global:Error is full, $numErrors will be 0
        if( $cmdErrors -or $numErrors )
        {
            if( -not $lastTry )
            {
                Write-Debug -Message ('Failed to read file ''{0}'' (attempt #{1}). Retrying in {2} milliseconds.' -f $Path,$tryNum,$RetryDelayMilliseconds)
                Start-Sleep -Milliseconds $RetryDelayMilliseconds
            }
        }
        else
        {
            return $output
        }
    }
    while( $tryNum++ -lt $MaximumTries )
}



function Remove-CDotNetAppSetting
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Remove an app setting from the .NET machine.config file.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Remove-CDotNetAppSetting` removes an app setting from one or more of the .NET machine.config file. The app setting can be removed from up to four different machine.config files:
    
     * .NET 2.0 32-bit (switches -Clr2 -Framework)
     * .NET 2.0 64-bit (switches -Clr2 -Framework64)
     * .NET 4.0 32-bit (switches -Clr4 -Framework)
     * .NET 4.0 64-bit (switches -Clr4 -Framework64)
      
    Any combination of Framework and Clr switch can be used, but you MUST supply one of each.

    If the app setting doesn't exist in the machine.config, nothing happens.

    `Remove-CDotNetAppSetting` was added in Carbon 2.2.0.
    
    .LINK
    Set-CDotNetAppSetting

    .LINK
    Set-CDotNetConnectionString

    .EXAMPLE
    > Remove-CDotNetAppSetting -Name ExampleUrl -Framework -Framework64 -Clr2 -Clr4
    
    Remvoes the `ExampleUrl` app setting from the following machine.config files:
    
     * `%SYSTEMROOT%\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v2.0.50727\CONFIG\machine.config`
     * `%SYSTEMROOT%\Microsoft.NET\Framework64\v2.0.50727\CONFIG\machine.config`
     * `%SYSTEMROOT%\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v4.0.30319\CONFIG\machine.config`
     * `%SYSTEMROOT%\Microsoft.NET\Framework64\v4.0.30319\CONFIG\machine.config`

    .EXAMPLE
    > Remove-CDotNetAppSetting -Name ExampleUrl -Framework64 -Clr4
    
    Sets the ExampleUrl app setting in the following machine.config file:
    
     * `%SYSTEMROOT%\Microsoft.NET\Framework64\v4.0.30319\CONFIG\machine.config`
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true, DefaultParameterSetName='All')]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the app setting to remove.
        $Name,

        [Switch]
        # Remove the app setting from a 32-bit machine.config. Must be used with one or both of the `Clr2` and `Clr4` switches to control which machine.config files to operate on.
        $Framework,
        
        [Switch]
        # Remove the app setting from a 64-bit machine.config. Ignored if running on a 32-bit operating system. Must be used with one or both of the `Clr2` and `Clr4` switches to control which machine.config files to operate on.
        $Framework64,
        
        [Switch]
        # Remove the app setting from a .NET 2.0 machine.config. Must be used with one or both of the `Framework` and `Framework64` switches to control which machine.config files to operate on.
        $Clr2,
        
        [Switch]
        # Remove the app setting from a .NET 4.0 machine.config. Must be used with one or both of the `Framework` and `Framework64` switches to control which machine.config files to operate on.
        $Clr4
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( -not ($Framework -or $Framework64) )
    {
        Write-Error "You must supply either or both of the Framework and Framework64 switches."
        return
    }
    
    if( -not ($Clr2 -or $Clr4) )
    {
        Write-Error "You must supply either or both of the Clr2 and Clr4 switches."
        return
    }
    
    $runtimes = @()
    if( $Clr2 )
    {
        $runtimes += 'v2.0'
    }
    if( $Clr4 )
    {
        $runtimes += 'v4.0'
    }

    $runtimes | ForEach-Object {
        $params = @{
            FilePath = (Join-Path $CarbonBinDir 'Remove-DotNetAppSetting.ps1' -Resolve);
            ArgumentList = @( 
                                (ConvertTo-CBase64 -Value $Name)
                            );
            Runtime = $_;
            ExecutionPolicy = [Microsoft.PowerShell.ExecutionPolicy]::RemoteSigned;
        }
        
        if( $Framework )
        {    
            Invoke-CPowerShell @params -x86
        }
        
        if( $Framework64 )
        {
            Invoke-CPowerShell @params
        }
    }
}




function Remove-CEnvironmentVariable
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Removes an environment variable.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    Uses the .NET [Environment class](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/z8te35sa) to remove an environment variable from the Process, User, or Computer scopes.
    
    Changes to environment variables in the User and Machine scope are not picked up by running processes.  Any running processes that use this environment variable should be restarted.

    Normally, you have to restart your PowerShell session/process to no longer see the variable in the `env:` drive. Use the `-Force` switch to also remove the variable from the `env:` drive. This functionality was added in Carbon 2.3.0.

    Beginning with Carbon 2.3.0, you can set an environment variable for a specific user by specifying the `-ForUser` switch and passing the user's credentials with the `-Credential` parameter. This runs a separate PowerShell process as that user to remove the variable.

    Beginning in Carbon 2.3.0, you can specify multiple scopes from which to remove an environment variable. In previous versions, you could only remove from one scope.
    
    .LINK
    Carbon_EnvironmentVariable

    .LINK
    Set-CEnvironmentVariable
    
    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/z8te35sa

    .EXAMPLE
    Remove-CEnvironmentVariable -Name 'MyEnvironmentVariable' -ForProcess
    
    Removes the `MyEnvironmentVariable` from the process scope.

    .EXAMPLE
    Remove-CEnvironmentVariable -Name 'SomeUsersVariable' -ForUser -Credential $credential

    Demonstrates that you can remove another user's user-level environment variable by passing its credentials to the `Credential` parameter. This runs a separate PowerShell process as that user to remove the variable.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        # The environment variable to remove.
        [string]$Name,
        
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='ForCurrentUser')]
        # Removes the environment variable for the current computer.
        [Switch]$ForComputer,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='ForCurrentUser')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ForSpecificUser')]
        # Removes the environment variable for the current user.
        [Switch]$ForUser,
        
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='ForCurrentUser')]
        # Removes the environment variable for the current process.
        [Switch]$ForProcess,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='ForCurrentUser')]
        # Remove the variable from the current PowerShell session's `env:` drive, too. Normally, you have to restart your session to no longer see the variable in the `env:` drive.
        #
        # This parameter was added in Carbon 2.3.0.
        [Switch]$Force,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ForSpecificUser')]
        # Remove an environment variable for a specific user.
        [pscredential]$Credential
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'ForSpecificUser' )
    {
        $parameters = $PSBoundParameters
        $parameters.Remove('Credential')
        $job = Start-Job -ScriptBlock {
            Import-Module -Name (Join-Path -Path $using:carbonRoot -ChildPath 'Carbon.psd1')
            $VerbosePreference = $using:VerbosePreference
            $ErrorActionPreference = $using:ErrorActionPreference
            $DebugPreference = $using:DebugPreference
            $WhatIfPreference = $using:WhatIfPreference
            Remove-CEnvironmentVariable @using:parameters
        } -Credential $Credential
        $job | Wait-Job | Receive-Job
        $job | Remove-Job -Force -ErrorAction Ignore
        return
    }

    if( -not $ForProcess -and -not $ForUser -and -not $ForComputer )
    {
        Write-Error -Message ('Environment variable target not specified. You must supply one of the ForComputer, ForUser, or ForProcess switches.')
        return
    }

    Invoke-Command -ScriptBlock {
                                    if( $ForComputer )
                                    {
                                        [EnvironmentVariableTarget]::Machine
                                    }

                                    if( $ForUser )
                                    {
                                        [EnvironmentVariableTarget]::User
                                    }

                                    if( $ForProcess )
                                    {
                                        [EnvironmentVariableTarget]::Process
                                    }
                                } |
        Where-Object { $PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess( "$_-level environment variable '$Name'", "remove" ) } |
        ForEach-Object { 
                            $scope = $_
                            [Environment]::SetEnvironmentVariable( $Name, $null, $scope )
                            if( $Force -and $scope -ne [EnvironmentVariableTarget]::Process )
                            {
                                [Environment]::SetEnvironmentVariable($Name, $null, 'Process')
                            }
            }
}




function Remove-CGroupMember
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Removes users or groups from a *local* group.

    .DESCRIPTION
    You would think it's pretty easy and straight-forward to remove users/groups from a local group, but you would be wrong.  The quick solution is to use `net localgroup`, but that won't accept user/group names longer than 24 characters.  This means you have to use the .NET Directory Services APIs.  How do you reliably remove both users *and* groups?  What if those users are in a domain?  What if they're in another domain?  What about built-in users?  Fortunately, your brain hasn't exploded.

    So, this function removes users or groups from a *local* group.

    If the user or group is not a member, nothing happens.

    `Remove-CGroupMember` is new in Carbon 2.0.

    .EXAMPLE
    Remove-CGroupMember -Name Administrators -Member EMPIRE\DarthVader,EMPIRE\EmperorPalpatine,REBELS\LSkywalker

    Removes Darth Vader, Emperor Palpatine and Luke Skywalker from the local administrators group.

    .EXAMPLE
    Remove-CGroupMember -Name TieFighters -Member NetworkService

    Removes the local NetworkService account from the local TieFighters group.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The group name.
        $Name,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string[]]
        # The users/groups to remove from a group.
		[Alias('Members')]
        $Member
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    
    [DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.GroupPrincipal]$group = Get-CGroup -Name $Name
    if( -not $group )
    {
        return
    }
    
    try
    {
        foreach( $_member in $Member )
        {
            $identity = Resolve-CIdentity -Name $_member
            if( -not $identity )
            {
                continue
            }

            if( -not (Test-CGroupMember -GroupName $group.Name -Member $_member) )
            {
                continue
            }

            Write-Verbose -Message ('[{0}] Members      {1} ->' -f $Name,$identity.FullName)
            if( -not $PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess(('removing "{0}" from local group "{1}"' -f $identity.FullName, $group.Name), $null, $null) )
            {
                continue
            }

            try
            {
                $identity.RemoveFromLocalGroup( $group.Name )
            }
            catch
            {
                Write-Error ('Failed to remove "{0}" from local group "{1}": {2}.' -f $identity,$group.Name,$_)
            }
        }
    }
    finally
    {
        $group.Dispose()
    }
}




function Remove-CHostsEntry
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Removes entries from the hosts file by hostname.

    .DESCRIPTION
    You can remove multiple entries or pipe entries into this function.

    .EXAMPLE
    Remove-CHostsEntry -HostName 'adadvisor.net'

    Demonstrates how to remove hosts entry for `adadvisor.net`, which you probably don't want to do.

    .EXAMPLE
    Remove-CHostsEntry -HostName 'adadvisor.net','www.adchimp.com'

    Demonstrates how to remove multiple hosts entries.

    .EXAMPLE
    ('adadvisor.net','www.adchimp.com') | Remove-CHostsEntry

    Demonstrates how to pipe hostnames into `Remove-CHostsEntry`.

    .EXAMPLE
    Remove-CHostsEntry -HostName 'adadvisor.net' -Path 'C:\Projects\Carbon\adblockhosts'

    Demonstrates how to work with a file other than Windows' default hosts file.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ValueFromPipeline=$true,Position=0)]
        [string[]]
        # The hostname of the hosts entry/entries to remove.
        $HostName,

        [string]
        # The hosts file to modify.  Defaults to the Windows hosts file.
        $Path = (Get-CPathToHostsFile)
    )

    begin
    {
        Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

        Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

        $allHostNames = New-Object 'Collections.ArrayList'
    }

    process
    {
        $HostName | 
            ForEach-Object { [Text.RegularExpressions.Regex]::Escape( $_ ) } |
            ForEach-Object { [void] $allHostNames.Add( $_ ) }
    }

    end
    {
        $regex = $allHostNames -join '|'
        $regex = '^[0-9a-f.:]+\s+\b({0})\b.*$' -f $regex 

        $cmdErrors = @()
        $newHostsFile = Read-CFile -Path $Path -ErrorVariable 'cmdErrors' |
                            Where-Object { $_ -notmatch $regex }
        if( $cmdErrors )
        {
            return
        }

        $entryNoun = 'entry'
        if( $HostName.Count -gt 1 )
        {
            $entryNoun = 'entries'
        }

        if( $PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess( $Path, ('removing hosts {0} {1}' -f $entryNoun,($HostName -join ', ')) ) )
        {
            $newHostsFile | Write-CFile -Path $Path
        }
    }
}



function Remove-CIniEntry
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Removes an entry/line/setting from an INI file.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    A configuration file consists of sections, led by a `[section]` header and followed by `name = value` entries.  This function removes an entry in an INI file.  Something like this:

        [ui]
        username = Regina Spektor <[email protected]>

        [extensions]
        share = 
        extdiff =

    Names are not allowed to contains the equal sign, `=`.  Values can contain any character.  The INI file is parsed using `Split-CIni`.  [See its documentation for more examples.](Split-CIni.html)
    
    If the entry doesn't exist, does nothing.

    Be default, operates on the INI file case-insensitively. If your INI is case-sensitive, use the `-CaseSensitive` switch.

    .LINK
    Set-CIniEntry

    .LINK
    Split-CIni

    .EXAMPLE
    Remove-CIniEntry -Path C:\Projects\Carbon\StupidStupid.ini -Section rat -Name tails

    Removes the `tails` item in the `[rat]` section of the `C:\Projects\Carbon\StupidStupid.ini` file.

    .EXAMPLE
    Remove-CIniEntry -Path C:\Users\me\npmrc -Name 'prefix' -CaseSensitive

    Demonstrates how to remove an INI entry in an INI file that is case-sensitive.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param
    (
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The path to the INI file.
        $Path,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the INI entry to remove.
        $Name,
        
        [string]
        # The section of the INI where the entry should be set.
        $Section,

        [Switch]
        # Removes INI entries in a case-sensitive manner.
        $CaseSensitive
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $settings = @{ }
    
    if( Test-Path $Path -PathType Leaf )
    {
        $settings = Split-CIni -Path $Path -AsHashtable -CaseSensitive:$CaseSensitive
    }
    else
    {
        Write-Error ('INI file {0} not found.' -f $Path)
        return
    }

    $key = $Name
    if( $Section )
    {
        $key = '{0}.{1}' -f $Section,$Name
    }

    if( $settings.ContainsKey( $key ) )
    {
        $lines = New-Object 'Collections.ArrayList'
        Get-Content -Path $Path | ForEach-Object { [void] $lines.Add( $_ ) }
        $null = $lines.RemoveAt( ($settings[$key].LineNumber - 1) )
        if( $PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess( $Path, ('remove INI entry {0}' -f $key) ) )
        {
            if( $lines )
            {
                $lines | Set-Content -Path $Path
            }
            else
            {
                Clear-Content -Path $Path
            }
        }
    }

}



function Remove-CJunction
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Removes a junction.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    `Remove-CJunction` removes an existing junction. 
    
    In Carbon 2.1.1 and earlier, the `Path` paramater does not support wildcard characters, nor can it delete junctions that contained wildcards.

    Carbon 2.2.0 added support for wildcards in the `Path` parameter. If using wildcards, if the wildcard pattern doesn't match any junctions, nothing is removed and you'll get no errors. If the `Path` parameter does not contain wildcards, `Path` must exist and must be a path to a junction.

    Carbon 2.2.0 also added the `LiteralPath` parameter. Use it to delete junctions whose path contains wildcard characters.
    
    .LINK
    Install-CJunction

    .LINK
    New-CJunction

    .LINK
    Test-CPathIsJunction

    .LINK
    Uninstall-CJunction

    .EXAMPLE
    Remove-CJunction -Path 'C:\I\Am\A\Junction'
    
    Removes the `C:\I\Am\A\Junction` path.

    .EXAMPLE
    Remove-CJunction -path 'C:\Temp\*'

    Demonstrates how to use wildcards to delete multiple junctions in a directory. Nothing happens if the wildcard doesn't match any junctions.

    .EXAMPLE
    Remove-CJunction -LiteralPath 'C:\Temp\ContainsWildcards[]'

    Demonstrates how to use the `Literalpath` parameter to delete a junction that contains wildcard characters.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true,DefaultParameterSetName='Path')]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,Position=0,ParameterSetName='Path')]
        [string]
        # The path to the junction to remove.
        #
        # Wildcards are supported in Carbon 2.2.0 and later.
        $Path,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='LiteralPath')]
        [string]
        # The literal path to the junction to remove. Use this parameter to remove junctions whose paths contain wildcard characters.
        #
        # This parameter was added in Carbon 2.2.0.
        $LiteralPath
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'Path' )
    {
        if( [Management.Automation.WildcardPattern]::ContainsWildcardCharacters($Path) )
        {
            Get-Item -Path $Path |
                Where-Object { $_.PsIsContainer -and $_.IsJunction } |
                ForEach-Object { Remove-CJunction -Path $_.FullName }
        }
        else
        {
            Remove-CJunction -LiteralPath $Path
        }
        return
    }

    if( -not (Test-Path -LiteralPath $LiteralPath) )
    {
        Write-Error ('Path ''{0}'' not found.' -f $LiteralPath)
        return
    }
    
    if( (Test-Path -LiteralPath $LiteralPath -PathType Leaf) )
    {
        Write-Error ('Path ''{0}'' is a file, not a junction.' -f $LiteralPath)
        return
    }
    
    if( Test-CPathIsJunction -LiteralPath $LiteralPath  )
    {
        $LiteralPath = Resolve-Path -LiteralPath $LiteralPath | 
                            Select-Object -ExpandProperty ProviderPath
        if( $PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess($LiteralPath, "remove junction") )
        {
            [Carbon.IO.JunctionPoint]::Delete( $LiteralPath )
        }
    }
    else
    {
        Write-Error ("Path '{0}' is a directory, not a junction." -f $LiteralPath)
    }
}




function Remove-CRegistryKeyValue
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Removes a value from a registry key, if it exists.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    If the given key doesn't exist, nothing happens.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Remove-CRegistryKeyValue -Path hklm:\Software\Carbon\Test -Name 'InstallPath'
    
    Removes the `InstallPath` value from the `hklm:\Software\Carbon\Test` registry key.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The path to the registry key where the value should be removed.
        $Path,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the value to remove.
        $Name
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( (Test-CRegistryKeyValue -Path $Path -Name $Name) )
    {
        if( $pscmdlet.ShouldProcess( ('Item: {0} Property: {1}' -f $Path,$Name), 'Remove Property' ) )
        {
            Remove-ItemProperty -Path $Path -Name $Name
        }
    }
}




function Remove-CSslCertificateBinding
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Removes an SSL certificate binding.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    Uses the netsh command line application to remove an SSL certificate binding for an IP/port combination.  If the binding doesn't exist, nothing is changed.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    > Remove-CSslCertificateBinding -IPAddress '45.72.89.57' -Port 443
    
    Removes the SSL certificate bound to IP 45.72.89.57 on port 443.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    > Remove-CSslCertificateBinding 
    
    Removes the default SSL certificate from port 443.  The default certificate is bound to all IP addresses.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [IPAddress]
        # The IP address whose binding to remove.  Default is all IP addresses.
        $IPAddress = '0.0.0.0',
        
        [UInt16]
        # The port of the binding to remove.  Default is port 443.
        $Port = 443
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    
    if( -not (Test-CSslCertificateBinding -IPAddress $IPAddress -Port $Port) )
    {
        return
    }
    
    if( $IPAddress.AddressFamily -eq [Net.Sockets.AddressFamily]::InterNetworkV6 )
    {
        $ipPort = '[{0}]:{1}' -f $IPAddress,$Port
    }
    else
    {
        $ipPort = '{0}:{1}' -f $IPAddress,$Port
    }

    Invoke-ConsoleCommand -Target $ipPort `
                          -Action "removing SSL certificate binding" `
                          -ScriptBlock { netsh http delete sslcert ipPort=$ipPort }
}




function Reset-CHostsFile
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Removes all custom host entries from this computer's hosts file.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    Sometimes you want to start over.  This method removes all hosts entries from your hosts file after the default localhost entry.
    
    By default, the current computer's hosts file is reset.  You can operate on a custom hosts file by passing its path to the `Path` argument.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Reset-CHostsFile
    
    If your hosts file contains something like this:
    
        127.0.0.1        localhost
        10.1.2.3         myserver
        10.5.6.7         myserver2
        
    After calling `Reset-CHostsFile`, your hosts will contain:
    
        127.0.0.1        localhost
      
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Reset-CHostsFile -Path my\custom\hosts
    
    Resets the hosts file at `my\custom\hosts`.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
       [string]
       # The path to the hosts file to modify.  Defaults to the local computer's hosts file.
       $Path = (Get-CPathToHostsFile)
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
 
    if(-not (Test-Path $Path) )
    {
       Write-Warning "Creating hosts file '$Path'."
       New-Item $Path -ItemType File
    }
    
    $cmdErrors = @()
    [string[]]$lines = Read-CFile -Path $Path -ErrorVariable 'cmdErrors'
    if( $cmdErrors )
    {
        return
    }

    $outLines = New-Object -TypeName 'System.Collections.ArrayList'
    foreach($line in $lines)
    {
        if($line.Trim().StartsWith("#") -or ($line.Trim() -eq '') )
        {
            [void] $outlines.Add($line)
        }
        else
        {
            break
        }
    }
    
    [void] $outlines.Add("127.0.0.1       localhost")
    
    if( $PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess( $Path, "Reset-CHostsFile" ) )
    {
        $outlines | Write-CFile -Path $Path
    }     
}




function Reset-CMsmqQueueManagerID
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Resets the MSMQ Queue Manager ID.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    Removes any existing MSMQ Queue Manager ID in the registry and restarts MSMQ so that it will generate a fresh QM ID.

    Each instance of MSMQ should have its own unique Queue Manager ID. If multiple machines have the same Queue Manager ID, destination queues think messages are actually coming from the same computer, and messages are lost/dropped.  If you clone new servers from a template or from old servers, you'll get duplicate Queue Manager IDs.  This function causes MSMQ to reset its Queue Manager ID.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Reset-CMsmqQueueManagerId
    
    .LINK
    http://blogs.msdn.com/b/johnbreakwell/archive/2007/02/06/msmq-prefers-to-be-unique.aspx
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    Write-Verbose "Resetting MSMQ Queue Manager ID."
    Write-Verbose "Stopping MSMQ."
    Stop-Service MSMQ -Force
    
    $QMIdPath = "HKLM:\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\MSMQ\Parameters\MachineCache"
    $QMIdName = "QMId"
   	$QMId = Get-CRegistryKeyValue -Path $QMIdPath -Name $QMIdName
   	Write-Verbose "Existing QMId: $QMId"
   	Remove-CRegistryKeyValue -Path $QMIdPath -Name $QMIdName
    
    $MSMQSysPrepPath = "HKLM:\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\MSMQ\Parameters"
    $MSMQSysPrepName = "SysPrep"
   	Remove-CRegistryKeyValue -Path $MSMQSysPrepPath -Name $MSMQSysPrepName
	Set-CRegistryKeyValue -Path $MSMQSysPrepPath -Name $MSMQSysPrepName -DWord 1
    
    Write-Verbose "Starting MSMQ"
    Start-Service MSMQ
    
	$QMId = Get-CRegistryKeyValue -Path $QMIdPath -Name $QMIdName
    Write-Verbose "New QMId: $QMId"
}




function Resolve-CFullPath
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Converts a relative path to an absolute path.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    Unlike `Resolve-Path`, this function does not check whether the path exists.  It just converts relative paths to absolute paths.
    
    Unrooted paths (e.g. `..\..\See\I\Do\Not\Have\A\Root`) are first joined with the current directory (as returned by `Get-Location`).
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Resolve-CFullPath -Path 'C:\Projects\Carbon\Test\..\Carbon\FileSystem.ps1'
    
    Returns `C:\Projects\Carbon\Carbon\FileSystem.ps1`.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Resolve-CFullPath -Path 'C:\Projects\Carbon\..\I\Do\Not\Exist'
    
    Returns `C:\Projects\I\Do\Not\Exist`.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Resolve-CFullPath -Path ..\..\Foo\..\Bar
    
    Because the `Path` isn't rooted, joins `Path` with the current directory (as returned by `Get-Location`), and returns the full path.  If the current directory is `C:\Projects\Carbon`, returns `C:\Bar`.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The path to resolve.  Must be rooted, i.e. have a drive at the beginning.
        $Path
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( -not ( [System.IO.Path]::IsPathRooted($Path) ) )
    {
        $Path = Join-Path (Get-Location) $Path
    }
    return [IO.Path]::GetFullPath($Path)
}

Set-Alias -Name 'ConvertTo-FullPath' -Value 'Resolve-CFullPath'





function Resolve-CIdentity
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets domain, name, type, and SID information about a user or group.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Resolve-CIdentity` function takes an identity name or security identifier (SID) and gets its canonical representation. It returns a `Carbon.Identity` object, which contains the following information about the identity:

     * Domain - the domain the user was found in
     * FullName - the users full name, e.g. Domain\Name
     * Name - the user's username or the group's name
     * Type - the Sid type.
     * Sid - the account's security identifier as a `System.Security.Principal.SecurityIdentifier` object.
    
    The common name for an account is not always the canonical name used by the operating system.  For example, the local Administrators group is actually called BUILTIN\Administrators.  This function uses the `LookupAccountName` and `LookupAccountSid` Windows functions to resolve an account name or security identifier into its domain, name, full name, SID, and SID type. 

    You may pass a `System.Security.Principal.SecurityIdentifer`, a SID in SDDL form (as a string), or a SID in binary form (a byte array) as the value to the `SID` parameter. You'll get an error and nothing returned if the SDDL or byte array SID are invalid.

    If the name or security identifier doesn't represent an actual user or group, an error is written and nothing is returned.

    .LINK
    Test-CIdentity

    .LINK
    Resolve-CIdentityName

    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.security.principal.securityidentifier.aspx

    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/aa379601.aspx
    
    .LINK
    ConvertTo-CSecurityIdentifier

    .LINK
    Resolve-CIdentityName

    .LINK
    Test-CIdentity

    .OUTPUTS
    Carbon.Identity.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Resolve-CIdentity -Name 'Administrators'
    
    Returns an object representing the `Administrators` group.

    .EXAMPLE
    Resolve-CIdentity -SID 'S-1-5-21-2678556459-1010642102-471947008-1017'

    Demonstrates how to use a SID in SDDL form to convert a SID into an identity.

    .EXAMPLE
    Resolve-CIdentity -SID (New-Object 'Security.Principal.SecurityIdentifier' 'S-1-5-21-2678556459-1010642102-471947008-1017')

    Demonstrates that you can pass a `SecurityIdentifier` object as the value of the SID parameter.

    .EXAMPLE
    Resolve-CIdentity -SID $sidBytes

    Demonstrates that you can use a byte array that represents a SID as the value of the `SID` parameter.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParameterSetName='ByName')]
    [OutputType([Carbon.Identity])]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ByName',Position=0)]
        [string]
        # The name of the identity to return.
        $Name,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='BySid')]
        # The SID of the identity to return. Accepts a SID in SDDL form as a `string`, a `System.Security.Principal.SecurityIdentifier` object, or a SID in binary form as an array of bytes.
        $SID
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    
    if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'BySid' )
    {
        $SID = ConvertTo-CSecurityIdentifier -SID $SID
        if( -not $SID )
        {
            return
        }

        $id = [Carbon.Identity]::FindBySid( $SID )
        if( -not $id )
        {
            Write-Error ('Identity ''{0}'' not found.' -f $SID) -ErrorAction $ErrorActionPreference
        }
        return $id
    }
    
    if( -not (Test-CIdentity -Name $Name) )
    {
        Write-Error ('Identity ''{0}'' not found.' -f $Name) -ErrorAction $ErrorActionPreference
        return
    }

    return [Carbon.Identity]::FindByName( $Name ) 
}




function Resolve-CIdentityName
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Determines the full, NT identity name for a user or group.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    `Resolve-CIdentityName` resolves a user/group name into its full, canonical name, used by the operating system. For example, the local Administrators group is actually called BUILTIN\Administrators. With a canonical username, you can unambiguously compare principals on objects that contain user/group information.

    If unable to resolve a name into an identity, `Resolve-CIdentityName` returns nothing.

    If you want to get full identity information (domain, type, sid, etc.), use `Resolve-CIdentity`.

    In Carbon 2.0, you can also resolve a SID into its identity name. The `SID` parameter accepts a SID in SDDL form as a `string`, a `System.Security.Principal.SecurityIdentifier` object, or a SID in binary form as an array of bytes. If the SID no longer maps to an active account, you'll get the original SID in SDDL form (as a string) returned to you.

    .LINK
    ConvertTo-CSecurityIdentifier

    .LINK
    Resolve-CIdentity

    .LINK
    Test-CIdentity

    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.security.principal.securityidentifier.aspx

    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/aa379601.aspx
    
    .OUTPUTS
    string
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Resolve-CIdentityName -Name 'Administrators'
    
    Returns `BUILTIN\Administrators`, the canonical name for the local Administrators group.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParameterSetName='ByName')]
    [OutputType([string])]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ByName',Position=0)]
        [string]
        # The name of the identity to return.
        $Name,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='BySid')]
        # Get an identity's name from its SID. Accepts a SID in SDDL form as a `string`, a `System.Security.Principal.SecurityIdentifier` object, or a SID in binary form as an array of bytes.
        #
        # This parameter is new in Carbon 2.0.
        $SID
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    
    if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'ByName' )
    {
        return Resolve-CIdentity -Name $Name -ErrorAction Ignore | Select-Object -ExpandProperty 'FullName'
    }
    elseif( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'BySid' )
    {
        $SID = ConvertTo-CSecurityIdentifier -SID $SID
        if( -not $SID )
        {
            return
        }

        $id = [Carbon.Identity]::FindBySid( $SID )
        if( $id )
        {
            return $id.FullName
        }
        else
        {
            return $SID.ToString()
        }
    }
    
}




function Resolve-CNetPath
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    OBSOLETE. Will be removed in a future major version of Carbon.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    OBSOLETE. Will be removed in a future major version of Carbon.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Write-Error 'OBSOLETE. Will be removed in a future major version of Carbon.'
    
    Demonstates that `Resolve-CNetPath` is obsolete and you shouldn't use it.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    Write-Warning ('Resolve-CNetPath is obsolete and will be removed in a future major version of Carbon. Do not use.')
    
    $netCmd = Get-Command -CommandType Application -Name net.exe* |
                Where-Object { $_.Name -eq 'net.exe' }
    if( $netCmd )
    {
        return $netCmd.Definition
    }
    
    $netPath = Join-Path $env:WINDIR system32\net.exe
    if( (Test-Path -Path $netPath -PathType Leaf) )
    {
        return $netPath
    }
    
    Write-Error 'net.exe command not found.'
    return $null
}



function Resolve-CPathCase
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Returns the real, canonical case of a path.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    The .NET and Windows path/file system APIs respect and preserve the case of paths passed to them.  This function will return the actual case of a path on the file system, regardless of the case of the string passed in.
    
    If the path doesn't an exist, an error is written and nothing is returned.

    .EXAMPLE
    Resolve-CPathCase -Path "C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32"
    
    Returns `C:\Windows\system32`.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Resolve-CPathCase -Path 'c:\projects\carbon' 
    
    Returns `C:\Projects\Carbon`.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName=$true)]
        [string]
        # The path whose real, canonical case should be returned.
        [Alias('FullName')]
        $Path
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( -not (Test-Path -Path $Path) )
    {
        Write-Error "Path '$Path' not found."
        return
    }

    $uri = [uri]$Path
    if( $uri.IsUnc )
    {
        Write-Error ('Path ''{0}'' is a UNC path, which is not supported.' -f $Path)
        return
    }

    if( -not ([IO.Path]::IsPathRooted($Path)) )
    {
        $Path = (Resolve-Path -Path $Path).Path
    }
    
    $qualifier = '{0}\' -f (Split-Path -Qualifier -Path $Path)
    $qualifier = Get-Item -Path $qualifier | Select-Object -ExpandProperty 'Name'
    $canonicalPath = ''
    do
    {
        $parent = Split-Path -Parent -Path $Path
        $leaf = Split-Path -Leaf -Path $Path
        $canonicalLeaf = Get-ChildItem -Path $parent -Filter $leaf
        if( $canonicalPath )
        {
            $canonicalPath = Join-Path -Path $canonicalLeaf -ChildPath $canonicalPath
        }
        else
        {
            $canonicalPath = $canonicalLeaf
        }
    }
    while( $parent -ne $qualifier -and ($Path = Split-Path -Parent -Path $Path) )

    return Join-Path -Path $qualifier -ChildPath $canonicalPath
}

Set-Alias -Name 'Get-PathCanonicalCase' -Value 'Resolve-CPathCase'




function Resolve-CRelativePath
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Converts a path to a relative path from a given source.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    The .NET framework doesn't expose an API for getting a relative path to an item.  This function uses Win32 APIs to call [PathRelativePathTo](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/bb773740.aspx).
    
    Neither the `From` or `To` paths need to exist.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Resolve-CRelativePath -Path 'C:\Program Files' -FromDirectory 'C:\Windows\system32' 
    
    Returns `..\..\Program Files`.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Get-ChildItem * | Resolve-CRelativePath -FromDirectory 'C:\Windows\system32'
    
    Returns the relative path from the `C:\Windows\system32` directory to the current directory.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Resolve-CRelativePath -Path 'C:\I\do\not\exist\either' -FromDirectory 'C:\I\do\not\exist' 
    
    Returns `.\either`.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Resolve-CRelativePath -Path 'C:\I\do\not\exist\either' -FromFile 'C:\I\do\not\exist_file' 
    
    Treats `C:\I\do\not\exist_file` as a file, so returns a relative path of `.\exist\either`.
    
    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/bb773740.aspx
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName=$true)]
        [string]
        # The path to convert to a relative path.  It will be relative to the value of the From parameter.
        [Alias('FullName')]
        $Path,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='FromDirectory')]
        [string]
        # The source directory from which the relative path will be calculated.  Can be a string or an file system object.
        $FromDirectory,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='FromFile')]
        [string]
        # The source directory from which the relative path will be calculated.  Can be a string or an file system object.
        $FromFile
    )
    
    begin
    {
        Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

        Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    }

    process
    {
        $relativePath = New-Object System.Text.StringBuilder 260
        switch( $pscmdlet.ParameterSetName )
        {
            'FromFile'
            {
                $fromAttr = [IO.FileAttributes]::Normal
                $fromPath = $FromFile
            }
            'FromDirectory'
            {
                $fromAttr = [IO.FileAttributes]::Directory
                $fromPath = $FromDirectory
            }
        }
        
        $toPath = $Path
        if( $Path | Get-Member -Name 'FullName' )
        {
            $toPath = $Path.FullName
        }
        
        $toAttr = [IO.FileAttributes]::Normal
        $converted = [Carbon.IO.Path]::PathRelativePathTo( $relativePath, $fromPath, $fromAttr, $toPath, $toAttr )
        $result = if( $converted ) { $relativePath.ToString() } else { $null }
        return $result
    }
}



function Resolve-WindowsFeatureName
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    INTERNAL.  DO NOT USE.  Converts a Carbon-specific, common Windows feature name, into the feature name used on the current computer.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    Windows feature names change between versions.  This function converts a Carbon-specific name into feature names used on the current computer's version of Windows.
    
    **This function is not available on Windows 8/2012.**
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Resolve-WindowsFeatureNames -Name 'Iis','Msmq'
    
    Returns `'IIS-WebServer','MSMQ-Server'` if running Windows 7/Windows 2008 R2, or `'Web-WebServer','MSMQ-Server'` if on Windows 2008.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string[]]
        # The Carbon feature names to convert to Windows-specific feature names.
        $Name
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    
    Write-Warning -Message ('Resolve-WindowsFeatureName is obsolete and will be removed in a future major version of Carbon.')

    Assert-WindowsFeatureFunctionsSupported -WarningAction SilentlyContinue | Out-Null

    $featureMap = @{
                        Iis = 'Web-WebServer';
                        IisHttpRedirection = 'Web-Http-Redirect';
                        Msmq = 'MSMQ-Server';
                        MsmqHttpSupport = 'MSMQ-HTTP-Support';
                        MsmqActiveDirectoryIntegration = 'MSMQ-Directory';
                   }

    if( $useOCSetup )
    {
        $featureMap = @{
                            Iis = 'IIS-WebServer';
                            IisHttpRedirection = 'IIS-HttpRedirect';
                            Msmq = 'MSMQ-Server';
                            MsmqHttpSupport = 'MSMQ-HTTP';
                            MsmqActiveDirectoryIntegration = 'MSMQ-ADIntegration';
                       }
    }
    
    $Name | 
        Where-Object { $featureMap.ContainsKey( $_ ) } |
        ForEach-Object { $featureMap[$_] }

}




function Restart-CRemoteService
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Restarts a service on a remote machine.

    .DESCRIPTION
    One of the annoying features of PowerShell is that the `Stop-Service`, `Start-Service` and `Restart-Service` cmdlets don't have `ComputerName` parameters to start/stop/restart a service on a remote computer.  You have to use `Get-Service` to get the remote service:

        $service = Get-Service -Name DeathStar -ComputerName Yavin
        $service.Stop()
        $service.Start()

        # or (and no, you can't pipe the service directly to `Restart-Service`)
        Get-Service -Name DeathStar -ComputerName Yavin | 
            ForEach-Object { Restart-Service -InputObject $_ }
    
    This function does all this unnecessary work for you.

    You'll get an error if you attempt to restart a non-existent service.

    .EXAMPLE
    Restart-CRemoteService -Name DeathStar -ComputerName Yavin

    Restarts the `DeathStar` service on Yavin.  If the DeathStar service doesn't exist, you'll get an error.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The service name to restart.
        $Name,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the computer where the service lives.
        $ComputerName
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $service = Get-Service -Name $name -ComputerName $computerName
    if($service)
    {
        if($pscmdlet.ShouldProcess( "$name on $computerName", "restart"))
        {
            $service.Stop()
            $service.Start()
        }
    }
    else
    {
        Write-Error "Unable to restart remote service because I could not get a reference to service $name on machine: $computerName"
    }  
}
 



function Revoke-CComPermission
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Revokes COM Access or Launch and Activation permissions.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    Calling this function is equivalent to opening Component Services (dcomcnfg), right-clicking `My Computer` under Component Services > Computers, choosing `Properties`, going to the `COM Security` tab, and removing an identity from the permissions window that opens after clicking the `Edit Limits...` or `Edit Default...` buttons under `Access Permissions` or `Launch and Activation Permissions` section, 
    
    .LINK
    Get-CComPermission

    .LINK
    Grant-CComPermission
    
    .LINK
    Revoke-CComPermission
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Revoke-CComPermission -Access -Identity 'Users' -Default
    
    Removes all default security COM access permissions for the local `Users` group.

    .EXAMPLE
    Revoke-CComPermission -LaunchAndActivation -Identity 'Users' -Limits
    
    Removes all security limit COM access permissions for the local `Users` group.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]        
        $Identity,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='DefaultAccessPermission')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='MachineAccessRestriction')]
        [Switch]
        # Revokes Access Permissions.
        $Access,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='DefaultLaunchPermission')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='MachineLaunchRestriction')]
        [Switch]
        # Revokes Launch and Activation Permissions.
        $LaunchAndActivation,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='DefaultAccessPermission')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='DefaultLaunchPermission')]
        [Switch]
        # Revokes default security permissions.
        $Default,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='MachineAccessRestriction')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='MachineLaunchRestriction')]
        [Switch]
        # Revokes security limits permissions.
        $Limits
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $comArgs = @{ }
    if( $pscmdlet.ParameterSetName -like 'Default*' )
    {
        $typeDesc = 'default security permissions'
        $comArgs.Default = $true
    }
    else
    {
        $typeDesc = 'security limits'
        $comArgs.Limits = $true
    }
    
    if( $pscmdlet.ParameterSetName -like '*Access*' )
    {
        $permissionsDesc = 'Access'
        $comArgs.Access = $true
    }
    else
    {
        $permissionsDesc = 'Launch and Activiation'
        $comArgs.LaunchAndActivation = $true
    }
    
    $account = Resolve-CIdentity -Name $Identity
    if( -not $account )
    {
        return
    }

    Write-Verbose ("Revoking {0}'s COM {1} {2}." -f $Identity,$permissionsDesc,$typeDesc)
    $currentSD = Get-CComSecurityDescriptor @comArgs

    $newSd = ([wmiclass]'win32_securitydescriptor').CreateInstance()
    $newSd.ControlFlags = $currentSD.ControlFlags
    $newSd.Group = $currentSD.Group
    $newSd.Owner = $currentSD.Owner

    # Remove DACL for this user, if it exists
    $newSd.DACL = $currentSD.DACL | 
                    Where-Object { $_.Trustee.SIDString -ne $account.Sid.Value } | 
                    ForEach-Object { $_.PsObject.BaseObject }

    $converter = New-Object Management.ManagementClass 'Win32_SecurityDescriptorHelper'
    $sdBytes = $converter.Win32SDToBinarySD( $newSd )

    $regValueName = $pscmdlet.ParameterSetName
    Set-CRegistryKeyValue -Path $ComRegKeyPath -Name $regValueName -Binary $sdBytes.BinarySD
}

Set-Alias -Name 'Revoke-ComPermissions' -Value 'Revoke-CComPermission'




function Revoke-CHttpUrlPermission
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Revokes all a principal's permission to an HTTP URL.

    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Revoke-HttpUrlAclPermission` functions uses the HTTP Server API to revoke user/groups permissions to an HTTP URL.

    [The HTTP Server API](https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa364510.aspx)

    > enables applications to communicate over HTTP without using Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS). Applications can register to receive HTTP requests for particular URLs, receive HTTP requests, and send HTTP responses.

    An application that uses the HTTP Server API must register all URLs it listens (i.e. binds, registers) to. This function removes all permissions to a URL for a specific user or group. If a user or group doesn't have permission, this function does nothing.

    If you want to *change* a user's permissions, use `Grant-CHttpUrlPermission` instead.

    This command replaces the `netsh http delete urlacl` command.

    `Revoke-HttpUrlAclPermission` was introduced in Carbon 2.1.0.

    .LINK
    https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa364510.aspx

    .LINK
    Get-CHttpUrlAcl

    .LINK
    Grant-CHttpUrlPermission

    .EXAMPLE
    Revoke-HttpUrlAclPermission -Url 'http://+:4833' -Principal 'FALCON\HSolo'

    Demonstrates how to revoke all a user's permissions to an HTTP URL. In this case Captain Solo will no longer be able to listen to URL `http://+:4833`.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The URL.
        $Url,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [Alias('Identity')]
        [string]
        # The user receiving the permission.
        $Principal
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $id = Resolve-CIdentity -Name $Principal
    if( -not $id )
    {
        return
    }

    if( -not $Url.EndsWith('/') )
    {
        $Url = '{0}/' -f $Url
    }

    $acl = Get-CHttpUrlAcl -LiteralUrl $Url -ErrorAction Ignore
    if( -not $acl )
    {
        return
    }

    $currentAccess = $acl.Access | Where-Object { $_.IdentityReference -eq $id.FullName }
    if( $currentAccess )
    {
        Write-Verbose -Message ('[{0}]  [{1}]  {2} ->' -f $Url,$id.FullName,$currentAccess.HttpUrlAccessRights)
        $acl.RemoveAccessRule($currentAccess)
    }
}



function Revoke-CPermission
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Revokes *explicit* permissions on a file, directory, registry key, or certificate's private key/key container.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Revokes all of an identity's *explicit* permissions on a file, directory, registry key, or certificate's private key/key container. Only explicit permissions are considered; inherited permissions are ignored.

    If the identity doesn't have permission, nothing happens, not even errors written out.

    .LINK
    Carbon_Permission

    .LINK
    Disable-CAclInheritance

    .LINK
    Enable-CAclInheritance

    .LINK
    Get-CPermission

    .LINK
    Grant-CPermission

    .LINK
    Test-CPermission

    .EXAMPLE
    Revoke-CPermission -Identity ENTERPRISE\Engineers -Path 'C:\EngineRoom'

    Demonstrates how to revoke all of the 'Engineers' permissions on the `C:\EngineRoom` directory.

    .EXAMPLE
    Revoke-CPermission -Identity ENTERPRISE\Interns -Path 'hklm:\system\WarpDrive'

    Demonstrates how to revoke permission on a registry key.

    .EXAMPLE
    Revoke-CPermission -Identity ENTERPRISE\Officers -Path 'cert:\LocalMachine\My\1234567890ABCDEF1234567890ABCDEF12345678'

    Demonstrates how to revoke the Officers' permission to the `cert:\LocalMachine\My\1234567890ABCDEF1234567890ABCDEF12345678` certificate's private key/key container.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The path on which the permissions should be revoked.  Can be a file system, registry, or certificate path.
        $Path,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The identity losing permissions.
        $Identity
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    
    $Path = Resolve-Path -Path $Path
    if( -not $Path )
    {
        return
    }

    $providerName = Get-CPathProvider -Path $Path | Select-Object -ExpandProperty 'Name'
    if( $providerName -eq 'Certificate' )
    {
        $providerName = 'CryptoKey'
    }

    $rulesToRemove = Get-CPermission -Path $Path -Identity $Identity
    if( $rulesToRemove )
    {
        $Identity = Resolve-CIdentityName -Name $Identity
        $rulesToRemove | ForEach-Object { Write-Verbose ('[{0}] [{1}]  {2} -> ' -f $Path,$Identity,$_."$($providerName)Rights") }

        Get-Item $Path -Force |
            ForEach-Object {
                if( $_.PSProvider.Name -eq 'Certificate' )
                {
                    [Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509Certificate2]$certificate = $_

                    [Security.AccessControl.CryptoKeySecurity]$keySecurity = $certificate.PrivateKey.CspKeyContainerInfo.CryptoKeySecurity

                    $rulesToRemove | ForEach-Object { [void] $keySecurity.RemoveAccessRule($_) }

                    Set-CryptoKeySecurity -Certificate $certificate -CryptoKeySecurity $keySecurity -Action ('revoke {0}''s permissions' -f $Identity)
                }
                else
                {
                    # We don't use Get-Acl because it returns the whole security descriptor, which includes owner information.
                    # When passed to Set-Acl, this causes intermittent errors.  So, we just grab the ACL portion of the security descriptor.
                    # See http://www.bilalaslam.com/2010/12/14/powershell-workaround-for-the-security-identifier-is-not-allowed-to-be-the-owner-of-this-object-with-set-acl/
                    $currentAcl = $_.GetAccessControl('Access')
                    $rulesToRemove | ForEach-Object { [void]$currentAcl.RemoveAccessRule($_) }
                    if( $PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess( $Path, ('revoke {0}''s permissions' -f $Identity)) )
                    {
                        Set-Acl -Path $Path -AclObject $currentAcl
                    }
                }
            }

    }
    
}




function Revoke-CPrivilege
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Revokes an identity's privileges to perform system operations and certain types of logons.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    Valid privileges are documented on Microsoft's website: [Privilege Constants](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/bb530716.aspx) and [Account Right Constants](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/bb545671.aspx). Known values as of August 2014 are:

     * SeAssignPrimaryTokenPrivilege
     * SeAuditPrivilege
     * SeBackupPrivilege
     * SeBatchLogonRight
     * SeChangeNotifyPrivilege
     * SeCreateGlobalPrivilege
     * SeCreatePagefilePrivilege
     * SeCreatePermanentPrivilege
     * SeCreateSymbolicLinkPrivilege
     * SeCreateTokenPrivilege
     * SeDebugPrivilege
     * SeDenyBatchLogonRight
     * SeDenyInteractiveLogonRight
     * SeDenyNetworkLogonRight
     * SeDenyRemoteInteractiveLogonRight
     * SeDenyServiceLogonRight
     * SeEnableDelegationPrivilege
     * SeImpersonatePrivilege
     * SeIncreaseBasePriorityPrivilege
     * SeIncreaseQuotaPrivilege
     * SeIncreaseWorkingSetPrivilege
     * SeInteractiveLogonRight
     * SeLoadDriverPrivilege
     * SeLockMemoryPrivilege
     * SeMachineAccountPrivilege
     * SeManageVolumePrivilege
     * SeNetworkLogonRight
     * SeProfileSingleProcessPrivilege
     * SeRelabelPrivilege
     * SeRemoteInteractiveLogonRight
     * SeRemoteShutdownPrivilege
     * SeRestorePrivilege
     * SeSecurityPrivilege
     * SeServiceLogonRight
     * SeShutdownPrivilege
     * SeSyncAgentPrivilege
     * SeSystemEnvironmentPrivilege
     * SeSystemProfilePrivilege
     * SeSystemtimePrivilege
     * SeTakeOwnershipPrivilege
     * SeTcbPrivilege
     * SeTimeZonePrivilege
     * SeTrustedCredManAccessPrivilege
     * SeUndockPrivilege
     * SeUnsolicitedInputPrivilege

    .LINK
    Carbon_Privilege

    .LINK
    Get-CPrivilege
    
    .LINK
    Grant-CPrivilege
    
    .LINK
    Test-CPrivilege
    
    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/bb530716.aspx
    
    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/bb545671.aspx
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Revoke-CPrivilege -Identity Batcomputer -Privilege SeServiceLogonRight
    
    Revokes the Batcomputer account's ability to logon as a service.  Don't restart that thing!
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The identity to grant a privilege.
        $Identity,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string[]]
        # The privileges to revoke.
        $Privilege
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    
    $account = Resolve-CIdentity -Name $Identity
    if( -not $account )
    {
        return
    }
    
    # Convert the privileges from the user into their canonical names.
    $cPrivileges = Get-CPrivilege -Identity $account.FullName |
                        Where-Object { $Privilege -contains $_ }
    if( -not $cPrivileges )
    {
        return
    }
    
    try
    {
        [Carbon.Security.Privilege]::RevokePrivileges($account.FullName,$cPrivileges)
    }
    catch
    {
        Write-Error -Message ('Failed to revoke {0}''s {1} privilege(s).' -f $account.FullName,($cPrivileges -join ', ')) 

        $ex = $_.Exception
        while( $ex.InnerException )
        {
            $ex = $ex.InnerException
            Write-Error -Exception $ex
        }
    }
}




function Revoke-CServicePermission
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Removes all permissions an identity has to manage a service.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    No permissions are left behind.  This is an all or nothing operation, baby!
    
    .LINK
    Get-CServicePermission
    
    .LINK
    Grant-CServicePermission
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Revoke-CServicePermission -Name 'Hyperdrive` -Identity 'CLOUDCITY\LCalrissian'
    
    Removes all of Lando's permissions to control the `Hyperdrive` service.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The service.
        $Name,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The identity whose permissions are being revoked.
        $Identity
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $account = Resolve-CIdentity -Name $Identity
    if( -not $account )
    {
        return
    }
    
    if( -not (Assert-CService -Name $Name) )
    {
        return
    }
    
    if( (Get-CServicePermission -Name $Name -Identity $account.FullName) )
    {
        Write-Verbose ("Revoking {0}'s {1} service permissions." -f $account.FullName,$Name)
        
        $dacl = Get-CServiceAcl -Name $Name
        $dacl.Purge( $account.Sid )
        
        Set-CServiceAcl -Name $Name -Dacl $dacl
    }
 }
 



function Set-CryptoKeySecurity
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509Certificate2]
        $Certificate,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [Security.AccessControl.CryptoKeySecurity]
        $CryptoKeySecurity,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        $Action
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $keyContainerInfo = $Certificate.PrivateKey.CspKeyContainerInfo
    $cspParams = New-Object 'Security.Cryptography.CspParameters' ($keyContainerInfo.ProviderType, $keyContainerInfo.ProviderName, $keyContainerInfo.KeyContainerName)
    $cspParams.Flags = [Security.Cryptography.CspProviderFlags]::UseExistingKey
    $cspParams.KeyNumber = $keyContainerInfo.KeyNumber
    if( (Split-Path -NoQualifier -Path $Certificate.PSPath) -like 'LocalMachine\*' )
    {
        $cspParams.Flags = $cspParams.Flags -bor [Security.Cryptography.CspProviderFlags]::UseMachineKeyStore
    }
    $cspParams.CryptoKeySecurity = $CryptoKeySecurity
                        
    try
    {                    
        # persist the rule change
        if( $PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess( ('{0} ({1})' -f $Certificate.Subject,$Certificate.Thumbprint), $Action ) )
        {
            $null = New-Object 'Security.Cryptography.RSACryptoServiceProvider' ($cspParams)
        }
    }
    catch
    {
        $actualException = $_.Exception
        while( $actualException.InnerException )
        {
            $actualException = $actualException.InnerException
        }
        Write-Error ('Failed to {0} to ''{1}'' ({2}) certificate''s private key: {3}: {4}' -f $Action,$Certificate.Subject,$Certificate.Thumbprint,$actualException.GetType().FullName,$actualException.Message)
    }
}



function Set-CDotNetAppSetting
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Sets an app setting in the .NET machine.config file.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    The app setting can be set in up to four different machine.config files:
    
     * .NET 2.0 32-bit (switches -Clr2 -Framework)
     * .NET 2.0 64-bit (switches -Clr2 -Framework64)
     * .NET 4.0 32-bit (switches -Clr4 -Framework)
     * .NET 4.0 64-bit (switches -Clr4 -Framework64)
      
    Any combination of Framework and Clr switch can be used, but you MUST supply one of each.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    > Set-CDotNetAppSetting -Name ExampleUrl -Value example.com -Framework -Framework64 -Clr2 -Clr4
    
    Sets the ExampleUrl app setting in the following machine.config files:
    
     * `%SYSTEMROOT%\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v2.0.50727\CONFIG\machine.config`
     * `%SYSTEMROOT%\Microsoft.NET\Framework64\v2.0.50727\CONFIG\machine.config`
     * `%SYSTEMROOT%\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v4.0.30319\CONFIG\machine.config`
     * `%SYSTEMROOT%\Microsoft.NET\Framework64\v4.0.30319\CONFIG\machine.config`

    .LINK
    Remove-CDotNetAppSetting

    .LINK
    Set-CDotNetConnectionString

    .EXAMPLE
    > Set-CDotNetAppSetting -Name ExampleUrl -Value example.com -Framework64 -Clr4
    
    Sets the ExampleUrl app setting in the following machine.config file:
    
     * `%SYSTEMROOT%\Microsoft.NET\Framework64\v4.0.30319\CONFIG\machine.config`
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true, DefaultParameterSetName='All')]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the app setting to be set
        $Name,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The valie of the app setting to be set.
        $Value,
        
        [Switch]
        # Set the app setting in the 32-bit machine.config.
        $Framework,
        
        [Switch]
        # Set the app setting in the 64-bit machine.config.  Ignored if running on a 32-bit operating system.
        $Framework64,
        
        [Switch]
        # Set the app setting in the .NET 2.0 machine.config.
        $Clr2,
        
        [Switch]
        # Set the app setting in the .NET 4.0 machine.config.
        $Clr4
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( -not ($Framework -or $Framework64) )
    {
        Write-Error "You must supply either or both of the Framework and Framework64 switches."
        return
    }
    
    if( -not ($Clr2 -or $Clr4) )
    {
        Write-Error "You must supply either or both of the Clr2 and Clr4 switches."
        return
    }
    
    $runtimes = @()
    if( $Clr2 )
    {
        $runtimes += 'v2.0'
    }
    if( $Clr4 )
    {
        $runtimes += 'v4.0'
    }

    $runtimes | ForEach-Object {
        $params = @{
            FilePath = (Join-Path $CarbonBinDir 'Set-DotNetAppSetting.ps1' -Resolve);
            ArgumentList = @( 
                                (ConvertTo-CBase64 -Value $Name),
                                (ConvertTo-CBase64 -Value $Value)
                            );
            Runtime = $_;
            ExecutionPolicy = [Microsoft.PowerShell.ExecutionPolicy]::RemoteSigned;
        }
        
        if( $Framework )
        {    
            Invoke-CPowerShell @params -x86
        }
        
        if( $Framework64 )
        {
            Invoke-CPowerShell @params
        }
    }
}




function Set-CDotNetConnectionString
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Sets a named connection string in the .NET machine.config file

    .DESCRIPTION
    The connection string setting can be set in up to four different machine.config files:
     
     * .NET 2.0 32-bit (switches -Clr2 -Framework)
     * .NET 2.0 64-bit (switches -Clr2 -Framework64)
     * .NET 4.0 32-bit (switches -Clr4 -Framework)
     * .NET 4.0 64-bit (switches -Clr4 -Framework64)
      
    Any combination of Framework and Clr switch can be used, but you MUST supply one of each.

    .LINK
    Set-CDotNetAppSetting

    .LINK
    Remove-CDotNetAppSetting

    .EXAMPLE
    > Set-CDotNetConnectionString -Name DevDB -Value "data source=.\DevDB;Integrated Security=SSPI;" -Framework -Framework64 -Clr2 -Clr4
    
    Sets the DevDB connection string in the following machine.config files:
     
     * `%SYSTEMROOT%\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v2.0.50727\CONFIG\machine.config`
     * `%SYSTEMROOT%\Microsoft.NET\Framework64\v2.0.50727\CONFIG\machine.config`
     * `%SYSTEMROOT%\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v4.0.30319\CONFIG\machine.config`
     * `%SYSTEMROOT%\Microsoft.NET\Framework64\v4.0.30319\CONFIG\machine.config`

    .EXAMPLE
    > Set-CDotNetConnectionString -Name DevDB -Value "data source=.\DevDB;Integrated Security=SSPI;" -Framework64 -Clr4
    
    Sets the DevDB connection string in the `%SYSTEMROOT%\Microsoft.NET\Framework64\v4.0.30319\CONFIG\machine.config` machine.config file to:
     
        <add name="DevDB" connectionString="data source=.\DevDB;Integrated Security=SSPI;" />


    .EXAMPLE
    Set-CDotNetConnectionString -Name Prod -Value "data source=proddb\Prod;Integrated Security=SSPI" -ProviderName 'System.Data.SqlClient' -Framework -Clr2

    Creates the following connection string in the `%SYSTEMROOT%\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v2.0.50727\CONFIG\machine.config` file:

        <add name="Prod" connectionString="data source=proddb\Prod;Integrated Security=SSPI" providerName="System.Data.SqlClient" />

    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the .net connection string to be set
        $Name,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The connection string to be set.
        $Value,

        [string]
        # The provider name for the connection string.
        $ProviderName,
        
        [Switch]
        # Set the connection string in the 32-bit machine.config.
        $Framework,
        
        [Switch]
        # Set the connection string in the 64-bit machine.config
        $Framework64,
        
        [Switch]
        # Set the app setting in the .NET 2.0 machine.config.  This flag won't work under PowerShell 3.0.
        $Clr2,
        
        [Switch]
        # Set the app setting in the .NET 4.0 machine.config.
        $Clr4
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( -not ($Framework -or $Framework64) )
    {
        Write-Error "You must supply either or both of the Framework and Framework64 switches."
        return
    }
    
    if( -not ($Clr2 -or $Clr4) )
    {
        Write-Error "You must supply either or both of the Clr2 and Clr4 switches."
        return
    }
    
    $runtimes = @()
    if( $Clr2 )
    {
        $runtimes += 'v2.0'
    }
    if( $Clr4 )
    {
        $runtimes += 'v4.0'
    }

    $runtimes | ForEach-Object {
        $params = @{
            FilePath = (Join-Path $CarbonBinDir 'Set-DotNetConnectionString.ps1' -Resolve);
            ArgumentList = @(
                                (ConvertTo-CBase64 -Value $Name),
                                (ConvertTo-CBase64 -Value $Value),
                                (ConvertTo-CBase64 -Value $ProviderName) 
                            );
            Runtime = $_;
            ExecutionPolicy = [Microsoft.PowerShell.ExecutionPolicy]::RemoteSigned;
        }

        if( $Framework )
        {    
            Invoke-CPowerShell @params -x86
        }
        
        if( $Framework64 )
        {
            Invoke-CPowerShell @params
        }
    }
}




function Set-CEnvironmentVariable
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Creates or sets an environment variable.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    Uses the .NET [Environment class](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/z8te35sa) to create or set an environment variable in the Process, User, or Machine scopes.
    
    Changes to environment variables in the User and Machine scope are not picked up by running processes.  Any running processes that use this environment variable should be restarted.

    Beginning with Carbon 2.3.0, you can set an environment variable for a specific user by specifying the `-ForUser` switch and passing the user's credentials with the `-Credential` parameter. This will run a PowerShell process as that user in order to set the environment variable.

    Normally, you have to restart your PowerShell session/process to see the variable in the `env:` drive. Use the `-Force` switch to also add the variable to the `env:` drive. This functionality was added in Carbon 2.3.0.
    
    .LINK
    Carbon_EnvironmentVariable

    .LINK
    Remove-CEnvironmentVariable

    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/z8te35sa

    .EXAMPLE
    Set-CEnvironmentVariable -Name 'MyEnvironmentVariable' -Value 'Value1' -ForProcess
    
    Creates the `MyEnvironmentVariable` with an initial value of `Value1` in the process scope, i.e. the variable is only accessible in the current process.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Set-CEnvironmentVariable -Name 'MyEnvironmentVariable' -Value 'Value1' -ForComputer
    
    Creates the `MyEnvironmentVariable` with an initial value of `Value1` in the machine scope, i.e. the variable is accessible in all newly launched processes.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Set-CEnvironmentVariable -Name 'SomeUsersEnvironmentVariable' -Value 'SomeValue' -ForUser -Credential $userCreds

    Demonstrates that you can set a user-level environment variable for another user by passing its credentials to the `Credential` parameter. Runs a separate PowerShell process as that user to set the environment variable.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        # The name of environment variable to add/set.
        [string]$Name,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        # The environment variable's value.
        [string]$Value,
        
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='ForCurrentUser')]
        # Sets the environment variable for the current computer.
        [Switch]$ForComputer,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='ForCurrentUser')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ForSpecificUser')]
        # Sets the environment variable for the current user.
        [Switch]$ForUser,
        
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='ForCurrentUser')]
        # Sets the environment variable for the current process.
        [Switch]$ForProcess,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='ForCurrentUser')]
        # Set the variable in the current PowerShell session's `env:` drive, too. Normally, you have to restart your session to see the variable in the `env:` drive.
        #
        # This parameter was added in Carbon 2.3.0.
        [Switch]$Force,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ForSpecificUser')]
        # Set an environment variable for a specific user.
        [pscredential]$Credential
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'ForSpecificUser' )
    {
        $parameters = $PSBoundParameters
        $parameters.Remove('Credential')
        $job = Start-Job -ScriptBlock {
            Import-Module -Name (Join-Path -path $using:carbonRoot -ChildPath 'Carbon.psd1' -Resolve)
            $VerbosePreference = $using:VerbosePreference
            $ErrorActionPreference = $using:ErrorActionPreference
            $DebugPreference = $using:DebugPreference
            $WhatIfPreference = $using:WhatIfPreference
            Set-CEnvironmentVariable @using:parameters
        } -Credential $Credential
        $job | Wait-Job | Receive-Job
        $job | Remove-Job -Force -ErrorAction Ignore
        return
    }

    if( -not $ForProcess -and -not $ForUser -and -not $ForComputer )
    {
        Write-Error -Message ('Environment variable target not specified. You must supply one of the ForComputer, ForUser, or ForProcess switches.')
        return
    }

    Invoke-Command -ScriptBlock {
            if( $ForComputer )
            {
                [EnvironmentVariableTarget]::Machine
            }

            if( $ForUser )
            {
                [EnvironmentVariableTarget]::User
            }
            
            if( $Force -or $ForProcess )
            {
                [EnvironmentVariableTarget]::Process
            }
        } | 
        Where-Object { $PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess( "$_-level environment variable '$Name'", "set") } |
        ForEach-Object { [Environment]::SetEnvironmentVariable( $Name, $Value, $_ ) }    
}




function Set-CHostsEntry
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Sets a hosts entry in a hosts file.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    Sets the IP address for a given hostname.  If the hostname doesn't exist in the hosts file, appends a new entry to the end.  If the hostname does exist, its IP address gets updated.  If you supply a description, it is appended to the line as a comment.
    
    If any duplicate hosts entries are found, they are commented out; Windows uses the first duplicate entry.
    
    This function scans the entire hosts file.  If you have a large hosts file, and are updating multiple entries, this function will be slow.
    
    You can operate on a custom hosts file, too.  Pass its path with the `Path` parameter.

    Sometimes the system's hosts file is in use and locked when you try to update it. The `Set-CHostsEntry` function tries 10 times to set a hosts entry before giving up and writing an error. It waits a random amount of time (from 0 to 1000 milliseconds) between each attempt.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Set-CHostsEntry -IPAddress 10.2.3.4 -HostName 'myserver' -Description "myserver's IP address"
    
    If your hosts file contains the following:
    
        127.0.0.1  localhost
        
    After running this command, it will contain the following:
    
        127.0.0.1        localhost
        10.2.3.4         myserver	# myserver's IP address

    .EXAMPLE        
    Set-CHostsEntry -IPAddress 10.5.6.7 -HostName 'myserver'
    
    If your hosts file contains the following:
    
        127.0.0.1        localhost
        10.2.3.4         myserver	# myserver's IP address
    
    After running this command, it will contain the following:
    
        127.0.0.1        localhost
        10.5.6.7         myserver
    
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [Net.IPAddress]
        # The IP address for the hosts entry.
        $IPAddress,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The hostname for the hosts entry.
        $HostName,

        [string]
        # An optional description of the hosts entry.
        $Description,

        [string]
        # The path to the hosts file where the entry should be set. Defaults to the local computer's hosts file.
        $Path = (Get-CPathToHostsFile)
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
 
    $matchPattern = '^(?<IP>[0-9a-f.:]+)\s+(?<HostName>[^\s#]+)(?<Tail>.*)$'  
    $lineFormat = "{0,-45}  {1}{2}"
    
    if(-not (Test-Path $Path))
    {
        Write-Warning "Creating hosts file at: $Path"
        New-Item $Path -ItemType File
    }
    
    [string[]]$lines = Read-CFile -Path $Path -ErrorVariable 'cmdErrors'
    if( $cmdErrors )
    {
        return
    }    
    
    $outLines = New-Object 'Collections.ArrayList'
    $found = $false
    $lineNum = 0
    $updateHostsFile = $false
     
    foreach($line in $lines)
    {
        $lineNum += 1
        
        if($line.Trim().StartsWith("#") -or ($line.Trim() -eq '') )
        {
            [void] $outlines.Add($line)
        }
        elseif($line -match $matchPattern)
        {
            $ip = $matches["IP"]
            $hn = $matches["HostName"]
            $tail = $matches["Tail"].Trim()
            if( $HostName -eq $hn )
            {
                if($found)
                {
                    #this is a duplicate so, let's comment it out
                    [void] $outlines.Add("#$line")
                    $updateHostsFile = $true
                    continue
                }
                $ip = $IPAddress
                $tail = if( $Description ) { "`t# $Description" } else { '' }
                $found = $true   
            }
            else
            {
                $tail = "`t{0}" -f $tail
            }
           
            if( $tail.Trim() -eq "#" )
            {
                $tail = ""
            }

            $outline = $lineformat -f $ip, $hn, $tail
            $outline = $outline.Trim()
            if( $outline -ne $line )
            {
                $updateHostsFile = $true
            }

            [void] $outlines.Add($outline)
                
        }
        else
        {
            Write-Warning ("Hosts file {0}: line {1}: invalid entry: {2}" -f $Path,$lineNum,$line)
            $outlines.Add( ('# {0}' -f $line) )
        }

    }
     
    if(-not $found)
    {
       #add a new entry
       $tail = "`t# $Description"
       if($tail.Trim() -eq "#")
       {
           $tail = ""
       }
           
       $outline = $lineformat -f $IPAddress, $HostName, $tail
       $outline = $outline.Trim()
       [void] $outlines.Add($outline)
       $updateHostsFile = $true
    }

    if( -not $updateHostsFile )
    {
        return
    }
    
    Write-Verbose -Message ('[HOSTS]  [{0}]  {1,-45}  {2}' -f $Path,$IPAddress,$HostName)
    $outLines | Write-CFile -Path $Path
}




function Set-CIniEntry
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Sets an entry in an INI file.

    .DESCRIPTION
    A configuration file consists of sections, led by a `[section]` header and followed by `name = value` entries.  This function creates or updates an entry in an INI file.  Something like this:

        [ui]
        username = Regina Spektor <[email protected]>

        [extensions]
        share = 
        extdiff =

    Names are not allowed to contains the equal sign, `=`.  Values can contain any character.  The INI file is parsed using `Split-CIni`.  [See its documentation for more examples.](Split-CIni.html)

    Be default, operates on the INI file case-insensitively. If your INI is case-sensitive, use the `-CaseSensitive` switch.

    .LINK
    Split-CIni

    LINK
    Remove-CIniEntry

    .EXAMPLE
    Set-CIniEntry -Path C:\Users\rspektor\mercurial.ini -Section extensions -Name share -Value ''

    If the `C:\Users\rspektor\mercurial.ini` file is empty, adds the following to it:

        [extensions]
        share =
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Set-CIniEntry -Path C:\Users\rspektor\music.ini -Name genres -Value 'alternative,rock'

    If the `music.ini` file is empty, adds the following to it:

        genres = alternative,rock

    .EXAMPLE
    Set-CIniEntry -Path C:\Users\rspektor\music.ini -Name genres -Value 'alternative,rock,world'

    If the `music.ini` file contains the following:

        genres = r&b

    After running this command, `music.ini` will look like this:

        genres = alternative,rock,world

    .EXAMPLE
    Set-CIniEntry -Path C:\users\me\npmrc -Name prefix -Value 'C:\Users\me\npm_modules' -CaseSensitive

    Demonstrates how to set an INI entry in a case-sensitive file.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The path to the INI file to set.
        $Path,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the INI entry being set.
        $Name,
        
        [string]
        # The value of the INI entry being set.
        $Value,

        [string]
        # The section of the INI where the entry should be set.
        $Section,

        [Switch]
        # Treat the INI file in a case-sensitive manner.
        $CaseSensitive
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    
    if( $Name -like '*=*' )
    {
        Write-Error "INI entry name '$Name' invalid: can not contain equal sign '='."
        return
    }
    
    
    $settings = @{ }
    $lines = New-Object 'Collections.ArrayList'
    
    if( Test-Path $Path -PathType Leaf )
    {
        $settings = Split-CIni -Path $Path -AsHashtable -CaseSensitive:$CaseSensitive
        Get-Content -Path $Path | ForEach-Object { [void] $lines.Add( $_ ) }
    }
    
    $settings.Values | 
        Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name 'Updated' -Value $false -PassThru |
        Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name 'IsNew' -Value $false 
        
    $key = "$Name"
    if( $Section )
    {
        $key = "$Section.$Name"
    }
    
    if( $settings.ContainsKey( $key ) )
    {
        $setting = $settings[$key]
        if( $setting.Value -cne $Value )
        {
            Write-Verbose -Message "Updating INI entry '$key' in '$Path'."
            $lines[$setting.LineNumber - 1] = "$Name = $Value" 
        }
    }
    else
    {
        $lastItemInSection = $settings.Values | `
                                Where-Object { $_.Section -eq $Section } | `
                                Sort-Object -Property LineNumber | `
                                Select-Object -Last 1
        
        $newLine = "$Name = $Value"
        Write-Verbose -Message "Creating INI entry '$key' in '$Path'."
        if( $lastItemInSection )
        {
            $idx = $lastItemInSection.LineNumber
            $lines.Insert( $idx, $newLine )
            if( $lines.Count -gt ($idx + 1) -and $lines[$idx + 1])
            {
                $lines.Insert( $idx + 1, '' )
            }
        }
        else
        {
            if( $Section )
            {
                if( $lines.Count -gt 1 -and $lines[$lines.Count - 1] )
                {
                    [void] $lines.Add( '' )
                }

                if(-not $lines.Contains("[$Section]"))
                {
                    [void] $lines.Add( "[$Section]" )
                    [void] $lines.Add( $newLine )
                }
                else
                {
                    for ($i=0; $i -lt $lines.Count; $i++)
                    {
                        if ($lines[$i] -eq "[$Section]")
                        {
                            $lines.Insert($i+1, $newLine)
                            break
                        }
                    }
                }
            }
            else
            {
                $lines.Insert( 0, $newLine )
                if( $lines.Count -gt 1 -and $lines[1] )
                {
                    $lines.Insert( 1, '' )
                }
            }
        }
    }
    
    $lines | Set-Content -Path $Path
}




function Set-CRegistryKeyValue
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Sets a value in a registry key.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Set-CRegistryKeyValue` function sets the value of a registry key. If the key doesn't exist, it is created first. Uses PowerShell's `New-ItemPropery` to create the value if doesn't exist. Otherwise uses `Set-ItemProperty` to set the value.

    `DWord` and `QWord` values are stored in the registry as unsigned integers. If you pass a negative integer for the `DWord` and `QWord` parameters, PowerShell will convert it to an unsigned integer before storing. You won't get the same negative number back.

    To store integer values greater than `[Int32]::MaxValue` or `[Int64]::MaxValue`, use the `UDWord` and `UQWord` parameters, respectively, which are unsigned integers. These parameters were in Carbon 2.0.

    In versions of Carbon before 2.0, you'll need to convert these large unsigned integers into signed integers. You can't do this with casting. Casting preservers the value, not the bits underneath. You need to re-interpret the bits. Here's some sample code:

        # Carbon 1.0
        $bytes = [BitConverter]::GetBytes( $unsignedInt )
        $signedInt = [BitConverter]::ToInt32( $bytes, 0 )  # Or use `ToInt64` if you're working with 64-bit/QWord values
        Set-CRegistryKeyValue -Path $Path -Name 'MyUnsignedDWord' -DWord $signedInt

        # Carbon 2.0
        Set-CRegistryKeyValue -Path $Path -Name 'MyUnsignedDWord' -UDWord $unsignedInt
    
    .LINK
    Get-CRegistryKeyValue
    
    .LINK
    Test-CRegistryKeyValue
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Set-CRegistryKeyValue -Path 'hklm:\Software\Carbon\Test -Name Status -String foobar 
    
    Creates the `Status` string value under the `hklm:\Software\Carbon\Test` key and sets its value to `foobar`.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Set-CRegistryKeyValue -Path 'hklm:\Software\Carbon\Test -Name ComputerName -String '%ComputerName%' -Expand
    
    Creates an expandable string.  When retrieving this value, environment variables will be expanded.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Set-CRegistryKeyValue -Path 'hklm:\Software\Carbon\Test -Name Movies -String ('Signs','Star Wars','Raiders of the Lost Ark')
    
    Sets a multi-string (i.e. array) value.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Set-CRegistryKeyValue -Path hklm:\Software\Carbon\Test -Name 'SomeBytes' -Binary ([byte[]]@( 1, 2, 3, 4)) 
    
    Sets a binary value (i.e. `REG_BINARY`).
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Set-CRegistryKeyValue -Path hklm:\Software\Carbon\Test -Name 'AnInt' -DWord 48043
    
    Sets a binary value (i.e. `REG_DWORD`).
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Set-CRegistryKeyValue -Path hklm:\Software\Carbon\Test -Name 'AnInt64' -QWord 9223372036854775807
    
    Sets a binary value (i.e. `REG_QWORD`).
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Set-CRegistryKeyValue -Path hklm:\Software\Carbon\Test -Name 'AnUnsignedInt' -UDWord [uint32]::MaxValue
    
    Demonstrates how to set a registry value with an unsigned integer or an integer bigger than `[int]::MaxValue`.

    The `UDWord` parameter was added in Carbon 2.0. In earlier versions of Carbon, you have to convert the unsigned int's bits to a signed integer:

        $bytes = [BitConverter]::GetBytes( $unsignedInt )
        $signedInt = [BitConverter]::ToInt32( $bytes, 0 )
        Set-CRegistryKeyValue -Path $Path -Name 'MyUnsignedDWord' -DWord $signedInt
        
    .EXAMPLE
    Set-CRegistryKeyValue -Path hklm:\Software\Carbon\Test -Name 'AnUnsignedInt64' -UQWord [uint64]::MaxValue
    
    Demonstrates how to set a registry value with an unsigned 64-bit integer or a 64-bit integer bigger than `[long]::MaxValue`.

    The `UQWord parameter was added in Carbon 2.0. In earlier versions of Carbon, you have to convert the unsigned int's bits to a signed integer:

        $bytes = [BitConverter]::GetBytes( $unsignedInt )
        $signedInt = [BitConverter]::ToInt64( $bytes, 0 )
        Set-CRegistryKeyValue -Path $Path -Name 'MyUnsignedDWord' -DWord $signedInt
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Set-CRegistryKeyValue -Path hklm:\Software\Carbon\Test -Name 'UsedToBeAStringNowShouldBeDWord' -DWord 1 -Force
    
    Uses the `Force` parameter to delete the existing `UsedToBeAStringNowShouldBeDWord` before re-creating it.  This flag is useful if you need to change the type of a registry value.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldPRocess=$true,DefaultParameterSetName='String')]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The path to the registry key where the value should be set.  Will be created if it doesn't exist.
        $Path,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the value being set.
        $Name,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='String')]
        [AllowEmptyString()]
        [AllowNull()]
        [string]
        # The value's data.  Creates a value for holding string data (i.e. `REG_SZ`). If `$null`, the value will be saved as an empty string.
        $String,
        
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='String')]
        [Switch]
        # The string should be expanded when retrieved.  Creates a value for holding expanded string data (i.e. `REG_EXPAND_SZ`).
        $Expand,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='Binary')]
        [byte[]]
        # The value's data.  Creates a value for holding binary data (i.e. `REG_BINARY`).
        $Binary,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='DWord')]
        [int]
        # The value's data.  Creates a value for holding a 32-bit integer (i.e. `REG_DWORD`).
        $DWord,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='DWordAsUnsignedInt')]
        [uint32]
        # The value's data as an unsigned integer (i.e. `UInt32`).  Creates a value for holding a 32-bit integer (i.e. `REG_DWORD`).
        $UDWord,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='QWord')]
        [long]
        # The value's data.  Creates a value for holding a 64-bit integer (i.e. `REG_QWORD`).
        $QWord,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='QWordAsUnsignedInt')]
        [uint64]
        # The value's data as an unsigned long (i.e. `UInt64`).  Creates a value for holding a 64-bit integer (i.e. `REG_QWORD`).
        $UQWord,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='MultiString')]
        [string[]]
        # The value's data.  Creates a value for holding an array of strings (i.e. `REG_MULTI_SZ`).
        $Strings,
        
        [Switch]
        # Removes and re-creates the value.  Useful for changing a value's type.
        $Force,
        
        [Parameter(DontShow=$true)]
        [Switch]
        # OBSOLETE. Will be removed in a future version of Carbon.
        $Quiet
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( $PSBoundParameters.ContainsKey('Quiet') )
    {
        Write-Warning ('Set-CRegistryKeyValue''s -Quiet switch is obsolete and will be removed in a future version of Carbon. Please remove usages.')
    }

    $value = $null
    $type = $pscmdlet.ParameterSetName
    switch -Exact ( $pscmdlet.ParameterSetName )
    {
        'String' 
        { 
            $value = $String 
            if( $Expand )
            {
                $type = 'ExpandString'
            }
        }
        'Binary' { $value = $Binary }
        'DWord' { $value = $DWord }
        'QWord' { $value = $QWord }
        'DWordAsUnsignedInt' 
        { 
            $value = $UDWord 
            $type = 'DWord'
        }
        'QWordAsUnsignedInt' 
        { 
            $value = $UQWord 
            $type = 'QWord'
        }
        'MultiString' { $value = $Strings }
    }
    
    Install-CRegistryKey -Path $Path
    
    if( $Force )
    {
        Remove-CRegistryKeyValue -Path $Path -Name $Name
    }

    if( Test-CRegistryKeyValue -Path $Path -Name $Name )
    {
        $currentValue = Get-CRegistryKeyValue -Path $Path -Name $Name
        if( $currentValue -ne $value )
        {
            Write-Verbose -Message ("[{0}@{1}] {2} -> {3}'" -f $Path,$Name,$currentValue,$value)
            Set-ItemProperty -Path $Path -Name $Name -Value $value
        }
    }
    else
    {
        Write-Verbose -Message ("[{0}@{1}]  -> {2}'" -f $Path,$Name,$value)
        $null = New-ItemProperty -Path $Path -Name $Name -Value $value -PropertyType $type
    }
}




function Set-CServiceAcl
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Sets a service's discretionary access control list (i.e. DACL).
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    The existing DACL is replaced with the new DACL.  No previous permissions are preserved.  That's your job.  You're warned!
    
    You probably want `Grant-CServicePermission` or `Revoke-CServicePermission` instead.
    
    .LINK
    Get-CServicePermission
    
    .LINK
    Grant-CServicePermission
    
    .LINK
    Revoke-CServicePermission
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Set-ServiceDacl -Name 'Hyperdrive' -Dacl $dacl
    
    Replaces the DACL on the `Hyperdrive` service.  Yikes!  Sounds like something the Empire would do, though. 
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The service whose DACL to replace.
        $Name,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [Security.AccessControl.DiscretionaryAcl]
        # The service's new DACL.
        $Dacl
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $rawSD = Get-CServiceSecurityDescriptor -Name $Name
    $daclBytes = New-Object byte[] $Dacl.BinaryLength 
    $Dacl.GetBinaryForm($daclBytes, 0);
    $rawSD.DiscretionaryAcl = New-Object Security.AccessControl.RawAcl $daclBytes,0
    $sdBytes = New-Object byte[] $rawSD.BinaryLength   
    $rawSD.GetBinaryForm($sdBytes, 0);
    
    if( $pscmdlet.ShouldProcess( ("{0} service DACL" -f $Name), "set" ) )
    {
        [Carbon.Service.ServiceSecurity]::SetServiceSecurityDescriptor( $Name, $sdBytes )
    }
}




function Set-CSslCertificateBinding
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Sets an SSL certificate binding for a given IP/port.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    Uses the netsh command line application to set the certificate for an IP address and port.  If a binding already exists for the IP/port, it is removed, and the new binding is created. 
    
    Beginning with Carbon 2.0, returns a `Carbon.Certificates.SslCertificateBinding` object for the binding that was set.

    .OUTPUTS
    Carbon.Certificates.SslCertificateBinding.

    .EXAMPLE
    Set-CSslCertificateBinding -IPAddress 43.27.89.54 -Port 443 -ApplicationID 88d1f8da-aeb5-40a2-a5e5-0e6107825df7 -Thumbprint 4789073458907345907434789073458907345907
    
    Configures the computer to use the 478907345890734590743 certificate on IP 43.27.89.54, port 443.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Set-CSslCertificateBinding -ApplicationID 88d1f8da-aeb5-40a2-a5e5-0e6107825df7 -Thumbprint 4789073458907345907434789073458907345907
    
    Configures the compute to use the 478907345890734590743 certificate as the default certificate on all IP addresses, port 443.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    [OutputType([Carbon.Certificates.SslCertificateBinding])]
    param(
        [IPAddress]
        # The IP address for the binding.  Defaults to all IP addresses.
        $IPAddress = '0.0.0.0',
        
        [UInt16]
        # The port for the binding.  Defaults to 443.
        $Port = 443,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [Guid]
        # A unique ID representing the application using the binding.  Create your own.
        $ApplicationID,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [ValidatePattern("^[0-9a-f]{40}$")]
        [string]
        # The thumbprint of the certificate to use.  The certificate must be installed.
        $Thumbprint,

        [Switch]
        # Return a `Carbon.Certificates.SslCertificateBinding` for the configured binding.
        $PassThru
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    
    if( $IPAddress.AddressFamily -eq [Net.Sockets.AddressFamily]::InterNetworkV6 )
    {
        $ipPort = '[{0}]:{1}' -f $IPAddress,$Port
    }
    else
    {
        $ipPort = '{0}:{1}' -f $IPAddress,$Port
    }

    Remove-CSslCertificateBinding -IPAddress $IPAddress -Port $Port
    
    $action = 'creating SSL certificate binding'
    if( $pscmdlet.ShouldProcess( $IPPort, $action ) )
    {
        $appID = $ApplicationID.ToString('B')
        Invoke-ConsoleCommand -Target $ipPort -Action $action -ScriptBlock {
            netsh http add sslcert ipport=$ipPort certhash=$Thumbprint appid=$appID
        }

        if( $PassThru )
        {
            Get-CSslCertificateBinding -IPAddress $IPAddress -Port $Port
        }
    }
}




function Set-CTrustedHost
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Sets the current computer's trusted hosts list.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Clears the current trusted hosts list, and sets it to contain only the entries given by the `Entries` parameter.
    
    To clear the trusted hosts list, use `Clear-CTrustedHost`.
    
    .LINK
    Clear-CTrustedHost

    .EXAMPLE
    Set-CTrustedHost -Entry example.com,api.example.com,docs.example.com

    Sets the trusted hosts list to contain just the values `example.com`, `api.example.com`, and `docs.example.com`.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string[]]
        # An array of trusted host entries.
		[Alias("Entries")]
        $Entry
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $value = $Entry -join ','
    if( $pscmdlet.ShouldProcess( 'trusted hosts', 'set' ) )
    {
        Set-Item $TrustedHostsPath -Value $Value -Force
    }
}

Set-Alias -Name 'Set-TrustedHosts' -Value 'Set-CTrustedHost'




function Split-CIni
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Reads an INI file and returns its contents.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    A configuration file consists of sections, led by a "[section]" header and followed by "name = value" entries:

        [spam]
        eggs=ham
        green=
           eggs
         
        [stars]
        sneetches = belly
         
    By default, the INI file will be returned as `Carbon.Ini.IniNode` objects for each name/value pair.  For example, given the INI file above, the following will be returned:
    
        Line FullName        Section Name      Value
        ---- --------        ------- ----      -----
           2 spam.eggs       spam    eggs      ham
           3 spam.green      spam    green     eggs
           7 stars.sneetches stars   sneetches belly
    
    It is sometimes useful to get a hashtable back of the name/values.  The `AsHashtable` switch will return a hashtable where the keys are the full names of the name/value pairs.  For example, given the INI file above, the following hashtable is returned:
    
        Name            Value
        ----            -----
        spam.eggs       Carbon.Ini.IniNode;
        spam.green      Carbon.Ini.IniNode;
        stars.sneetches Carbon.Ini.IniNode;
        }

    Each line of an INI file contains one entry. If the lines that follow are indented, they are treated as continuations of that entry. Leading whitespace is removed from values. Empty lines are skipped. Lines beginning with "#" or ";" are ignored and may be used to provide comments.

    Configuration keys can be set multiple times, in which case Split-CIni will use the value that was configured last. As an example:

        [spam]
        eggs=large
        ham=serrano
        eggs=small

    This would set the configuration key named "eggs" to "small".

    It is also possible to define a section multiple times. For example:

        [foo]
        eggs=large
        ham=serrano
        eggs=small

        [bar]
        eggs=ham
        green=
           eggs

        [foo]
        ham=prosciutto
        eggs=medium
        bread=toasted

    This would set the "eggs", "ham", and "bread" configuration keys of the "foo" section to "medium", "prosciutto", and "toasted", respectively. As you can see, the only thing that matters is the last value that was set for each of the configuration keys.

    Be default, operates on the INI file case-insensitively. If your INI is case-sensitive, use the `-CaseSensitive` switch.

    .LINK
    Set-CIniEntry

    .LINK
    Remove-CIniEntry

    .EXAMPLE
    Split-CIni -Path C:\Users\rspektor\mercurial.ini 

    Given this INI file:

        [ui]
        username = Regina Spektor <[email protected]>

        [extensions]
        share = 
        extdiff =

    `Split-CIni` returns the following objects to the pipeline:

        Line FullName           Section    Name     Value
        ---- --------           -------    ----     -----
           2 ui.username        ui         username Regina Spektor <[email protected]>
           5 extensions.share   extensions share    
           6 extensions.extdiff extensions extdiff  

    .EXAMPLE
    Split-CIni -Path C:\Users\rspektor\mercurial.ini -AsHashtable

    Given this INI file:

        [ui]
        username = Regina Spektor <[email protected]>

        [extensions]
        share = 
        extdiff =

    `Split-CIni` returns the following hashtable:

        @{
            ui.username = Carbon.Ini.IniNode (
                                FullName = 'ui.username';
                                Section = "ui";
                                Name = "username";
                                Value = "Regina Spektor <[email protected]>";
                                LineNumber = 2;
                            );
            extensions.share = Carbon.Ini.IniNode (
                                    FullName = 'extensions.share';
                                    Section = "extensions";
                                    Name = "share"
                                    Value = "";
                                    LineNumber = 5;
                                )
            extensions.extdiff = Carbon.Ini.IniNode (
                                       FullName = 'extensions.extdiff';
                                       Section = "extensions";
                                       Name = "extdiff";
                                       Value = "";
                                       LineNumber = 6;
                                  )
        }

    .EXAMPLE
    Split-CIni -Path C:\Users\rspektor\mercurial.ini -AsHashtable -CaseSensitive

    Demonstrates how to parse a case-sensitive INI file.

        Given this INI file:

        [ui]
        username = [email protected]
        USERNAME = user2example.com

        [UI]
        username = [email protected]


    `Split-CIni -CaseSensitive` returns the following hashtable:

        @{
            ui.username = Carbon.Ini.IniNode (
                                FullName = 'ui.username';
                                Section = "ui";
                                Name = "username";
                                Value = "[email protected]";
                                LineNumber = 2;
                            );
            ui.USERNAME = Carbon.Ini.IniNode (
                                FullName = 'ui.USERNAME';
                                Section = "ui";
                                Name = "USERNAME";
                                Value = "[email protected]";
                                LineNumber = 3;
                            );
            UI.username = Carbon.Ini.IniNode (
                                FullName = 'UI.username';
                                Section = "UI";
                                Name = "username";
                                Value = "[email protected]";
                                LineNumber = 6;
                            );
        }

    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ByPath')]
        [string]
        # The path to the mercurial INI file to read.
        $Path,
        
        [Switch]
        # Pass each parsed setting down the pipeline instead of collecting them all into a hashtable.
        $AsHashtable,

        [Switch]
        # Parses the INI file in a case-sensitive manner.
        $CaseSensitive
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( -not (Test-Path $Path -PathType Leaf) )
    {
        Write-Error ("INI file '{0}' not found." -f $Path)
        return
    }
    
    $sectionName = ''
    $lineNum = 0
    $lastSetting = $null
    $settings = @{ }
    if( $CaseSensitive )
    {
        $settings = New-Object 'Collections.Hashtable'
    }
    
    Get-Content -Path $Path | ForEach-Object {
        
        $lineNum += 1
        
        if( -not $_ -or $_ -match '^[;#]' )
        {
            if( -not $AsHashtable -and $lastSetting )
            {
                $lastSetting
            }
            $lastSetting = $null
            return
        }
        
        if( $_ -match '^\[([^\]]+)\]' )
        {
            if( -not $AsHashtable -and $lastSetting )
            {
                $lastSetting
            }
            $lastSetting = $null
            $sectionName = $matches[1]
            Write-Debug "Parsed section [$sectionName]"
            return
        }
        
        if( $_ -match '^\s+(.*)$' -and $lastSetting )
        {
            $lastSetting.Value += "`n" + $matches[1]
            return
        }
        
        if( $_ -match '^([^=]*) ?= ?(.*)$' )
        {
            if( -not $AsHashtable -and $lastSetting )
            {
                $lastSetting
            }
            
            $name = $matches[1]
            $value = $matches[2]
            
            $name = $name.Trim()
            $value = $value.TrimStart()
            
            $setting = New-Object Carbon.Ini.IniNode $sectionName,$name,$value,$lineNum
            $settings[$setting.FullName] = $setting
            $lastSetting = $setting
            Write-Debug "Parsed setting '$($setting.FullName)'"
        }
    }
    
    if( $AsHashtable )
    {
        return $settings
    }
    else
    {
        if( $lastSetting )
        {
            $lastSetting
        }
    }
}




function Start-CDscPullConfiguration
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Performs a configuration check on a computer that is using DSC's Pull refresh mode.

    .DESCRIPTION
    The most frequently a computer's LCM will download new configuration is every 15 minutes; the most frequently it will apply it is every 30 minutes. This function contacts a computer's LCM and tells it to apply and download its configuration immediately.

    If a computer's LCM isn't configured to pull its configuration, an error is written, and nothing happens.

    If a configuration check fails, the errors are retrieved from the computer's event log and written out as errors. The `Remote Event Log Management` firewall rules must be enabled on the computer for this to work. If they aren't, you'll see an error explaining this. The `Get-CDscError` help topic shows how to enable these firewall rules.

    Sometimes, the LCM does a really crappy job of updating to the latest version of a module. `Start-CDscPullConfiguration` will delete modules on the target computers. Specify the names of the modules to delete with the `ModuleName` parameter. Make sure you only delete modules that will get installed by the LCM. Only modules installed in the `$env:ProgramFiles\WindowsPowerShell\Modules` directory are removed.

    `Start-CDscPullConfiguration` is new in Carbon 2.0.

    .LINK
    Get-CDscError

    .LINK
    Initialize-CLcm

    .LINK
    Get-CDscWinEvent

    .EXAMPLE
    Start-CDscPullConfiguration -ComputerName '10.1.2.3','10.4.5.6'

    Demonstrates how to immedately download and apply a computer from its pull server.

    .EXAMPLE
    Start-CDscPullConfiguration -ComputerName '10.1.2.3' -Credential (Get-Credential domain\username)

    Demonstrates how to use custom credentials to contact the remote server.

    .EXAMPLE
    Start-CDscPullConfiguration -CimSession $session

    Demonstrates how to use one or more CIM sessions to invoke a configuration check.

    .EXAMPLE
    Start-CDscPullConfiguration -ComputerName 'example.com' -ModuleName 'Carbon'

    Demonstrates how to delete modules on the target computers, because sometimes the LCM does a really crappy job of it.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParameterSetName='WithCredentials')]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='WithCredentials')]
        [string[]]
        # The credential to use when connecting to the target computer.
        $ComputerName,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='WithCredentials')]
        [PSCredential]
        # The credentials to use when connecting to the computers.
        $Credential,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='WithCimSession')]
        [Microsoft.Management.Infrastructure.CimSession[]]
        $CimSession,

        [string[]]
        # Any modules that should be removed from the target computer's PSModulePath (since the LCM does a *really* crappy job of removing them).
        $ModuleName
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $credentialParam = @{ }
    if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'WithCredentials' )
    {
        if( $Credential )
        {
            $credentialParam.Credential = $Credential
        }

        $CimSession = New-CimSession -ComputerName $ComputerName @credentialParam
        if( -not $CimSession )
        {
            return
        }
    }

    $CimSession = Get-DscLocalConfigurationManager -CimSession $CimSession |
                    ForEach-Object {
                        if( $_.RefreshMode -ne 'Pull' )
                        {
                            Write-Error ('The Local Configuration Manager on ''{0}'' is not in Pull mode (current RefreshMode is ''{1}'').' -f $_.PSComputerName,$_.RefreshMode)
                            return
                        }

                        foreach( $session in $CimSession )
                        {
                            if( $session.ComputerName -eq $_.PSComputerName )
                            {
                                return $session
                            }
                        }
                    }

    if( -not $CimSession )
    {
        return
    }

    # Get rid of any _tmp directories you might find out there.
    Invoke-Command -ComputerName $CimSession.ComputerName @credentialParam -ScriptBlock {
        $modulesRoot = Join-Path -Path $env:ProgramFiles -ChildPath 'WindowsPowerShell\Modules'
        Get-ChildItem -Path $modulesRoot -Filter '*_tmp' -Directory | 
            Remove-Item -Recurse
    }

    if( $ModuleName )
    {
        # Now, get rid of any modules we know will need to get updated
        Invoke-Command -ComputerName $CimSession.ComputerName @credentialParam -ScriptBlock {
            param(
                [string[]]
                $ModuleName
            )

            $dscProcessID = Get-WmiObject msft_providers | 
                                Where-Object {$_.provider -like 'dsccore'} | 
                                Select-Object -ExpandProperty HostProcessIdentifier 
            Stop-Process -Id $dscProcessID -Force

            $modulesRoot = Join-Path -Path $env:ProgramFiles -ChildPath 'WindowsPowerShell\Modules'
            Get-ChildItem -Path $modulesRoot -Directory |
                Where-Object { $ModuleName -contains $_.Name } |
                Remove-Item -Recurse

        } -ArgumentList (,$ModuleName)
    }

    # Getting the date/time on the remote computers so we can get errors later.
    $win32OS = Get-CimInstance -CimSession $CimSession -ClassName 'Win32_OperatingSystem'

    $results = Invoke-CimMethod -CimSession $CimSession `
                                -Namespace 'root/microsoft/windows/desiredstateconfiguration' `
                                -Class 'MSFT_DscLocalConfigurationManager' `
                                -MethodName 'PerformRequiredConfigurationChecks' `
                                -Arguments @{ 'Flags' = [uint32]1 } 

    $successfulComputers = $results | Where-Object { $_ -and $_.ReturnValue -eq 0 } | Select-Object -ExpandProperty 'PSComputerName'

    $CimSession | 
        Where-Object { $successfulComputers -notcontains $_.ComputerName } |
        ForEach-Object { 
            $session = $_
            $startedAt= $win32OS | Where-Object { $_.PSComputerName -eq $session.ComputerName } | Select-Object -ExpandProperty 'LocalDateTime'
            Get-CDscError -ComputerName $session.ComputerName -StartTime $startedAt -Wait 
        } | 
        Write-CDscError
}




function Start-PowerShellProcess
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        $CommandLine,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [pscredential]
        $Credential
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $outFile = '{0}-{1}-stdout' -f (Split-Path -Leaf -Path $PSCommandPath),([IO.Path]::GetRandomFileName())
    $outFile = Join-Path -Path $env:TEMP -ChildPath $outFile
    Write-Debug $outFile
    '' | Set-Content -Path $outFile

    $errFile = '{0}-{1}-stderr' -f (Split-Path -Leaf -Path $PSCommandPath),([IO.Path]::GetRandomFileName())
    $errFile = Join-Path -Path $env:TEMP -ChildPath $errFile
    Write-Debug $errFile
    '' | Set-Content -Path $errFile

    try
    {
        Write-Debug -Message ('{0} > powershell.exe {1}' -f (Get-Location).ProviderPath,$CommandLine)
        $p = Start-Process -FilePath "powershell.exe" `
                           -ArgumentList $CommandLine `
                           -Credential $Credential `
                           -RedirectStandardOutput $outFile `
                           -RedirectStandardError $errFile `
                           -Wait `
                           -WindowStyle Hidden `
                           -PassThru

        $p.WaitForExit()

        $stdOut = Get-Content -Path $outFile -Raw
        if( $stdOut )
        {
            Write-Verbose -Message $stdOut
        }

        $stdErr = Get-Content -Path $errFile -Raw
        if( $stdErr )
        {
            Write-Error -Message $stdErr
            return
        }

        if( $p.ExitCode -ne 0 )
        {
            Write-Error -Message ('Unknown error running PowerShell as user {0}: exit code {1}{2}{3}' -f $Credential.UserName,$p.ExitCode,([Environment]::NewLine),$stdOut)
            return
        }

        if( $stdOut )
        {
            return Get-Content -Path $outFile
        }
    }
    finally
    {
        Remove-Item -Path $outFile,$errFile -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue
    }
}



function Test-CAdminPrivilege
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Checks if the current user is an administrator or has administrative privileges.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Many tools, cmdlets, and APIs require administative privileges.  Use this function to check.  Returns `True` if the current user has administrative privileges, or `False` if he doesn't.  Or she.  Or it.  

    This function handles UAC and computers where UAC is disabled.

    .EXAMPLE
    Test-CAdminPrivilege

    Returns `True` if the current user has administrative privileges, or `False` if the user doesn't.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $identity = [Security.Principal.WindowsIdentity]::GetCurrent()
    Write-Debug -Message "Checking if current user '$($identity.Name)' has administrative privileges."

    $hasElevatedPermissions = $false
    foreach ( $group in $identity.Groups )
    {
        if ( $group.IsValidTargetType([Security.Principal.SecurityIdentifier]) )
        {
            $groupSid = $group.Translate([Security.Principal.SecurityIdentifier])
            if ( $groupSid.IsWellKnown("AccountAdministratorSid") -or $groupSid.IsWellKnown("BuiltinAdministratorsSid"))
            {
                return $true
            }
        }
    }

    return $false
}

Set-Alias -Name 'Test-AdminPrivileges' -Value 'Test-CAdminPrivilege'




function Test-CDotNet
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Tests if .NET is installed.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Currently, this function only tests if .NET 2 or 4 is installed.  Perhaps some friendly people out there will extend it to perform further checks?

    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/kb/kbarticle.aspx?id=318785

    .EXAMPLE
    Test-CDotNet -v2

    Demonstrates how to test if .NET 2 is installed.

    .EXAMPLE
    Test-CDotNet -v4 -Full

    Demonstrates how to test if the full .NET v4 is installed.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='v2')]
        [Switch]
        # Test if .NET 2.0 is installed.
        $V2,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='v4Client')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='v4Full')]
        [Switch]
        # Test if .NET 4.0 is installed.
        $V4,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='v4Client')]
        [Switch]
        # Test if hte .NET 4 client profile is installed.
        $Client,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='v4Full')]
        [Switch]
        # Test if the .NET 4 full profile is installed.
        $Full
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $runtimeSetupRegPath = switch( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName )
    {
        'v2' { 'hklm:\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\NET Framework Setup\NDP\v2.0.50727' }
        'v4Client' { 'hklm:\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\NET Framework Setup\NDP\v4\Client' }
        'v4Full' { 'hklm:\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\NET Framework Setup\NDP\v4\Full' }
        default { Write-Error ('Unknown parameter set ''{0}''.' -f $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName) }
    }

    if( -not $runtimeSetupRegPath )
    {
        return
    }

    if( -not (Test-CRegistryKeyValue -Path $runtimeSetupRegPath -Name 'Install') )
    {
        return $false
    }

    $value = Get-CRegistryKeyValue -Path $runtimeSetupRegPath -Name 'Install'
    return ($value -eq 1)
}



function Test-CDscTargetResource
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Tests that all the properties on a resource and object are the same.

    .DESCRIPTION
    DSC expects a resource's `Test-TargetResource` function to return `$false` if an object needs to be updated. Usually, you compare the current state of a resource with the desired state, and return `$false` if anything doesn't match.

    This function takes in a hashtable of the current resource's state (what's returned by `Get-TargetResource`) and compares it to the desired state (the values passed to `Test-TargetResource`). If any property in the target resource is different than the desired resource, a list of stale resources is written to the verbose stream and `$false` is returned. 

    Here's a quick example:

        return Test-TargetResource -TargetResource (Get-TargetResource -Name 'fubar') -DesiredResource $PSBoundParameters -Target ('my resource ''fubar''')

    If you want to exclude properties from the evaluation, just remove them from the hashtable returned by `Get-TargetResource`:

        $resource = Get-TargetResource -Name 'fubar'
        $resource.Remove( 'PropertyThatDoesNotMatter' )
        return Test-TargetResource -TargetResource $resource -DesiredResource $PSBoundParameters -Target ('my resource ''fubar''')
    
    `Test-CDscTargetResource` is new in Carbon 2.0.

    .OUTPUTS
    System.Boolean.

    .EXAMPLE
    Test-TargetResource -TargetResource (Get-TargetResource -Name 'fubar') -DesiredResource $PSBoundParameters -Target ('my resource ''fubar''')

    Demonstrates how to test that all the properties on a DSC resource are the same was what's desired.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    [OutputType([bool])]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [hashtable]
        # The current state of the resource.
        $TargetResource,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [hashtable]
        # The desired state of the resource. Properties not in this hashtable are skipped. Usually you'll pass `PSBoundParameters` from your `Test-TargetResource` function.
        $DesiredResource,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The a description of the target object being tested. Output in verbose messages.
        $Target
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $notEqualProperties = $TargetResource.Keys | 
                            Where-Object { $_ -ne 'Ensure' } |  
                            Where-Object { $DesiredResource.ContainsKey( $_ ) } |
                            Where-Object { 
                                $desiredObj = $DesiredResource[$_]
                                $targetObj = $TargetResource[$_]

                                if( $desiredobj -eq $null -or $targetObj -eq $null )
                                {
                                    return ($desiredObj -ne $targetObj)
                                }

                                if( -not $desiredObj.GetType().IsArray -or -not $targetObj.GetType().IsArray )
                                {
                                    return ($desiredObj -ne $targetObj)
                                }

                                if( $desiredObj.Length -ne $targetObj.Length )
                                {
                                    return $true
                                }

                                $desiredObj | Where-Object { $targetObj -notcontains $_ }
                            }

    if( $notEqualProperties )
    {
        Write-Verbose ('{0} has stale properties: ''{1}''' -f $Target,($notEqualProperties -join ''','''))
        return $false
    }

    return $true
}



function Test-CFileShare
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Tests if a file/SMB share exists on the local computer.

    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Test-CFileShare` function uses WMI to check if a file share exists on the local computer. If the share exists, `Test-CFileShare` returns `$true`. Otherwise, it returns `$false`.

    `Test-CFileShare` was added in Carbon 2.0.

    .LINK
    Get-CFileShare

    .LINK
    Get-CFileSharePermission

    .LINK
    Install-CFileShare

    .LINK
    Uninstall-CFileShare

    .EXAMPLE
    Test-CFileShare -Name 'CarbonShare'

    Demonstrates how to test of a file share exists.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of a specific share to check.
        $Name
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $share = Get-CFileShare -Name ('{0}*' -f $Name) |
                Where-Object { $_.Name -eq $Name }

    return ($share -ne $null)
}




function Test-CFirewallStatefulFtp
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Tests if the firewall's `StatefulFtp` setting is enabled.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Returns `True` if the firewall's `StatefulFtp` setting is enabled, `False` otherwise.

    If the firewall isn't configurable, writes an error and returns nothing, which will probably be interpreted by your script as `False`.  Can't help you there.  At least you'll get an error message.

    .OUTPUTS
    System.Boolean.

    .LINK
    Assert-CFirewallConfigurable

    .EXAMPLE
    Test-CFirewallStatefulFtp
    
    Returns `True` if the firewall's `StatefulFtp` setting is enabled, `False` otherwise.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param()
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( -not (Assert-CFirewallConfigurable) )
    {
        return
    }
    
    $output = netsh advfirewall show global StatefulFtp
    $line = $output[3]
    return $line -match 'Enable'
}




function Test-CGroup
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Checks if a *local* group exists.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Uses .NET's AccountManagement API to check if a *local* group exists.  Returns `True` if the *local* account exists, or `False` if it doesn't.

    .OUTPUTS
    System.Boolean

    .LINK
    Get-CGroup

    .LINK
    Install-CGroup

    .LINK
    Uninstall-CGroup

    .EXAMPLE
    Test-CGroup -Name RebelAlliance

    Checks if the `RebelAlliance` *local* group exists.  Returns `True` if it does, `False` if it doesn't.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the *local* group to check.
        $Name
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    
    $group = Get-CGroup -Name $Name -ErrorAction Ignore
    if( $group )
    {
        $group.Dispose()
        return $true
    }
    else
    {
        return $false
    }
}




function Test-CGroupMember
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Tests if a user or group is a member of a *local* group.

    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Test-CGroupMember` function tests if a user or group is a member of a *local* group using [.NET's DirectoryServices.AccountManagement APIs](https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.directoryservices.accountmanagement.aspx). If the group or member you want to check don't exist, you'll get errors and `$null` will be returned. If `Member` is in the group, `$true` is returned. If `Member` is not in the group, `$false` is returned.

    The user running this function must have permission to access whatever directory the `Member` is in and whatever directory current members of the group are in.

    This function was added in Carbon 2.1.0.

    .LINK
    Add-CGroupMember

    .LINK
    Install-CGroup

    .LINK
    Remove-CGroupMember

    .LINK
    Test-CGroup

    .LINK
    Uninstall-CGroup

    .EXAMPLE
    Test-CGroupMember -GroupName 'SithLords' -Member 'REBELS\LSkywalker'

    Demonstrates how to test if a user is a member of a group. In this case, it tests if `REBELS\LSkywalker` is in the local `SithLords`, *which obviously he isn't*, so `$false` is returned.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    Param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the group whose membership is being tested.
        $GroupName,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string] 
        # The name of the member to check.
        $Member
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( -not (Test-CGroup -Name $GroupName) )
    {
        Write-Error -Message ('Group ''{0}'' not found.' -f $GroupName)
        return
    }

    $group = Get-CGroup -Name $GroupName
    if( -not $group )
    {
        return
    }
    
    $principal = Resolve-CIdentity -Name $Member
    if( -not $principal )
    {
        return
    }

    try
    {
        return $principal.IsMemberOfLocalGroup($group.Name)
    }
    catch
    {
        Write-Error -Message ('Checking if "{0}" is a member of local group "{1}" failed: {2}' -f $principal.FullName,$group.Name,$_)
    }
}



function Test-CIdentity
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Tests that a name is a valid Windows local or domain user/group.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    Uses the Windows `LookupAccountName` function to find an identity.  If it can't be found, returns `$false`.  Otherwise, it returns `$true`.
    
    Use the `PassThru` switch to return a `Carbon.Identity` object (instead of `$true` if the identity exists.

    .LINK
    Resolve-CIdentity

    .LINK
    Resolve-CIdentityName

    .EXAMPLE
    Test-CIdentity -Name 'Administrators
    
    Tests that a user or group called `Administrators` exists on the local computer.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Test-CIdentity -Name 'CARBON\Testers'
    
    Tests that a group called `Testers` exists in the `CARBON` domain.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Test-CIdentity -Name 'Tester' -PassThru
    
    Tests that a user or group named `Tester` exists and returns a `System.Security.Principal.SecurityIdentifier` object if it does.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the identity to test.
        $Name,
        
        [Switch]
        # Returns a `Carbon.Identity` object if the identity exists.
        $PassThru
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    
    $identity = [Carbon.Identity]::FindByName( $Name )
    if( -not $identity )
    {
        return $false
    }

    if( $PassThru )
    {
        return $identity
    }
    return $true
}




function Test-CIPAddress
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Tests that an IP address is in use on the local computer.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Sometimes its useful to know if an IP address is being used on the local computer.  This function does just that.

    .LINK
    Test-CIPAddress

    .EXAMPLE
    Test-CIPAddress -IPAddress '10.1.2.3'

    Returns `true` if the IP address `10.1.2.3` is being used on the local computer.

    .EXAMPLE
    Test-CIPAddress -IPAddress '::1'

    Demonstrates that you can use IPv6 addresses.

    .EXAMPLE
    Test-CIPAddress -IPAddress ([Net.IPAddress]::Parse('10.5.6.7'))

    Demonstrates that you can use real `System.Net.IPAddress` objects.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [Net.IPAddress]
        # The IP address to check.
        $IPAddress
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $ip = Get-CIPAddress | Where-Object { $_ -eq $IPAddress }
    if( $ip )
    {
        return $true
    }
    else
    {
        return $false
    }
}



function Test-CMsmqMessageQueue
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Tests if an MSMQ message queue exists.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Returns `True` if a message queue with name `Name` exists.  `False` otherwise.

    .OUTPUTS
    System.Boolean.

    .EXAMPLE
    Test-CMsmqMessageQueue -Name 'MovieQueue'

    Returns `True` if public queue `MovieQueue` exists, `False` otherwise.

    .EXAMPLE
    Test-CMsmqMessageQueue -Name 'MovieCriticsQueue' -Private

    Returns `True` if private queue `MovieCriticsQueue` exists, `False` otherwise.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The queue name.
        $Name,
        
        [Switch]
        # If the queue is private, this switch must be set.
        $Private
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $queueArgs = @{ Name = $Name ; Private = $Private }
    $path = Get-CMsmqMessageQueuePath @queueArgs 
    return ( [Messaging.MessageQueue]::Exists( $path ) )
}




function Test-CNtfsCompression
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Tests if NTFS compression is turned on.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Returns `$true` if compression is enabled, `$false` otherwise.

    .LINK
    Disable-CNtfsCompression

    .LINK
    Enable-CNtfsCompression

    .EXAMPLE
    Test-CNtfsCompression -Path C:\Projects\Carbon

    Returns `$true` if NTFS compression is enabled on `C:\Projects\CArbon`.  If it is disabled, returns `$false`.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The path where compression should be enabled.
        $Path
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( -not (Test-Path -Path $Path) )
    {
        Write-Error ('Path {0} not found.' -f $Path)
        return
    }

    $attributes = Get-Item -Path $Path -Force | Select-Object -ExpandProperty Attributes
    if( $attributes )
    {
        return (($attributes -band [IO.FileAttributes]::Compressed) -eq [IO.FileAttributes]::Compressed)
    }
    return $false
}



function Test-COSIs32Bit
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Tests if the current operating system is 32-bit.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    Regardless of the bitness of the currently running process, returns `True` if the current OS is a 32-bit OS.
    
    .OUTPUTS
    System.Boolean.

    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.environment.is64bitoperatingsystem.aspx
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Test-COSIs32Bit
    
    Returns `True` if the current operating system is 32-bit, and `False` otherwise.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    return -not (Test-COSIs64Bit)
}




function Test-COSIs64Bit
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Tests if the current operating system is 64-bit.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Regardless of the bitness of the currently running process, returns `True` if the current OS is a 64-bit OS.

    .OUTPUTS
    System.Boolean.

    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.environment.is64bitoperatingsystem.aspx
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Test-COSIs64Bit
    
    Returns `True` if the current operating system is 64-bit, and `False` otherwise.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    return ([Environment]::Is64BitOperatingSystem)
}




function Test-CPathIsJunction
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Tests if a path is a junction.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Test-CPathIsJunction` function tests if path is a junction (i.e. reparse point). If the path doesn't exist, returns `$false`.
    
    Carbon adds an `IsJunction` extension method on `DirectoryInfo` objects, which you can use instead e.g.
    
        Get-ChildItem -Path $env:Temp | 
            Where-Object { $_.PsIsContainer -and $_.IsJunction }

    would return all the junctions under the current user's temporary directory.

    The `LiteralPath` parameter was added in Carbon 2.2.0. Use it to check paths that contain wildcard characters.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Test-CPathIsJunction -Path C:\I\Am\A\Junction
    
    Returns `$true`.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Test-CPathIsJunction -Path C:\I\Am\Not\A\Junction
    
    Returns `$false`.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Get-ChildItem * | Where-Object { $_.PsIsContainer -and $_.IsJunction }
    
    Demonstrates an alternative way of testing for junctions.  Uses Carbon's `IsJunction` extension method on the `DirectoryInfo` type to check if any directories under the current directory are junctions.

    .EXAMPLE
    Test-CPathIsJunction -LiteralPath 'C:\PathWithWildcards[]'

    Demonstrates how to test if a path with wildcards is a junction.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParameterSetName='Path')]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='Path',Position=0)]
        [string]
        # The path to check. Wildcards allowed. If using wildcards, returns `$true` if all paths that match the wildcard are junctions. Otherwise, return `$false`.
        $Path,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='LiteralPath')]
        [string]
        # The literal path to check. Use this parameter to test a path that contains wildcard characters.
        #
        # This parameter was added in Carbon 2.2.0.
        $LiteralPath
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'Path' )
    {
        if( [Management.Automation.WildcardPattern]::ContainsWildcardCharacters($Path) )
        {
            $junctions = Get-Item -Path $Path -Force |
                            Where-Object { $_.PsIsContainer -and $_.IsJunction }
            
            return ($junctions -ne $null)        
        }

        return Test-CPathIsJunction -LiteralPath $Path
    }

    if( Test-Path -LiteralPath $LiteralPath -PathType Container )
    {
        return (Get-Item -LiteralPath $LiteralPath -Force).IsJunction
    }

    return $false
}




function Test-CPerformanceCounter
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Tests if a performance counter exists.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Returns `True` if counter `Name` exists in category `CategoryName`.  `False` if it does not exist or the category doesn't exist.

    .EXAMPLE
    Test-CPerformanceCounter -CategoryName 'ToyotaCamry' -Name 'MilesPerGallon'

    Returns `True` if the `ToyotaCamry` performance counter category has a `MilesPerGallon` counter.  `False` if the counter doesn't exist.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The category's name where the performance counter exists.  Or might exist.  As the case may be.
        $CategoryName,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The performance counter's name.
        $Name
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( (Test-CPerformanceCounterCategory -CategoryName $CategoryName) )
    {
        return [Diagnostics.PerformanceCounterCategory]::CounterExists( $Name, $CategoryName )
    }
    
    return $false
}




function Test-CPerformanceCounterCategory
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Tests if a performance counter category exists.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Returns `True` if category `CategoryName` exists.  `False` if it does not exist.

    .EXAMPLE
    Test-CPerformanceCounterCategory -CategoryName 'ToyotaCamry'

    Returns `True` if the `ToyotaCamry` performance counter category exists.  `False` if the category doesn't exist.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the cateogry whose existence to check.
        $CategoryName
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    return [Diagnostics.PerformanceCounterCategory]::Exists( $CategoryName )
}




function Test-CPermission
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Tests if permissions are set on a file, directory, registry key, or certificate's private key/key container.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Sometimes, you don't want to use `Grant-CPermission` on a big tree.  In these situations, use `Test-CPermission` to see if permissions are set on a given path.

    This function supports file system, registry, and certificate private key/key container permissions.  You can also test the inheritance and propogation flags on containers, in addition to the permissions, with the `ApplyTo` parameter.  See [Grant-CPermission](Grant-CPermission.html) documentation for an explanation of the `ApplyTo` parameter.

    Inherited permissions on *not* checked by default.  To check inherited permission, use the `-Inherited` switch.

    By default, the permission check is not exact, i.e. the user may have additional permissions to what you're checking.  If you want to make sure the user has *exactly* the permission you want, use the `-Exact` switch.  Please note that by default, NTFS will automatically add/grant `Synchronize` permission on an item, which is handled by this function.

    When checking for permissions on certificate private keys/key containers, if a certificate doesn't have a private key, `$true` is returned.

    .OUTPUTS
    System.Boolean.

    .LINK
    Carbon_Permission

    .LINK
    ConvertTo-CContainerInheritanceFlags

    .LINK
    Disable-CAclInheritance

    .LINK
    Enable-CAclInheritance

    .LINK
    Get-CPermission

    .LINK
    Grant-CPermission

    .LINK
    Revoke-CPermission

    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.security.accesscontrol.filesystemrights.aspx
    
    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.security.accesscontrol.registryrights.aspx
    
    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.security.accesscontrol.cryptokeyrights.aspx
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Test-CPermission -Identity 'STARFLEET\JLPicard' -Permission 'FullControl' -Path 'C:\Enterprise\Bridge'

    Demonstrates how to check that Jean-Luc Picard has `FullControl` permission on the `C:\Enterprise\Bridge`.  

    .EXAMPLE
    Test-CPermission -Identity 'STARFLEET\GLaForge' -Permission 'WriteKey' -Path 'HKLM:\Software\Enterprise\Engineering'

    Demonstrates how to check that Geordi LaForge can write registry keys at `HKLM:\Software\Enterprise\Engineering`.

    .EXAMPLE
    Test-CPermission -Identity 'STARFLEET\Worf' -Permission 'Write' -ApplyTo 'Container' -Path 'C:\Enterprise\Brig'

    Demonstrates how to test for inheritance/propogation flags, in addition to permissions.

    .EXAMPLE
    Test-CPermission -Identity 'STARFLEET\Data' -Permission 'GenericWrite' -Path 'cert:\LocalMachine\My\1234567890ABCDEF1234567890ABCDEF12345678'

    Demonstrates how to test for permissions on a certificate's private key/key container. If the certificate doesn't have a private key, returns `$true`.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The path on which the permissions should be checked.  Can be a file system or registry path.
        $Path,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The user or group whose permissions to check.
        $Identity,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string[]]
        # The permission to test for: e.g. FullControl, Read, etc.  For file system items, use values from [System.Security.AccessControl.FileSystemRights](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.security.accesscontrol.filesystemrights.aspx).  For registry items, use values from [System.Security.AccessControl.RegistryRights](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.security.accesscontrol.registryrights.aspx).
        $Permission,
        
        [Carbon.Security.ContainerInheritanceFlags]
        # The container and inheritance flags to check. Ignored if `Path` is a file. These are ignored if not supplied. See `Grant-CPermission` for detailed explanation of this parameter. This controls the inheritance and propagation flags.  Default is full inheritance, e.g. `ContainersAndSubContainersAndLeaves`. This parameter is ignored if `Path` is to a leaf item.
        $ApplyTo,

        [Switch]
        # Include inherited permissions in the check.
        $Inherited,

        [Switch]
        # Check for the exact permissions, inheritance flags, and propagation flags, i.e. make sure the identity has *only* the permissions you specify.
        $Exact
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $originalPath = $Path
    $Path = Resolve-Path -Path $Path -ErrorAction 'SilentlyContinue'
    if( -not $Path -or -not (Test-Path -Path $Path) )
    {
        if( -not $Path )
        {
            $Path = $originalPath
        }
        Write-Error ('Unable to test {0}''s {1} permissions: path ''{2}'' not found.' -f $Identity,($Permission -join ','),$Path)
        return
    }

    $providerName = Get-CPathProvider -Path $Path | Select-Object -ExpandProperty 'Name'
    if( $providerName -eq 'Certificate' )
    {
        $providerName = 'CryptoKey'
    }

    if( ($providerName -eq 'FileSystem' -or $providerName -eq 'CryptoKey') -and $Exact )
    {
        # Synchronize is always on and can't be turned off.
        $Permission += 'Synchronize'
    }
    $rights = $Permission | ConvertTo-ProviderAccessControlRights -ProviderName $providerName
    if( -not $rights )
    {
        Write-Error ('Unable to test {0}''s {1} permissions on {2}: received an unknown permission.' -f $Identity,$Permission,$Path)
        return
    }

    $account = Resolve-CIdentity -Name $Identity
    if( -not $account)
    {
        return
    }

    $rightsPropertyName = '{0}Rights' -f $providerName
    $inheritanceFlags = [Security.AccessControl.InheritanceFlags]::None
    $propagationFlags = [Security.AccessControl.PropagationFlags]::None
    $testApplyTo = $false
    if( $PSBoundParameters.ContainsKey('ApplyTo') )
    {
        if( (Test-Path -Path $Path -PathType Leaf ) )
        {
            Write-Warning "Can't test inheritance/propagation rules on a leaf. Please omit `ApplyTo` parameter when `Path` is a leaf."
        }
        else
        {
            $testApplyTo = $true
            $inheritanceFlags = ConvertTo-CInheritanceFlag -ContainerInheritanceFlag $ApplyTo
            $propagationFlags = ConvertTo-CPropagationFlag -ContainerInheritanceFlag $ApplyTo
        }
    }

    if( $providerName -eq 'CryptoKey' )
    {
        # If the certificate doesn't have a private key, return $true.
        if( (Get-Item -Path $Path | Where-Object { -not $_.HasPrivateKey } ) )
        {
            return $true
        }
    }

    $acl = Get-CPermission -Path $Path -Identity $Identity -Inherited:$Inherited | 
                Where-Object { $_.AccessControlType -eq 'Allow' } |
                Where-Object { $_.IsInherited -eq $Inherited } |
                Where-Object { 
                    if( $Exact )
                    {
                        return ($_.$rightsPropertyName -eq $rights)
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        return ($_.$rightsPropertyName -band $rights) -eq $rights
                    }
                } |
                Where-Object {
                    if( -not $testApplyTo )
                    {
                        return $true
                    }

                    if( $Exact )
                    {
                        return ($_.InheritanceFlags -eq $inheritanceFlags) -and ($_.PropagationFlags -eq $propagationFlags)
                    }
                    else
                    {
                        return (($_.InheritanceFlags -band $inheritanceFlags) -eq $inheritanceFlags) -and `
                               (($_.PropagationFlags -and $propagationFlags) -eq $propagationFlags)
                    }
                }
    if( $acl )
    {
        return $true
    }
    else
    {
        return $false
    }
}




function Test-CPowerShellIs32Bit
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Tests if the current PowerShell process is 32-bit.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Returns `True` if the currently executing PowerShell process is 32-bit/x86, `False` if it is 64-bit/x64.

    .OUTPUTS
    System.Boolean.

    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.environment.is64bitprocess.aspx

    .EXAMPLE
    Test-CPowerShellIs32Bit

    Returns `True` if PowerShell is 32-bit/x86, `False` if it is 64-bit/x64.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    return -not (Test-CPowerShellIs64Bit)
}



function Test-CPowerShellIs64Bit
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Tests if the current PowerShell process is 64-bit/x64.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Returns `True` if the currently executing PowerShell process is 64-bit/x64, `False` if it is 32-bit/x86.

    .OUTPUTS
    System.Boolean.

    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.environment.is64bitprocess.aspx

    .EXAMPLE
    Test-CPowerShellIs64Bit

    Returns `True` if PowerShell is 64-bit/x64, `False` if it is 32-bit/x86.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    return ([Environment]::Is64BitProcess)
}




function Test-CPrivilege
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Tests if an identity has a given privilege.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    Returns `true` if an identity has a privilege.  `False` otherwise.

    .LINK
    Carbon_Privilege

    .LINK
    Get-CPrivilege

    .LINK
    Grant-CPrivilege

    .LINK
    Revoke-CPrivilege
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Test-CPrivilege -Identity Forrester -Privilege SeServiceLogonRight
    
    Tests if `Forrester` has the `SeServiceLogonRight` privilege.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The identity whose privileges to check.
        $Identity,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The privilege to check.
        $Privilege
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $matchingPrivilege = Get-CPrivilege -Identity $Identity |
                            Where-Object { $_ -eq $Privilege }
    return ($matchingPrivilege -ne $null)
}




function Test-CRegistryKeyValue
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Tests if a registry value exists.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    The usual ways for checking if a registry value exists don't handle when a value simply has an empty or null value.  This function actually checks if a key has a value with a given name.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Test-CRegistryKeyValue -Path 'hklm:\Software\Carbon\Test' -Name 'Title'
    
    Returns `True` if `hklm:\Software\Carbon\Test` contains a value named 'Title'.  `False` otherwise.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The path to the registry key where the value should be set.  Will be created if it doesn't exist.
        $Path,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the value being set.
        $Name
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( -not (Test-Path -Path $Path -PathType Container) )
    {
        return $false
    }
    
    $properties = Get-ItemProperty -Path $Path 
    if( -not $properties )
    {
        return $false
    }
    
    $member = Get-Member -InputObject $properties -Name $Name
    if( $member )
    {
        return $true
    }
    else
    {
        return $false
    }
}




function Test-CScheduledTask
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Tests if a scheduled task exists on the current computer.

    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Test-CScheduledTask` function uses `schtasks.exe` to tests if a task with a given name exists on the current computer. If it does, `$true` is returned. Otherwise, `$false` is returned. This name must be the *full task name*, i.e. the task's path/location and its name.

    .LINK
    Get-CScheduledTask

    .EXAMPLE
    Test-CScheduledTask -Name 'AutoUpdateMyApp'

    Demonstrates how to test if a scheduled tasks exists.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    [OutputType([bool])]
    param(
        [Parameter()]
        [Alias('TaskName')]
        [string]
        # The name of the scheduled task to check. This must be the *full task name*, i.e. the task's path/location and its name.
        $Name
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $Name = Join-Path -Path '\' -ChildPath $Name

    $task = Get-CScheduledTask -Name $Name -AsComObject -ErrorAction Ignore
    if( $task )
    {
        return $true
    }
    else
    {
        return $false
    }
}



function Test-CService
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Tests if a service exists, without writing anything out to the error stream.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    `Get-Service` writes an error when a service doesn't exist.  This function tests if a service exists without writing anyting to the output stream.
    
    .OUTPUTS
    System.Boolean.
    
    .LINK
    Carbon_Service

    .LINK
    Install-CService

    .LINK
    Uninstall-CService

    .EXAMPLE
    Test-CService -Name 'Drive'
    
    Returns `true` if the `Drive` service exists.  `False` otherwise.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the service to test.
        $Name
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $service = Get-Service -Name $Name -ErrorAction Ignore 
    if( $service )
    {
        return $true
    }
    else
    {
        return $false
    }
}



function Test-CSslCertificateBinding
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Tests if an SSL certificate binding exists.
	
	.DESCRIPTION
	SSL certificates are bound to IP addresses and ports.  This function tests if one exists on a given IP address/port.
	
	.EXAMPLE
	Test-CSslCertificateBinding -Port 443
	
	Tests if there is a default SSL certificate bound to all a machine's IP addresses on port 443.
	
	.EXAMPLE
	Test-CSslCertificateBinding -IPAddress 10.0.1.1 -Port 443
	
	Tests if there is an SSL certificate bound to IP address 10.0.1.1 on port 443.
	
	.EXAMPLE
	Test-CSslCertificateBinding
	
	Tests if there are any SSL certificates bound to any IP address/port on the machine.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [IPAddress]
        # The IP address to test for an SSL certificate.
        $IPAddress,
        
        [Uint16]
        # The port to test for an SSL certificate.
        $Port
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    
    $getArgs = @{ }
    if( $IPAddress )
    {
        $getArgs.IPAddress = $IPAddress
    }
    
    if( $Port )
    {
        $getArgs.Port = $Port
    }
    
    $binding = Get-CSslCertificateBinding @getArgs
    if( $binding )
    {
        return $True
    }
    else
    {
        return $False
    }
}




function Test-CTypeDataMember
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Tests if a type has an extended type member defined.

    .DESCRIPTION
    `Test-CTypeDataMember` tests if a type has an extended type member defined. If the type isn't found, you'll get an error.

    Returns `$true` if the type is found and the member is defined. Otherwise, returns `$false`.

    This function is new in Carbon 2.0.

    .EXAMPLE
    Test-CTypeDataMember -TypeName 'Microsoft.Web.Administration.Site' -MemberName 'PhysicalPath'

    Tests if the `Microsoft.Web.Administration.Site` type has a `PhysicalPath` extended type member defined.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    [OutputType([bool])]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The type name to check.
        $TypeName,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the member to check.
        $MemberName
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $typeData = Get-TypeData -TypeName $TypeName
    if( -not $typeData )
    {
        # The type isn't defined or there is no extended type data on it.
        return $false
    }

    return $typeData.Members.ContainsKey( $MemberName )
}





function Test-CUncPath
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Tests if a path is a UNC path.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Converts the path to a URI and returns the value of its `IsUnc` property.

    This function does not test if path exists.  Use `Test-Path` for that.

    .LINK
    Test-Path

    .LINK
    http://blogs.microsoft.co.il/blogs/ScriptFanatic//archive/2010/05/27/quicktip-how-to-validate-a-unc-path.aspx

    .EXAMPLE
    Test-CUncPath -Path '\\computer\share'

    Returns `true` since `\\computer\share` is a UNC path.  Note that `Test-CUncPath` does not have to exist.

    .EXAMPLE
    Test-CUncPath -Path 'C:\Windows'

    Returns `false` since `C:\Windows` is not a UNC path.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The path to test/check.
        $Path
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    ([Uri]$Path).IsUnc

}




function Test-CUser
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Checks if a *local* user account exists.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Uses .NET's AccountManagement API to check if a *local* user account exists.  Returns `True` if the *local* account exists, or `False` if it doesn't.

    .OUTPUTS
    System.Boolean

    .LINK
    Get-CUser

    .LINK
    Install-CUser

    .LINK
    Uninstall-CUser

    .EXAMPLE
    Test-CUser -Username HSolo

    Checks if the HSolo *local* account exists.  Returns `True` if it does, `False` if it doesn't or its encased in carbonite.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [ValidateLength(1,20)]
        [string]
        # The username of the *local* account to check
        $Username
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    
    $user = Get-CUser -UserName $Username -ErrorAction Ignore
    if( $user )
    {
        $user.Dispose()
        return $true
    }
    else
    {
        return $false
    }
}



function Test-CWindowsFeature
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Tests if an optional Windows component exists and, optionally, if it is installed.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Feature names are different across different versions of Windows.  This function tests if a given feature exists.  You can also test if a feature is installed by setting the `Installed` switch.

    Feature names are case-sensitive and are different between different versions of Windows.  For a list, on Windows 2008, run `serveramanagercmd.exe -q`; on Windows 7, run `Get-WmiObject -Class Win32_OptionalFeature | Select-Object Name`.  On Windows 8/2012, use `Get-CWindowsFeature`.

    .LINK
    Get-CWindowsFeature
    
    .LINK
    Install-CWindowsFeature
    
    .LINK
    Uninstall-CWindowsFeature
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Test-CWindowsFeature -Name MSMQ-Server

    Tests if the MSMQ-Server feature exists on the current computer.

    .EXAMPLE
    Test-CWindowsFeature -Name IIS-WebServer -Installed

    Tests if the IIS-WebServer features exists and is installed/enabled.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the feature to test.  Feature names are case-sensitive and are different between different versions of Windows.  For a list, on Windows 2008, run `serveramanagercmd.exe -q`; on Windows 7, run `Get-WmiObject -Class Win32_OptionalFeature | Select-Object Name`.  On Windows 8/2012, use `Get-CWindowsFeature`.
        $Name,
        
        [Switch]
        # Test if the service is installed in addition to if it exists.
        $Installed
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    
    Write-Warning -Message ('Test-CWindowsFeature is obsolete and will be removed in a future major version of Carbon.')

    if( -not (Get-Module -Name 'ServerManager') -and -not (Assert-WindowsFeatureFunctionsSupported) )
    {
        return
    }
    
    $feature = Get-CWindowsFeature -Name $Name 
    
    if( $feature )
    {
        if( $Installed )
        {
            return $feature.Installed
        }
        return $true
    }
    else
    {
        return $false
    }
}




function Test-CZipFile
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Tests if a file is a ZIP file using the `DotNetZip` library.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Uses the `Ionic.Zip.ZipFile.IsZipFile` static method to determine if a file is a ZIP file.  The file *must* exist. If it doesn't, an error is written and `$null` is returned.

    You can pipe `System.IO.FileInfo` (or strings) to this function to filter multiple items.

    .LINK
    https://www.nuget.org/packages/DotNetZip

    .LINK
    Compress-CItem
    
    .LINK
    Expand-CItem
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Test-CZipFile -Path 'MyCoolZip.zip'
    
    Demonstrates how to check the current directory if MyCoolZip.zip is really a ZIP file.  
    #>
    [OutputType([bool])]
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [Alias('FullName')]
        [string]
        # The path to the file to test.
        $Path
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    Add-Type -Path (Join-Path -Path $CarbonBinDir -ChildPath 'Ionic.Zip.dll' -Resolve)

    $Path = Resolve-CFullPath -Path $Path
    if( -not (Test-Path -Path $Path -PathType Leaf) )
    {
        Write-Error ('File ''{0}'' not found.' -f $Path)
        return
    }

    return [Ionic.Zip.ZipFile]::IsZipFile( $Path )

}



function Uninstall-CCertificate
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Removes a certificate from a store for the user or machine account.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Uninstall-CCertificate` function uses .NET's certificates API to remove a certificate from a given store for the machine or current user. Use the thumbprint to identify which certificate to remove. The thumbprint is unique to each certificate. The user performing the removal must have read and write permission on the store where the certificate is located.

    If the certificate isn't in the store, nothing happens, not even an error.

    To uninstall a certificate from a remote computer, use the `Session`parameter, which was added in Carbon 2.1.0. You can create a new session with the `New-PSSession` cmdlet.

    You can uninstall a certificate using just its thumbprint (this functionality is new in Carbon 2.5.0). `Uninstall-CCertificate` will search through all certificate locations and stores and uninstall all certificates that have the thumbprint. When you enumerate all certificates over a remoting session, you get a terminating `The system cannot open the device or file specified` error, so you can't delete a certificate with just a thumbprint over remoting.

    .EXAMPLE
    Uninstall-CCertificate -Thumbprint 570895470234023dsaaefdbcgbefa

    Demonstrates how to delete a certificate from all stores it is installed in. `Uninstall-CCertificate` searches every certificate stores and deletes all certificates with the given thumbprint. This functionality was added in Carbon 2.5.0.

    .EXAMPLE
    '570895470234023dsaaefdbcgbefa' | Uninstall-CCertificate

    Demonstrates that you can pipe a thumbprint to `Uninstall-CCertificate`. The certificate is uninstall from all stores it is in. This functionality was added in Carbon 2.5.0.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-Item -Path 'cert:\LocalMachine\My\570895470234023dsaaefdbcgbefa' | Uninstall-CCertificate

    Demonstrates that you can pipe a certificate `Uninstall-CCertificate`. The certificate is uninstalled from all stores it is in. This functionality was added in Carbon 2.5.0.

    .EXAMPLE
    > Uninstall-CCertificate -Thumbprint 570895470234023dsaaefdbcgbefa -StoreLocation CurrentUser -StoreName My
    
    Removes the 570895470234023dsaaefdbcgbefa certificate from the current user's Personal certificate store.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    > $cert = Get-CCertificate -FriendlyName 'Carbon Testing Certificate' -StoreLocation LocalMachine -StoreName Root
    > Uninstall-CCertificate -Certificate $cert -StoreLocation LocalMachine -StoreName Root
    
    Removes the certificate with friendly name 'Carbon Testing Certificate' from the local machine's Trusted Root Certification Authorities store.

    .EXAMPLE
    Uninstall-CCertificate -Thumbprint 570895470234023dsaaefdbcgbefa -StoreLocation LocalMachine -StoreName 'SharePoint'

    Demonstrates how to uninstall a certificate from a custom, non-standard store.

    .EXAMPLE
    > Uninstall-CCertificate -Thumbprint 570895470234023dsaaefdbcgbefa -StoreLocation CurrentUser -StoreName My -Session (New-PSSession -ComputerName remote1,remote2)
    
    Demonstrates how to uninstall a certificate from a remote computer.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true,DefaultParameterSetName='ByThumbprint')]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ByThumbprint',ValueFromPipelineByPropertyName=$true,ValueFromPipeline=$true)]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ByThumbprintAndStoreName')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ByThumbprintAndCustomStoreName')]
        [string]
        # The thumbprint of the certificate to remove.
        #
        # If you want to uninstall the certificate from all stores it is installed in, you can pipe the thumbprint to this parameter or you can pipe a certificate object. (This functionality was added in Carbon 2.5.0.)
        $Thumbprint,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ByCertificateAndStoreName')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ByCertificateAndCustomStoreName')]
        [Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509Certificate2]
        # The certificate to remove
        $Certificate,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ByThumbprintAndStoreName')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ByThumbprintAndCustomStoreName')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ByCertificateAndStoreName')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ByCertificateAndCustomStoreName')]
        [Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.StoreLocation]
        # The location of the certificate's store.
        $StoreLocation,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ByThumbprintAndStoreName')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ByCertificateAndStoreName')]
        [Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.StoreName]
        # The name of the certificate's store.
        $StoreName,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ByThumbprintAndCustomStoreName')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ByCertificateAndCustomStoreName')]
        [string]
        # The name of the non-standard, custom store where the certificate should be un-installed.
        $CustomStoreName,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='ByThumbprintAndStoreName')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='ByThumbprintAndCustomStoreName')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='ByCertificateAndStoreName')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='ByCertificateAndCustomStoreName')]
        [Management.Automation.Runspaces.PSSession[]]
        # Use the `Session` parameter to uninstall a certificate on remote computer(s) using PowerShell remoting. Use `New-PSSession` to create a session.
        #
        # Due to a bug in PowerShell, you can't remove a certificate by just its thumbprint over remoting. Using just a thumbprint requires us to enumerate through all installed certificates. When you do this over remoting, PowerShell throws a terminating `The system cannot open the device or file specified` error.
        #
        # This parameter was added in Carbon 2.1.0.
        $Session
    )
    
    process
    {
        Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

        Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

        if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -like 'ByCertificate*' )
        {
            $Thumbprint = $Certificate.Thumbprint
        }
    
        $invokeCommandParameters = @{}
        if( $Session )
        {
            $invokeCommandParameters['Session'] = $Session
        }

        if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'ByThumbprint' )
        {
            # Must be in this order. Delete LocalMachine certs *first* so they don't show
            # up in CurrentUser stores. If you delete a certificate that "cascades" into 
            # the CurrentUser store first, you'll get errors when running non-
            # interactively as SYSTEM.
            Get-ChildItem -Path 'Cert:\LocalMachine','Cert:\CurrentUser' -Recurse |
                Where-Object { -not $_.PsIsContainer } |
                Where-Object { $_.Thumbprint -eq $Thumbprint } |
                ForEach-Object {
                    $cert = $_
                    $description = $cert.FriendlyName
                    if( -not $description )
                    {
                        $description = $cert.Subject
                    }

                    $certPath = $_.PSPath | Split-Path -NoQualifier
                    Write-Verbose ('Uninstalling certificate ''{0}'' ({1}) at {2}.' -f $description,$cert.Thumbprint,$certPath)
                    $_
                } |
                Remove-Item
            return
        }

        Invoke-Command @invokeCommandParameters -ScriptBlock {
            [CmdletBinding()]
            param(
                [string]
                # The thumbprint of the certificate to remove.
                $Thumbprint,
        
                [Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.StoreLocation]
                # The location of the certificate's store.
                $StoreLocation,
        
                # The name of the certificate's store.
                $StoreName,

                [string]
                # The name of the non-standard, custom store where the certificate should be un-installed.
                $CustomStoreName
            )

            Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

            if( $CustomStoreName )
            {
                $storeNamePath = $CustomStoreName
            }
            else
            {
                $storeNamePath = $StoreName
                if( $StoreName -eq [Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.StoreName]::CertificateAuthority )
                {
                    $storeNamePath = 'CA'
                }
            }

            $certPath = Join-Path -Path 'Cert:\' -ChildPath $StoreLocation
            $certPath = Join-Path -Path $certPath -ChildPath $storeNamePath
            $certPath = Join-Path -Path $certPath -ChildPath $Thumbprint

            if( -not (Test-Path -Path $certPath -PathType Leaf) )
            {
                Write-Debug -Message ('Certificate {0} not found.' -f $certPath)
                return
            }

            $cert = Get-Item -Path $certPath

            if( $CustomStoreName )
            {
                $store = New-Object 'Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509Store' $CustomStoreName,$StoreLocation
            }
            else
            {
                $store = New-Object 'Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509Store' ([Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.StoreName]$StoreName),$StoreLocation
            }

            $store.Open( ([Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.OpenFlags]::ReadWrite) )

            try
            {
                $target = $cert.FriendlyName
                if( -not $target )
                {
                    $target = $cert.Subject
                }

                if( $PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess( ("certificate {0} ({1})" -f $certPath,$target), "remove" ) )
                {
                    Write-Verbose ('Uninstalling certificate ''{0}'' ({1}) at {2}.' -f $target,$cert.Thumbprint,$certPath)
                    $store.Remove( $cert )
                }
            }
            finally
            {
                $store.Close()
            }
        } -ArgumentList $Thumbprint,$StoreLocation,$StoreName,$CustomStoreName
    }
}

Set-Alias -Name 'Remove-Certificate' -Value 'Uninstall-CCertificate'




function Uninstall-CDirectory
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Removes a directory, if it exists.

    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Uninstall-CDirectory` function removes a directory. If the directory doesn't exist, it does nothing. If the directory has any files or sub-directories, you will be prompted to confirm the deletion of the directory and all its contents. To avoid the prompt, use the `-Recurse` switch.

    `Uninstall-CDirectory` was added in Carbon 2.1.0.

    .EXAMPLE
    Uninstall-CDirectory -Path 'C:\Projects\Carbon'

    Demonstrates how to remove/delete a directory. In this case, the directory `C:\Projects\Carbon` will be deleted, if it exists.

    .EXAMPLE
    Uninstall-CDirectory -Path 'C:\Projects\Carbon' -Recurse

    Demonstrates how to remove/delete a directory that has items in it. In this case, the directory `C:\Projects\Carbon` *and all of its files and sub-directories* will be deleted, if the directory exists.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The path to the directory to create.
        $Path,

        [Switch]
        # Delete the directory *and* everything under it.
        $Recurse
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( (Test-Path -Path $Path -PathType Container) )
    {
        Remove-Item -Path $Path -Recurse:$Recurse
    }
}



function Uninstall-CFileShare
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Uninstalls/removes a file share from the local computer.

    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Uninstall-CFileShare` function uses WMI to uninstall/remove a file share from the local computer, if it exists. If the file shares does not exist, no errors are written and nothing happens. The directory on the file system the share points to is not removed.

    `Uninstall-CFileShare` was added in Carbon 2.0.

    .LINK
    Get-CFileShare

    .LINK
    Get-CFileSharePermission

    .LINK
    Install-CFileShare

    .LINK
    Test-CFileShare

    .EXAMPLE
    Uninstall-CFileShare -Name 'CarbonShare'

    Demonstrates how to uninstall/remove a share from the local computer. If the share does not exist, `Uninstall-CFileShare` silently does nothing (i.e. it doesn't write an error).
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of a specific share to uninstall/delete. Wildcards accepted. If the string contains WMI sensitive characters, you'll need to escape them.
        $Name
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $errors = @{
                [uint32]2 = 'Access Denied';
                [uint32]8 = 'Unknown Failure';
                [uint32]9 = 'Invalid Name';
                [uint32]10 = 'Invalid Level';
                [uint32]21 = 'Invalid Parameter';
                [uint32]22 = 'Duplicate Share';
                [uint32]23 = 'Restricted Path';
                [uint32]24 = 'Unknown Device or Directory';
                [uint32]25 = 'Net Name Not Found';
            }

    if( -not (Test-CFileShare -Name $Name) )
    {
        return
    }

    Get-CFileShare -Name $Name |
        ForEach-Object { 
            $share = $_
            $deletePhysicalPath = $false
            if( -not (Test-Path -Path $share.Path -PathType Container) )
            {
                New-Item -Path $share.Path -ItemType 'Directory' -Force | Out-String | Write-Debug
                $deletePhysicalPath = $true
            }

            if( $PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess( ('{0} ({1})' -f $share.Name,$share.Path), 'delete' ) )
            {
                Write-Verbose ('Deleting file share ''{0}'' (Path: {1}).' -f $share.Name,$share.Path)
                $result = $share.Delete() 
                if( $result.ReturnValue )
                {
                    Write-Error ('Failed to delete share ''{0}'' (Path: {1}). Win32_Share.Delete() method returned error code {2} which means: {3}.' -f $Name,$share.Path,$result.ReturnValue,$errors[$result.ReturnValue])
                }
            }

            if( $deletePhysicalPath -and (Test-Path -Path $share.Path) )
            {
                Remove-Item -Path $share.Path -Force -Recurse
            }
        }
}




function Uninstall-CGroup
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Removes a *local* group.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Uninstall-CGroup` function removes a *local* group using .NET's [DirectoryServices.AccountManagement API](https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.directoryservices.accountmanagement.aspx). If the group doesn't exist, returns without doing any work or writing any errors.
    
    This function was added in Carbon 2.1.0.

    .LINK
    Add-CGroupMember

    .LINK
    Install-CGroup

    .LINK
    Remove-CGroupMember

    .LINK
    Test-CGroup

    .LINK
    Test-CGroupMember

    .INPUTS
    System.String

    .EXAMPLE
    Uninstall-WhsGroup -Name 'TestGroup1'
    
    Demonstrates how to uninstall a group. In this case, the `TestGroup1` group is removed.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param
    (
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [ValidateNotNullOrEmpty()]
        [String]
        # The name of the group to remove/uninstall.
        $Name
    )

	Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( -not (Test-CGroup -Name $Name) )
    {
        return
    }

    $group = Get-CGroup -Name $Name
    if( -not $group )
    {
        return
    }

    if( $PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess(('local group {0}' -f $Name), 'remove') )
    {
        Write-Verbose -Message ('[{0}]              -' -f $Name)
        $group.Delete()
    }

}



function Uninstall-CJunction
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Uninstall a junction.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Uninstall-CJunction` removes a junction that may or may not exist. If the junction exists, it is removed. If a junction doesn't exist, nothing happens.
    
    If the path to uninstall is not a direcory, you *will* see errors.

    `Uninstall-CJunction` is new in Carbon 2.0.

    Beginning in Carbon 2.2.0, you can uninstall junctions whose paths contain wildcard characters with the `LiteralPath` parameter.
    
    .LINK
    Install-CJunction

    .LINK
    New-CJunction

    .LINK
    Remove-CJunction

    .EXAMPLE
    Uninstall-CJunction -Path 'C:\I\Am\A\Junction'
    
    Uninstall the `C:\I\Am\A\Junction`
    
    .LINK
    Test-CPathIsJunction
    Remove-CJunction
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true,DefaultParameterSetName='Path')]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,Position=0,ParameterSetName='Path')]
        [string]
        # The path to the junction to remove. Wildcards supported.
        $Path,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='LiteralPath')]
        [string]
        # The literal path to the junction to remove. Use this parameter if the junction's path contains wildcard characters.
        #
        # This parameter was added in Carbon 2.2.0.
        $LiteralPath
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'Path' )
    {
        if( [Management.Automation.WildcardPattern]::ContainsWildcardCharacters($Path) )
        {
            Remove-CJunction -Path $Path
            return
        }

        $LiteralPath = $Path
    }

    if( (Test-Path -LiteralPath $LiteralPath) )
    {
        Remove-CJunction -LiteralPath $LiteralPath
    }
}




function Uninstall-CMsmqMessageQueue
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Removes an MSMQ queue.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Removes/deletes an existing MSMQ queue by name.  If a queue with that name doesn't exist, nothing happens.

    .EXAMPLE
    Uninstall-CMsmqMessageQueue -Name MovieQueue

    Removes the public `MovieQueue` queue.

    .EXAMPLE
    Uninstall-CMsmqMessageQueue -Name MovieCriticsQueue -Private

    Removes the private `MovieCriticsQueue` queue.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the queue to remove.
        $Name,
        
        [Switch]
        # Is this a private queue?
        $Private
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $commonArgs = @{ 'Name' = $Name ; 'Private' = $Private }
    
    if( -not (Test-CMsmqMessageQueue @commonArgs) )
    {
        return
    }
    
    if( $pscmdlet.ShouldProcess( "MSMQ Message Queue $Name", "remove" ) )
    {
        try
        {
            [Messaging.MessageQueue]::Delete( (Get-CMsmqMessageQueuePath @commonArgs) )
        }
        catch
        {
            Write-Error $_
            return
        }
        while( Test-CMsmqMessageQueue @commonArgs )
        {
            Start-Sleep -Milliseconds 100
        }
    }
}

Set-Alias -Name 'Remove-MsmqMessageQueue' -Value 'Uninstall-CMsmqMessageQueue'




function Uninstall-CPerformanceCounterCategory
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Removes an entire performance counter category.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Removes, with extreme prejudice, the performance counter category `CategoryName`.  All its performance counters are also deleted.  If the performance counter category doesn't exist, nothing happens.  I hope you have good backups!  

    .EXAMPLE
    Uninstall-CPerformanceCounterCategory -CategoryName 'ToyotaCamry'

    Removes the `ToyotaCamry` performance counter category and all its performance counters.  So sad!
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The performance counter's category name that should be deleted.
        $CategoryName
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( (Test-CPerformanceCounterCategory -CategoryName $CategoryName) )
    {
        if( $pscmdlet.ShouldProcess( $CategoryName, 'uninstall performance counter category' ) )
        {
            [Diagnostics.PerformanceCounterCategory]::Delete( $CategoryName )
        }
    }
}




function Uninstall-CScheduledTask
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Uninstalls a scheduled task on the current computer.

    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Uninstall-CScheduledTask` function uses `schtasks.exe` to uninstall a scheduled task on the current computer. If the task doesn't exist, nothing happens.

    .LINK
    Get-CScheduledTask

    .LINK
    Test-CScheduledTask

    .LINK
    Install-CScheduledTask

    .EXAMPLE
    Uninstall-CScheduledTask -Name 'doc' 

    Demonstrates how to delete a scheduled task named `doc`.

    .EXAMPLE
    Uninstall-CScheduledTask -Name 'doc' -Force

    Demonstrates how to delete a scheduled task that is currently running.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParameterSetName='AsBuiltinPrincipal')]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [Alias('TaskName')]
        [string]
        # The name of the scheduled task to uninstall.
        $Name
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $Name = Join-Path -Path '\' -ChildPath $Name

    $MAX_TRIES = 5
    $tryNum = 0
    do
    {
        if( -not (Test-CScheduledTask -Name $Name) )
        {
            Write-Verbose ('Scheduled task ''{0}'' not found.' -f $Name)
            return
        }

        $lastTry = (++$tryNum -ge $MAX_TRIES)
        Write-Verbose ('Deleting scheduled task ''{0}''.' -f $Name)
        $errFile = Join-Path -Path $env:TEMP -ChildPath ('Carbon+Uninstall-CScheduledTask+{0}' -f ([IO.Path]::GetRandomFileName()))
        schtasks.exe /delete /tn $Name '/F' 2> $errFile | ForEach-Object { 
            if( $_ -match '\bERROR\b' )
            {
                if( $lastTry -or $err -notmatch 'The function attempted to use a name that is reserved for use by another transaction' )
                {
                    Write-Error $_
                }
            }
            elseif( $_ -match '\bWARNING\b' )
            {
                Write-Warning $_
            }
            else
            {
                Write-Verbose $_
            }
        }

        if( $LASTEXITCODE )
        {
            $err = (Get-Content -Path $errFile) -join ([Environment]::NewLine)
            if( -not $lastTry -and $err -match 'The function attempted to use a name that is reserved for use by another transaction' )
            {
                if( $Global:Error.Count -gt 0 )
                {
                    $Global:Error.RemoveAt(0)
                }
                if( $Global:Error.Count -gt 0 )
                {
                    $Global:Error.RemoveAt(0)
                }                    
                Write-Verbose ('Failed to delete scheduled task ''{0}'' (found ''The function attempted to use a name that is reserved for use by another transaction.'' error). Retrying (attempt #{1}).' -f $Name,$tryNum)
                Start-Sleep -Milliseconds 100
                continue
            }

            Write-Error $err
            break
        }
    }
    while( $true -and -not $lastTry)
}



function Uninstall-CService
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Removes/deletes a service.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Removes an existing Windows service.  If the service doesn't exist, nothing happens.  The service is stopped before being deleted, so that the computer doesn't need to be restarted for the removal to complete. 

    Beginning in Carbon 2.7, if the service's process is still running after the service is stopped (some services don't behave nicely) and the service is only running one process, `Uninstall-CService` will kill the service's process. This helps prevent requiring a reboot. If you want to give the service time to 

    .LINK
    Carbon_Service

    .LINK
    Install-CService

    .EXAMPLE
    Uninstall-CService -Name DeathStar

    Removes the Death Star Windows service.  It is destro..., er, stopped first, then destro..., er, deleted.  If only the rebels weren't using Linux!
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The service name to delete.
        $Name,

        [timespan]
        # The amount of time to wait for the service to stop before attempting to kill it. The default is not to wait.
        #
        # This parameter was added in Carbon 2.7.
        $StopTimeout
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $service = Get-Service | Where-Object { $_.Name -eq $Name }
    $sc = Join-Path -Path $env:WinDir -ChildPath 'system32\sc.exe' -Resolve

    if( -not $service )
    {
        return
    }

    $origVerbosePref = $VerbosePreference
    $VerbosePreference = 'SilentlyContinue'
    $cimService = Get-CimInstance 'Win32_Service' -Filter ('Name = ''{0}''' -f $service.Name)
    $cimServiceProcessCount = 0
    if( $cimService )
    {
        $cimServiceProcessCount = Get-CimInstance 'Win32_Service' -Filter ('ProcessId = ''{0}''' -f $cimService.ProcessId) |
                                            Measure-Object |
                                            Select-Object -ExpandProperty 'Count'
    }
    $VerbosePreference = $origVerbosePref

    if( -not $pscmdlet.ShouldProcess( "service '$Name'", "remove" ) )
    {
        return
    }

    Stop-Service $Name
    if( $cimService -and $cimServiceProcessCount -eq 1 )
    {
        $process = Get-Process -Id $cimService.ProcessId -ErrorAction Ignore
        if( $process )
        {
            $killService = $true
            if( $StopTimeout )
            {
                Write-Verbose -Message ('[Uninstall-CService]  [{0}]  Waiting "{1}" second(s) for service process "{2}" to exit.' -f $Name,$StopTimeout.TotalSeconds,$process.Id)
                $killService = -not $process.WaitForExit($StopTimeout.TotalMilliseconds)
            }

            if( $killService )
            {
                $attemptNum = 0
                $maxAttempts = 100
                $killed = $false
                while( $attemptNum++ -lt $maxAttempts )
                {
                    Write-Verbose -Message ('[Uninstall-CService]  [{0}]  [Attempt {1,3} of {2}]  Killing service process "{3}".' -f $Name,$attemptNum,$maxAttempts,$process.Id)
                    Stop-Process -Id $process.Id -Force -ErrorAction Ignore
                    if( -not (Get-Process -Id $process.Id -ErrorAction Ignore) )
                    {
                        $killed = $true
                        break
                    }
                    Start-Sleep -Milliseconds 100
                }
                if( -not $killed )
                {
                    Write-Error -Message ('Failed to kill "{0}" service process "{1}".' -f $Name,$process.Id) -ErrorAction $ErrorActionPreference
                }
            }
        }
    }


    Write-Verbose -Message ('[Uninstall-CService]  [{0}]  {1} delete {0}' -f $Name,$sc)
    $output = & $sc delete $Name
    if( $LASTEXITCODE )
    {
        if( $LASTEXITCODE -eq 1072 )
        {
            Write-Warning -Message ('The {0} service is marked for deletion and will be removed during the next reboot.{1}{2}' -f $Name,([Environment]::NewLine),($output -join ([Environment]::NewLine)))
        }
        else
        {
            Write-Error -Message ('Failed to uninstall {0} service (returned non-zero exit code {1}):{2}{3}' -f $Name,$LASTEXITCODE,([Environment]::NewLine),($output -join ([Environment]::NewLine)))
        }
    }
    else
    {
        $output | Write-Verbose
    }
}

Set-Alias -Name 'Remove-Service' -Value 'Uninstall-CService'




function Uninstall-CUser
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Removes a user from the local computer.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Removes a *local* user account.  If the account doesn't exist, nothing happens.

    .LINK
    Get-CUser

    .LINK
    Install-CUser

    .LINK
    Test-CUser

    .LINK
    Uninstall-CUser

    .EXAMPLE
    Uninstall-CUser -Username WTarkin

    Removes the `WTarkin` *local* user account.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [ValidateLength(1,20)]
        [string]
        # The username of the account to remove.
        $Username
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    
    if( Test-CUser -Username $username )
    {
        $user = Get-CUser -Username $Username
        try
        {
            if( $pscmdlet.ShouldProcess( $Username, "remove local user" ) )
            {
                $user.Delete()
            }
        }
        finally
        {
            $user.Dispose()
        }
    }
}

Set-Alias -Name 'Remove-User' -Value 'Uninstall-CUser'




# This function should only be available if the Windows PowerShell v3.0 Server Manager cmdlets aren't already installed.
if( -not (Get-Command -Name 'Get-WindowsFeature*' | Where-Object { $_.ModuleName -ne 'Carbon' }) )
{
    function Uninstall-CWindowsFeature
    {
        <#
        .SYNOPSIS
        Uninstalls optional Windows components/features.

        .DESCRIPTION
        The names of the features are different on different versions of Windows.  For a list, run `Get-WindowsService`.

        Feature names are case-sensitive.  If a feature is already uninstalled, nothing happens.
        
        **This function is not available on Windows 8/2012.**
        
        .LINK
        Get-CWindowsFeature
        
        .LINK
        Install-WindowsService
        
        .LINK
        Test-WindowsService

        .EXAMPLE
        Uninstall-CWindowsFeature -Name TelnetClient,TFTP

        Uninstalls Telnet and TFTP.

        .EXAMPLE
        Uninstall-CWindowsFeature -Iis

        Uninstalls IIS.
        #>
        [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true,DefaultParameterSetName='ByName')]
        param(
            [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ByName')]
            [string[]]
            # The names of the components to uninstall/disable.  Feature names are case-sensitive.  To get a list, run `Get-CWindowsFeature`.
            [Alias('Features')]
            $Name,
            
            [Parameter(ParameterSetName='ByFlag')]
            [Switch]
            # Uninstalls IIS.
            $Iis,
            
            [Parameter(ParameterSetName='ByFlag')]
            [Switch]
            # Uninstalls IIS's HTTP redirection feature.
            $IisHttpRedirection,
            
            [Parameter(ParameterSetName='ByFlag')]
            [Switch]
            # Uninstalls MSMQ.
            $Msmq,
            
            [Parameter(ParameterSetName='ByFlag')]
            [Switch]
            # Uninstalls MSMQ HTTP support.
            $MsmqHttpSupport,
            
            [Parameter(ParameterSetName='ByFlag')]
            [Switch]
            # Uninstalls MSMQ Active Directory Integration.
            $MsmqActiveDirectoryIntegration
        )
        
        Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
        Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

        Write-Warning -Message ('Uninstall-CWindowsFeature is obsolete and will be removed in a future major version of Carbon.')
    
        if( -not (Assert-WindowsFeatureFunctionsSupported) )
        {
            return
        }
        
        if( $pscmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'ByFlag' )
        {
            $Name = Resolve-WindowsFeatureName -Name $PSBoundParameters.Keys
        }
        
        $featuresToUninstall = $Name | 
                                    ForEach-Object {
                                        if( (Test-CWindowsFeature -Name $_) )
                                        {
                                            $_
                                        }
                                        else
                                        {
                                            Write-Error ('Windows feature ''{0}'' not found.' -f $_)
                                        }
                                    } |
                                    Where-Object { Test-CWindowsFeature -Name $_ -Installed }
        
        if( -not $featuresToUninstall -or $featuresToUninstall.Length -eq 0 )
        {
            return
        }
            
        if( $pscmdlet.ShouldProcess( "Windows feature(s) '$featuresToUninstall'", "uninstall" ) )
        {
            if( $useServerManager )
            {
                & servermanagercmd.exe -remove $featuresToUninstall
            }
            else
            {
                $featuresArg = $featuresToUninstall -join ';'
                & ocsetup.exe $featuresArg /uninstall
                $ocsetup = Get-Process 'ocsetup' -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue
                if( -not $ocsetup )
                {
                    Write-Error "Unable to find process 'ocsetup'.  It looks like the Windows Optional Component setup program didn't start."
                    return
                }
                $ocsetup.WaitForExit()
            }
        }
    }

    Set-Alias -Name 'Uninstall-WindowsFeatures' -Value 'Uninstall-CWindowsFeature'
    Set-Alias -Name 'Uninstall-WindowsFeature' -Value 'Uninstall-CWindowsFeature'
}



filter Unprotect-CString
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Decrypts a string.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    `Unprotect-CString` decrypts a string encrypted via the Data Protection API (DPAPI), RSA, or AES. It uses the DP/RSA APIs to decrypted the secret into an array of bytes, which is then converted to a UTF8 string. Beginning with Carbon 2.0, after conversion, the decrypted array of bytes is cleared in memory.

    Also beginning in Carbon 2.0, use the `AsSecureString` switch to cause `Unprotect-CString` to return the decrypted string as a `System.Security.SecureString`, thus preventing your secret from hanging out in memory. When converting to a secure string, the secret is decrypted to an array of bytes, and then converted to an array of characters. Each character is appended to the secure string, after which it is cleared in memory. When the conversion is complete, the decrypted byte array is also cleared out in memory.

    `Unprotect-CString` can decrypt using the following techniques.

    ## DPAPI

    This is the default. The string must have also been encrypted with the DPAPI. The string must have been encrypted at the current user's scope or the local machine scope.

    ## RSA

    RSA is an assymetric encryption/decryption algorithm, which requires a public/private key pair. It uses a private key to decrypt a secret encrypted with the public key. Only the private key can decrypt secrets. `Protect-CString` decrypts with .NET's `System.Security.Cryptography.RSACryptoServiceProvider` class.

    You can specify the private key in three ways: 
    
     * with a `System.Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509Certificate2` object, via the `Certificate` parameter
     * with a certificate in one of the Windows certificate stores, passing its unique thumbprint via the `Thumbprint` parameter, or via the `PrivateKeyPath` parameter, which can be a certificat provider path, e.g. it starts with `cert:\`.
     * with an X509 certificate file, via the `PrivateKeyPath` parameter
   
    ## AES

    AES is a symmetric encryption/decryption algorithm. You supply a 16-, 24-, or 32-byte key, password, or passphrase with the `Key` parameter, and that key is used to decrypt. You must decrypt with the same key you used to encrypt. `Unprotect-CString` decrypts with .NET's `System.Security.Cryptography.AesCryptoServiceProvider` class.

    Symmetric encryption requires a random, unique initialization vector (i.e. IV) everytime you encrypt something. If you encrypted your original string with Carbon's `Protect-CString` function, that IV was pre-pended to the encrypted secret. If you encrypted the secret yourself, you'll need to ensure the original IV is pre-pended to the protected string.

    The help topic for `Protect-CString` demonstrates how to generate an AES key and how to encode it as a base-64 string.

    The ability to decrypt with AES was added in Carbon 2.3.0.
    
    .LINK
    New-CRsaKeyPair
        
    .LINK
    Protect-CString

    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.security.cryptography.protecteddata.aspx

    .EXAMPLE
    PS> $password = Unprotect-CString -ProtectedString  $encryptedPassword
    
    Decrypts a protected string which was encrypted at the current user or default scopes using the DPAPI. The secret must have been encrypted at the current user's scope or at the local computer's scope.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Protect-CString -String 'NotSoSecretSecret' -ForUser | Unprotect-CString
    
    Demonstrates how Unprotect-CString takes input from the pipeline.  Adds 'NotSoSecretSecret' to the pipeline.

    .EXAMPLE
    Unprotect-CString -ProtectedString $ciphertext -Certificate $myCert

    Demonstrates how to encrypt a secret using RSA with a `System.Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509Certificate2` object. You're responsible for creating/loading it. The `New-CRsaKeyPair` function will create a key pair for you, if you've got a Windows SDK installed.

    .EXAMPLE
    Unprotect-CString -ProtectedString $ciphertext -Thumbprint '44A7C27F3353BC53F82318C14490D7E2500B6D9E'

    Demonstrates how to decrypt a secret using RSA with a certificate in one of the Windows certificate stores. All local machine and user stores are searched. The current user must have permission/access to the certificate's private key.

    .EXAMPLE
    Unprotect -ProtectedString $ciphertext -PrivateKeyPath 'C:\Projects\Security\publickey.cer'

    Demonstrates how to encrypt a secret using RSA with a certificate file. The file must be loadable by the `System.Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509Certificate` class.

    .EXAMPLE
    Unprotect -ProtectedString $ciphertext -PrivateKeyPath 'cert:\LocalMachine\My\44A7C27F3353BC53F82318C14490D7E2500B6D9E'

    Demonstrates how to encrypt a secret using RSA with a certificate in the store, giving its exact path.

    .EXAMPLE
    Unprotect-CString -ProtectedString 'dNC+yiKdSMAsG2Y3DA6Jzozesie3ZToQT24jB4CU/9eCGEozpiS5MR7R8s3L+PWV' -Key 'gT4XPfvcJmHkQ5tYjY3fNgi7uwG4FB9j'

    Demonstrates how to decrypt a secret that was encrypted with a key, password, or passphrase. In this case, we are decrypting with a plaintext password. This functionality was added in Carbon 2.3.0.

    .EXAMPLE
    Unprotect-CString -ProtectedString '19hNiwW0mmYHRlbk65GnSH2VX7tEziazZsEXvOzZIyCT69pp9HLf03YBVYGfg788' -Key (Read-Host -Prompt 'Enter password (must be 16, 24, or 32 characters long):' -AsSecureString)

    Demonstrates how to decrypt a secret that was encrypted with a key, password, or passphrase. In this case, we are prompting the user for the password. This functionality was added in Carbon 2.3.0.

    .EXAMPLE
    Unprotect-CString -ProtectedString 'Mpu90IhBq9NseOld7VO3akcJX+nCIZmJv8rz8qfyn7M9m26owetJVzAfhFr0w0Vj' -Key ([byte[]]@(163,163,185,174,205,55,157,219,121,146,251,116,43,203,63,38,73,154,230,112,82,112,151,29,189,135,254,187,164,104,45,30))

    Demonstrates how to decrypt a secret that was encrypted with a key, password, or passphrase as an array of bytes. This functionality was added in Carbon 2.3.0.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParameterSetName='DPAPI')]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory = $true, Position=0, ValueFromPipeline = $true)]
        [string]
        # The text to decrypt.
        $ProtectedString,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='RSAByCertificate')]
        [Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509Certificate2]
        # The private key to use for decrypting.
        $Certificate,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='RSAByThumbprint')]
        [string]
        # The thumbprint of the certificate, found in one of the Windows certificate stores, to use when decrypting. All certificate stores are searched. The current user must have permission to the private key.
        $Thumbprint,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='RSAByPath')]
        [string]
        # The path to the private key to use for encrypting. Must be to an `X509Certificate2` file or a certificate in a certificate store.
        $PrivateKeyPath,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='RSAByPath')]
        # The password for the private key, if it has one. It really should. Can be a `[string]` or a `[securestring]`.
        $Password,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='RSAByCertificate')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='RSAByThumbprint')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='RSAByPath')]
        [Switch]
        # If true, uses Direct Encryption (PKCS#1 v1.5) padding. Otherwise (the default), uses OAEP (PKCS#1 v2) padding. See [Encrypt](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.security.cryptography.rsacryptoserviceprovider.encrypt(v=vs.110).aspx) for information.
        $UseDirectEncryptionPadding,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='Symmetric')]
        [object]
        # The key to use to decrypt the secret. Must be a `SecureString`, `string`, or an array of bytes.
        $Key,

        [Switch]
        # Returns the unprotected string as a secure string. The original decrypted bytes are zeroed out to limit the memory exposure of the decrypted secret, i.e. the decrypted secret will never be in a `string` object.
        $AsSecureString
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    
    Add-Type -AssemblyName 'System.Security'
    
    [byte[]]$encryptedBytes = [Convert]::FromBase64String($ProtectedString)
    if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'DPAPI' )
    {
        $decryptedBytes = [Security.Cryptography.ProtectedData]::Unprotect( $encryptedBytes, $null, 0 )
    }
    elseif( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -like 'RSA*' )
    {
        if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -like '*ByPath' )
        {
            $passwordParam = @{ }
            if( $Password )
            {
                $passwordParam = @{ Password = $Password }
            }
            $Certificate = Get-CCertificate -Path $PrivateKeyPath @passwordParam
            if( -not $Certificate )
            {
                return
            }
        }
        elseif( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -like '*ByThumbprint' )
        {
            $certificates = Get-ChildItem -Path ('cert:\*\*\{0}' -f $Thumbprint) -Recurse 
            if( -not $certificates )
            {
                Write-Error ('Certificate ''{0}'' not found.' -f $Thumbprint)
                return
            }

            $Certificate = $certificates | Where-Object { $_.HasPrivateKey } | Select-Object -First 1
            if( -not $Certificate )
            {
                Write-Error ('Certificate ''{0}'' ({1}) doesn''t have a private key.' -f $certificates[0].Subject, $Thumbprint)
                return
            }
        }

        if( -not $Certificate.HasPrivateKey )
        {
            Write-Error ('Certificate ''{0}'' ({1}) doesn''t have a private key. When decrypting with RSA, secrets are encrypted with the public key, and decrypted with a private key.' -f $Certificate.Subject,$Certificate.Thumbprint)
            return
        }

        if( -not $Certificate.PrivateKey )
        {
            Write-Error ('Certificate ''{0}'' ({1}) has a private key, but it is currently null or not set. This usually means your certificate was imported or generated incorrectly. Make sure you''ve generated an RSA public/private key pair and are using the private key. If the private key is in the Windows certificate stores, make sure it was imported correctly (`Get-ChildItem $pathToCert | Select-Object -Expand PrivateKey` isn''t null).' -f $Certificate.Subject,$Certificate.Thumbprint)
            return
        }

        [Security.Cryptography.RSACryptoServiceProvider]$privateKey = $null
        if( $Certificate.PrivateKey -isnot [Security.Cryptography.RSACryptoServiceProvider] )
        {
            Write-Error ('Certificate ''{0}'' (''{1}'') is not an RSA key. Found a private key of type ''{2}'', but expected type ''{3}''.' -f $Certificate.Subject,$Certificate.Thumbprint,$Certificate.PrivateKey.GetType().FullName,[Security.Cryptography.RSACryptoServiceProvider].FullName)
            return
        }

        try
        {
            $privateKey = $Certificate.PrivateKey
            $decryptedBytes = $privateKey.Decrypt( $encryptedBytes, (-not $UseDirectEncryptionPadding) )
        }
        catch
        {
            if( $_.Exception.Message -match 'Error occurred while decoding OAEP padding' )
            {
                [int]$maxLengthGuess = ($privateKey.KeySize - (2 * 160 - 2)) / 8
                Write-Error (@'
Failed to decrypt string using certificate '{0}' ({1}). This can happen when:
 * The string to decrypt is too long because the original string you encrypted was at or near the maximum allowed by your key's size, which is {2} bits. We estimate the maximum string size you can encrypt is {3} bytes. You may get this error even if the original encrypted string is within a couple bytes of that maximum.
 * The string was encrypted with a different key
 * The string isn't encrypted

{4}: {5}
'@ -f $Certificate.Subject, $Certificate.Thumbprint,$privateKey.KeySize,$maxLengthGuess,$_.Exception.GetType().FullName,$_.Exception.Message)
                return
            }
            elseif( $_.Exception.Message -match '(Bad Data|The parameter is incorrect)\.' )
            {
                Write-Error (@'
Failed to decrypt string using certificate '{0}' ({1}). This usually happens when the padding algorithm used when encrypting/decrypting is different. Check the `-UseDirectEncryptionPadding` switch is the same for both calls to `Protect-CString` and `Unprotect-CString`.

{2}: {3}
'@ -f $Certificate.Subject,$Certificate.Thumbprint,$_.Exception.GetType().FullName,$_.Exception.Message)
                return
            }
            Write-Error -Exception $_.Exception
            return
        }
    }
    elseif( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'Symmetric' )
    {
        $Key = ConvertTo-Key -InputObject $Key -From 'Unprotect-CString'
        if( -not $Key )
        {
            return
        }
                
        $aes = New-Object 'Security.Cryptography.AesCryptoServiceProvider'
        try
        {
            $aes.Padding = [Security.Cryptography.PaddingMode]::PKCS7
            $aes.KeySize = $Key.Length * 8
            $aes.Key = $Key
            $iv = New-Object 'Byte[]' $aes.IV.Length
            [Array]::Copy($encryptedBytes,$iv,16)

            $encryptedBytes = $encryptedBytes[16..($encryptedBytes.Length - 1)]
            $encryptedStream = New-Object 'IO.MemoryStream' (,$encryptedBytes)
            try
            {
                $decryptor = $aes.CreateDecryptor($aes.Key, $iv)
                try
                {
                    $cryptoStream = New-Object 'Security.Cryptography.CryptoStream' $encryptedStream,$decryptor,([Security.Cryptography.CryptoStreamMode]::Read)
                    try
                    {
                        $decryptedBytes = New-Object 'byte[]' ($encryptedBytes.Length)
                        [void]$cryptoStream.Read($decryptedBytes, 0, $decryptedBytes.Length)
                    }
                    finally
                    {
                        $cryptoStream.Dispose()
                    }
                }
                finally
                {
                    $decryptor.Dispose()
                }

            }
            finally
            {
                $encryptedStream.Dispose()
            }
        }
        finally
        {
            $aes.Dispose()
        }
    }

    try
    {
        if( $AsSecureString )
        {
            $secureString = New-Object 'Security.SecureString'
            [char[]]$chars = [Text.Encoding]::UTF8.GetChars( $decryptedBytes )
            for( $idx = 0; $idx -lt $chars.Count ; $idx++ )
            {
                $secureString.AppendChar( $chars[$idx] )
                $chars[$idx] = 0
            }

            $secureString.MakeReadOnly()
            return $secureString
        }
        else
        {
            [Text.Encoding]::UTF8.GetString( $decryptedBytes )
        }
    }
    finally
    {
        [Array]::Clear( $decryptedBytes, 0, $decryptedBytes.Length )
    }
}




function Write-CDscError
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Writes DSC errors out as errors.

    .DESCRIPTION
    The Local Configuration Manager (LCM) applies configuration in a separate process space as a background service which writes its errors to the `Microsoft-Windows-DSC/Operational` event log. This function is intended to be used with `Get-CDscError`, and will write errors returned by that function as PowerShell errors.

    `Write-CDscError` is new in Carbon 2.0.

    .OUTPUTS
    System.Diagnostics.Eventing.Reader.EventLogRecord

    .LINK
    Get-CDscError

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CDscError | Write-CDscError

    Demonstrates how `Write-CDscError` is intended to be used. `Get-CDscError` gets the appropriate event objects that `Write-CDscError` writes out.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    [OutputType([Diagnostics.Eventing.Reader.EventLogRecord])]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ValueFromPipeline=$true)]
        [Diagnostics.Eventing.Reader.EventLogRecord[]]
        # The error record to write out as an error.
        $EventLogRecord,

        [Switch]
        # Return the event log record after writing an error.
        $PassThru
    )

    process
    {
        Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

        Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

        foreach( $record in $EventLogRecord )
        {
            [string[]]$property = $record.Properties | Select-Object -ExpandProperty Value

            $message = $property[-1]

            Write-Error -Message ('[{0}] [{1}] [{2}] {3}' -f $record.TimeCreated,$record.MachineName,($property[0..($property.Count - 2)] -join '] ['),$message)

            if( $PassThru )
            {
                return $record
            }
        }
    }
}



function Write-CFile
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Writes text to a file, retrying if the write fails.

    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Write-CFile` function writes text file to a file, and will retry if the write fails. Use this function if you need to write text files that can be intermittently locked, like the Windows hosts file. 
    
    By default, it will retry 30 times, waiting 100 milliseconds between each try. You can control the number of retries and the wait between retries with the `MaximumTries` and `RetryDelayMilliseconds` parameters, respectively.

    All errors raised while trying to write the file are ignored, except the error raised on the last try.

    This function was introduced in Carbon 2.2.0.

    .EXAMPLE
    $lines | Write-CFile -Path 'C:\Path\to\my\file'

    Demonstrates how to write lines to a text file using the pipeline.

    .EXAMPLE
    Write-CFile -Path 'C:\Path\to\my\file' -InputObject $lines

    Demonstrates how to write lines to a text file using a variable.

    .EXAMPLE
    $lines | Write-CFile -Path 'C:\Path\to\my\file' -MaximumRetries 10 -RetryDelayMilliseconds 1000

    Demonstrates how to control how long to retry writing the text file. In this case, `Write-CFile` will try 10 times, waiting one second between tries.

    .EXAMPLE
    $lines | Write-CFile -Path 'C:\Path\to\my\file' -ErrorVariable 'writeErrors'

    Demonstrates how to check if the write failed. In this case, errors are copied to a 'writeErrors' variable, so you would check if this error variable has any items.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        # The path to the file to read.
        $Path,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ValueFromPipeline=$true)]
        [AllowEmptyCollection()]
        [AllowEmptyString()]
        # The contents of the file
        [string[]]$InputObject,

        # The number of tries before giving up reading the file. The default is 100.
        [int]$MaximumTries = 100,

        # The number of milliseconds to wait between tries. Default is 100 milliseconds.
        [int]$RetryDelayMilliseconds = 100
    )

    begin
    {
        Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
        Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

        Write-Timing ('Write-CFile  BEGIN')

        $Path = Resolve-Path -Path $Path
        if( -not $Path )
        {
            return
        }

        $tryNum = 0
        $newLineBytes = [Text.Encoding]::UTF8.GetBytes([Environment]::NewLine)

        [IO.FileStream]$fileWriter = $null

        if( -not $PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess($Path,'write') )
        {
            return
        }

        while( $tryNum++ -lt $MaximumTries )
        {
            $lastTry = $tryNum -eq $MaximumTries

            $numErrorsBefore = $Global:Error.Count
            try
            {
                $fileWriter = New-Object 'IO.FileStream' ($Path,[IO.FileMode]::Create,[IO.FileAccess]::Write,[IO.FileShare]::None,4096,$false)
                break
            }
            catch 
            {
                $numErrorsAfter = $Global:Error.Count
                $numErrors = $numErrorsAfter - $numErrorsBefore
                for( $idx = 0; $idx -lt $numErrors; ++$idx )
                {
                    $Global:Error.RemoveAt(0)
                }

                if( $lastTry )
                {
                    Write-Error -ErrorRecord $_
                }
                else
                {
                    Write-Timing ('Attempt {0,4} to open file "{1}" failed. Sleeping {2} milliseconds.' -f $tryNum,$Path,$RetryDelayMilliseconds)
                    Start-Sleep -Milliseconds $RetryDelayMilliseconds
                }
            }
        }
    }

    process
    {
        Write-Timing ('Write-CFile  PROCESS')
        if( -not $fileWriter )
        {
            return
        }

        foreach( $item in $InputObject )
        {
            [byte[]]$bytes = [Text.Encoding]::UTF8.GetBytes($item)
            $fileWriter.Write($bytes,0,$bytes.Length)
            $fileWriter.Write($newLineBytes,0,$newLineBytes.Length)
        }
    }

    end
    {
        if( $fileWriter )
        {
            $fileWriter.Close()
            $fileWriter.Dispose()
        }
        Write-Timing ('Write-CFile  END')
    }
}



if( $exportIisFunctions )
{
    Write-Timing ('Dot-sourcing IIS functions.')
    Get-ChildItem -Path $functionRoot -Filter '*Iis*.ps1' |
        ForEach-Object { . $_.FullName }
        
    if( -not (Test-CTypeDataMember -TypeName 'Microsoft.Web.Administration.Site' -MemberName 'PhysicalPath') )
    {
        Write-Timing ('Updating Microsoft.Web.Administration.Site type data.')
        Update-TypeData -TypeName 'Microsoft.Web.Administration.Site' -MemberType ScriptProperty -MemberName 'PhysicalPath' -Value { 
                $this.Applications |
                    Where-Object { $_.Path -eq '/' } |
                    Select-Object -ExpandProperty VirtualDirectories |
                    Where-Object { $_.Path -eq '/' } |
                    Select-Object -ExpandProperty PhysicalPath
            }
    }

    if( -not (Test-CTypeDataMember -TypeName 'Microsoft.Web.Administration.Application' -MemberName 'PhysicalPath') )
    {
        Write-Timing ('Updating Microsoft.Web.Administration.Application type data.')
        Update-TypeData -TypeName 'Microsoft.Web.Administration.Application' -MemberType ScriptProperty -MemberName 'PhysicalPath' -Value { 
                $this.VirtualDirectories |
                    Where-Object { $_.Path -eq '/' } |
                    Select-Object -ExpandProperty PhysicalPath
            }
    }
}



if( $IsWindows -and [Environment]::Is64BitOperatingSystem -and [Environment]::Is64BitProcess ) 
{
    Write-Timing ('Dot-sourcing Initialize-Lcm.ps1')
    . (Join-Path -Path $functionRoot -ChildPath 'Initialize-Lcm.ps1')
}



# Extended Type
if( -not (Test-CTypeDataMember -TypeName 'System.IO.FileInfo' -MemberName 'GetCarbonFileInfo') )
{
    Write-Timing ('Updating System.IO.FileInfo type data (GetCarbonFileInfo).')
    Update-TypeData -TypeName 'System.IO.FileInfo' -MemberType ScriptMethod -MemberName 'GetCarbonFileInfo' -Value {
        param(
            [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
            [string]
            # The name of the Carbon file info property to get.
            $Name
        )

        Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

        if( -not $this.Exists )
        {
            return
        }

        if( -not ($this | Get-Member -Name 'CarbonFileInfo') )
        {
            $this | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name 'CarbonFileInfo' -Value (New-Object 'Carbon.IO.FileInfo' $this.FullName)
        }

        if( $this.CarbonFileInfo | Get-Member -Name $Name )
        {
            return $this.CarbonFileInfo.$Name
        }
    }
}

if( -not (Test-CTypeDataMember -TypeName 'System.IO.FileInfo' -MemberName 'FileIndex') )
{
    Write-Timing ('Updating System.IO.FileInfo type data (FileIndex).')
    Update-TypeData -TypeName 'System.IO.FileInfo' -MemberType ScriptProperty -MemberName 'FileIndex' -Value {
        Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
        return $this.GetCarbonFileInfo( 'FileIndex' )
    }
}

if( -not (Test-CTypeDataMember -TypeName 'System.IO.FileInfo' -MemberName 'LinkCount') )
{
    Write-Timing ('Updating System.IO.FileInfo type data (LinkCount).')
    Update-TypeData -TypeName 'System.IO.FileInfo' -MemberType ScriptProperty -MemberName 'LinkCount' -Value {
        Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
        return $this.GetCarbonFileInfo( 'LinkCount' )
    }
}

if( -not (Test-CTypeDataMember -TypeName 'System.IO.FileInfo' -MemberName 'VolumeSerialNumber') )
{
    Write-Timing ('Updating System.IO.FileInfo type data (ColumeSerialNumber).')
    Update-TypeData -TypeName 'System.IO.FileInfo' -MemberType ScriptProperty -MemberName 'VolumeSerialNumber' -Value {
        Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
        return $this.GetCarbonFileInfo( 'VolumeSerialNumber' )
    }
}

Write-Timing ('Testing the module manifest.')
try
{
    $module = Test-ModuleManifest -Path (Join-Path -Path $PSScriptRoot -ChildPath 'Carbon.psd1' -Resolve)
    if( -not $module )
    {
        return
    }

    Write-Timing ('Creating aliases.')
    [string[]]$functionNames = $module.ExportedFunctions.Keys
    foreach( $functionName in $functionNames )
    {
        if( $functionName -match '(Get|Install|Uninstall)-CWindowsFeature' )
        {
            continue
        }

        $oldFunctionName = $functionName -replace '-C','-'
        Set-Alias -Name $oldFunctionName -Value $functionName
    }

    Write-Timing ('Exporting module members.')
    Export-ModuleMember -Alias '*' -Function $functionNames
}
finally
{
    Write-Timing ('DONE')
}
Carbon\Carbon.types.ps1xml
 
Carbon\DscResources\Carbon_EnvironmentVariable\Carbon_EnvironmentVariable.psm1
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
# 
#     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
# 
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.

& (Join-Path -Path $PSScriptRoot -ChildPath '..\Initialize-CarbonDscResource.ps1' -Resolve)

function Get-TargetResource
{
	[CmdletBinding()]
	[OutputType([Collections.Hashtable])]
	param
	(
		[Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
		[string]
        # The name of the environment variable.
		$Name,

		[string]
        # the value of the environment variable.        
		$Value,

		[ValidateSet("Present","Absent")]
		[string]
        # Create or delete the resource?
		$Ensure = 'Present'
	)
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    $actualValue = [Environment]::GetEnvironmentVariable($Name,[EnvironmentVariableTarget]::Machine)

    $Ensure = 'Present'
    if( $actualValue -eq $null )
    {
        $Ensure = 'Absent'
    }

    @{
        Name = $Name;
        Ensure = $Ensure;
        Value = $actualValue;
    }
}


function Set-TargetResource
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    DSC resource for managing environment variables.

    .DESCRIPTION
    The Carbon_EnvironmentVariable resource will add, update, or remove environment variables. The environment variable is set/removed at both the computer *and* process level, so that the process applying the DSC configuration will have access to the variable in later resources.

    `Carbon_EnvironmentVariable` is new in Carbon 2.0.

    .LINK
    Set-CEnvironmentVariable

    .EXAMPLE
    > 
    Demonstrates how to create or update an environment variable:

        Carbon_EnvironmentVariable SetCarbonEnv
        {
            Name = 'CARBON_ENV';
            Value = 'developer';
            Ensure = 'Present';
        }

    .EXAMPLE
    >
    Demonstrates how to remove an environment variable.
        
        Carbon_EnvironmentVariable RemoveCarbonEnv
        {
            Name = 'CARBON_ENV';
            Ensure = 'Absent';
        }

    #>
	[CmdletBinding()]
	param
	(
		[parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
		[string]
        # The name of the environment variable.
		$Name,

		[string]
        # The value of the environment variable.
		$Value,

		[ValidateSet("Present","Absent")]
		[string]
        # Set to `Present` to create the environment variable. Set to `Absent` to delete it.
		$Ensure = 'Present'
	)

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    if( $Ensure -eq 'Absent' )
    {
        Write-Verbose ('{0}: removing' -f $Name)
    }

    [Environment]::SetEnvironmentVariable($Name,$null,([EnvironmentVariableTarget]::Machine))
    [Environment]::SetEnvironmentVariable($Name,$null,([EnvironmentVariableTarget]::Process))

    if( $Ensure -eq 'Present' )
    {
        Write-Verbose ('{0}: setting' -f $Name)
        Set-CEnvironmentVariable -Name $Name -Value $Value -ForComputer -ForProcess
    }

}

function Test-TargetResource
{
	[CmdletBinding()]
	[OutputType([System.Boolean])]
	param
	(
		[parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
		[String]
		$Name,

		[String]
		$Value,

		[ValidateSet("Present","Absent")]
		[String]
		$Ensure = 'Present'
	)

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    $resource = $null
    $resource = Get-TargetResource -Name $Name

    if( $Ensure -eq 'Present' )
    {
        $result = ($resource.Value -eq $Value);
        if( $result )
        {
            Write-Verbose ('{0}: value OK' -f $Name)
        }
        else
        {
            Write-Verbose ('{0}: value differs' -f $Name)
        }
        return $result
    }
    else
    {
        $result = ($resource.Value -eq $null)
        if( $result )
        {
            Write-Verbose ('{0}: has no value' -f $Name)
        }
        else
        {
            Write-Verbose ('{0}: has a value' -f $Name) 
        }
        return $result
    }

    $false
}

Export-ModuleMember -Function '*-TargetResource'

Carbon\DscResources\Carbon_EnvironmentVariable\Carbon_EnvironmentVariable.schema.mof
 
Carbon\DscResources\Carbon_FirewallRule\Carbon_FirewallRule.psm1
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
# 
#     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
# 
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.

& (Join-Path -Path $PSScriptRoot -ChildPath '..\Initialize-CarbonDscResource.ps1' -Resolve)

function Get-TargetResource
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    [OutputType([Hashtable])]
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        $Name,

        [bool]
        $Enabled = $true,

        [ValidateSet('In','Out')]
        [string]
        $Direction,

        [ValidateSet('Any','Domain','Private','Public')]
        [string[]]
        $Profile = @( 'Any' ),

        [string]
        $LocalIPAddress = 'Any',

        [string]
        $LocalPort,

        [string]
        $RemoteIPAddress = 'Any',

        [string]
        $RemotePort,

        [string]
        $Protocol = 'Any',

        [ValidateSet('Yes', 'No', 'DeferUser','DeferApp')]
        [string]
        $EdgeTraversalPolicy = 'No',

        [ValidateSet('Allow','Block','Bypass')]
        [string]
        $Action,

        [ValidateSet('Any','Wireless','LAN','RAS')]
        [string]
        $InterfaceType = 'Any',

        [ValidateSet('NotRequired','Authenticate','AuthEnc','AuthDynEnc','AuthNoEncap')]
        [string]
        $Security = 'NotRequired',

        [string]
        $Description,

        [string]
        $Program,

        [string]
        $Service,

        [ValidateSet('Present','Absent')]
        [string]
        $Ensure = 'Present'
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    $rule = Get-CFirewallRule -LiteralName $Name
    if( $rule -is [object[]] )
    {
        Write-Error ('Found {0} firewall rules named ''{1}''.' -f $rule.Count,$Name)
        return
    }
    
    $resource = @{ 
                    'Action' = $Action;
                    'Description' = $Description;
                    'Direction' = $Direction;
                    'EdgeTraversalPolicy' = $EdgeTraversalPolicy
                    'Enabled' = $Enabled;
                    'Ensure' = 'Absent';
                    'InterfaceType' = $InterfaceType
                    'LocalIPAddress' = $LocalIPAddress;
                    'LocalPort' = $LocalPort;
                    'Name' = $Name;
                    'Profile' = $Profile;
                    'Program' = $Program;
                    'Protocol' = $Protocol;
                    'RemoteIPAddress' = $RemoteIPAddress;
                    'RemotePort' = $RemotePort;
                    'Security' = $Security;
                    'Service' = $Service;
                }

    if( $rule )
    {
        $propNames = $resource.Keys | ForEach-Object { $_ }
        $propNames | 
            Where-Object { $_ -ne 'Ensure' } |
            ForEach-Object { 
                $propName = $_
                switch( $propName )
                {
                    'Profile' { $value = $rule.Profile.ToString() -split ', ' }
                    'Enabled' { $value = $rule.Enabled }
                    default
                    {
                        $value = ($rule.$propName).ToString()
                    }
                }

                $resource[$propName] = $value
            }
        $resource.Ensure = 'Present'
    }

    return $resource
}
 
function Set-TargetResource
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    DSC resource for managing firewall rules.

    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Carbon_FirewallRule` resource manages firewall rules. It uses the `netsh advfirewall firewall` command. Please see [Netsh AdvFirewall Firewall Commands](http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd734783.aspx) or run `netsh advfirewall firewall set rule` for documentation on how to configure the firewall.

    When modifying existing rules, only properties you pass are updated/changed. All other properties are left as-is.

    `Carbon_FirewallRule` is new in Carbon 2.0.

    .LINK
    Get-CFirewallRule

    .LINK
    http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd734783.aspx

    .EXAMPLE
    >
    Demonstrates how to enable a firewall rule.

        Carbon_FirewallRule EnableHttpIn
        {
            Name = 'World Wide Web Services (HTTP Traffic-In)'
            Enabled = $true;
            Ensure = 'Present'
        }

    .EXAMPLE
    >
    Demonstrates how to delete a firewall rule.

        Carbon_FirewallRule DeleteMyRule
        {
            Name = 'MyCustomRule';
            Ensure = 'Absent';
        }

    There may be multiple rules with the same name, so we recommend disabling rules instead.

    .EXAMPLE
    >
    Demonstrates how to create/modify an incoming firewall rule.

        Carbon_FirewallRule MyAppPorts
        {
            Name = 'My App Ports';
            Action = 'Allow';
            Direction = 'In';
            Protocol = 'tcp';
            LocalPort = '8080,8180';
            Ensure = 'Present';
        }
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the rule.
        $Name,

        [bool]
        # If `$true`, the rule is enabled. If `$false`, the rule is disabled.
        $Enabled = $true,

        [ValidateSet('In','Out')]
        [string]
        # If set to `In`, the rule applies to inbound network traffic. If set to `Out`, the rule applies to outbound traffic.
        $Direction,

        [ValidateSet('Any','Domain','Private','Public')]
        [string[]]
        # Specifies the profile(s) to which the firewall rule is assigned. The rule is active on the local computer only when the specified profile is currently active. Valid values are `Any`, `Domain`, `Public`, and `Private`.
        $Profile,

        [string]
        # The local IP addresses the rule applies to. Valid values are `any`, an exact IPv4 or IPv6 address, a subnet mask (e.g. 192.168.0.0/24), or a range. Separate each value with a comma; no spaces.
        $LocalIPAddress,

        [string]
        # The local port the rule applies to. Valid values are a specific port number, a range of port numbers (e.g. `5000-5010`), a comma-separate list of numbers and ranges, `any`, `rpc`, `rpc-epmap`, `Teredo`, and `iphttps`.
        $LocalPort,

        [string]
        # The remote IP addresses the rules applies to. Valid values are `any`, an exact IPv4 or IPv6 address, a subnet mask (e.g. 192.168.0.0/24), or a range. Separate each value with a comma; no spaces.
        $RemoteIPAddress,

        [string]
        # The remote port the rule applies to. Valid values are a specific port number, a range of port numbers (e.g. `5000-5010`), a comma-separate list of numbers and ranges, `any`, `rpc`, `rpc-epmap`, `Teredo`, and `iphttps`.
        $RemotePort,

        [string]
        # The protocol the rule applies to. Valid values are `any`, the protocol number, `icmpv4`, `icmpv6', `icmpv4:type,code`, `icmpv6:type,code`, `tcp`, or `udp`. Separate multiple values with a comma; no spaces.
        $Protocol,

        [ValidateSet('Yes', 'No', 'DeferUser','DeferApp')]
        [string]
        # For inbound rules, specifies that traffic that traverses an edge device, such as a Network Address Translation (NAT) enabled router, between the local and remote computer matches this rule. Valid values are `any`, `deferapp`, `deferuse`, or `no`.
        $EdgeTraversalPolicy,

        [ValidateSet('Allow','Block','Bypass')]
        [string]
        # Specifies what to do when packets match the rule. Valid values are `Allow`, `Block`, or `Bypass`.
        $Action,

        [ValidateSet('Any','Wireless','LAN','RAS')]
        [string]
        # Specifies that only network packets passing through the indicated interface types match this rule. Valid values are `Any`, `Wireless`, `LAN`, or `RAS`.
        $InterfaceType,

        [ValidateSet('NotRequired','Authenticate','AuthEnc','AuthDynEnc','AuthNoEncap')]
        [string]
        # Specifies that only network packets protected with the specified type of IPsec options match this rule. Valid values are `NotRequired`, `Authenticate`, `AuthEnc`, `AuthDynEnc`, or `AuthNoEncap`.
        $Security,

        [string]
        # A description of the rule.
        $Description,

        [string]
        # Specifies that network traffic generated by the identified executable program matches this rule.
        $Program,

        [string]
        # Specifies that traffic generated by the identified service matches this rule. The ServiceShortName for a service can be found in Services MMC snap-in, by right-clicking the service, selecting Properties, and examining Service Name.
        $Service,

        [ValidateSet('Present','Absent')]
        [string]
        # Set to `Present` to create the fireall rule. Set to `Absent` to delete it.
        $Ensure = 'Present'
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    $resource = Get-TargetResource -Name $Name
    if( $Ensure -eq 'Absent' -and $resource.Ensure -eq 'Present' )
    {
        Write-Verbose ('Deleting firewall rule ''{0}''' -f $Name)
        $output = netsh advfirewall firewall delete rule name=$Name
        if( $LASTEXITCODE )
        {
            Write-Error ($output -join ([Environment]::NewLine))
            return
        }
        $output | Write-Verbose
        return
    }

    $cmd = 'add'
    $cmdDisplayName = 'Adding'
    $newArg = ''
    if( $Ensure -eq 'Present' -and $resource.Ensure -eq 'Present' )
    {
        $cmd = 'set'
        $cmdDisplayName = 'Setting'
        $newArg = 'new'
    }
    else
    {
        if( -not $Direction -and -not $Action )
        {
            Write-Error ('Parameters ''Direction'' and ''Action'' are required when adding a new firewall rule.')
            return
        }
        elseif( -not $Direction )
        {
            Write-Error ('Parameter ''Direction'' is required when adding a new firewall rule.')
            return
        }
        elseif( -not $Action )
        {
            Write-Error ('Parameter ''Action'' is required when adding a new firewall rule.')
            return
        }
    }

    $argMap = @{
                    'Direction' = 'dir';
                    'Enabled' = 'enable';
                    'LocalIPAddress' = 'localip';
                    'RemoteIPAddress' = 'remoteip';
                    'EdgeTraversalPolicy' = 'edge';
              }

    $netshArgs = New-Object 'Collections.Generic.List[string]'
    $resource.Keys |
        Where-Object { $_ -ne 'Ensure' -and $_ -ne 'Name' } |
        Where-Object { $PSBoundParameters.ContainsKey($_) } |
        ForEach-Object {
            $argName = $_.ToLowerInvariant()
            $argValue = $PSBoundParameters[$argName]
            if( $argValue -is [bool] )
            {
                $argValue = if( $argValue ) { 'yes' } else { 'no' }
            }
            if( $argMap.ContainsKey($argName) )
            {
                $argName = $argMap[$argName]
            }
            if( $argName -eq 'Profile' )
            {
                $argValue = $argValue -join ','
            }

            [void]$netshArgs.Add( ('{0}=' -f $argName) )
            [void]$netshArgs.Add( $argValue )
        }
    
    Write-Verbose ('{0} firewall rule ''{1}'': cmd= {2}; name= {3}; newArg: {4}; netshargs= {5}' -f $cmdDisplayName,$Name,$cmd,$Name,$newArg,($netshArgs -join ' '))
    Write-Debug -Message ('cmd= {0}; name= {1}; newArg: {2}; netshargs= {3}' -f $cmd,$Name,$newArg,($netshArgs -join ' '))
    $output = netsh advfirewall firewall $cmd rule name= $Name $newArg $netshArgs 
    if( $LASTEXITCODE )
    {
        Write-Error ($output -join ([Environment]::NewLine))
        return
    }
    $output | Write-Verbose
}

function Test-TargetResource
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    [OutputType([bool])]
    param (
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        $Name,

        [bool]
        $Enabled,

        [ValidateSet('In','Out')]
        [string]
        $Direction,

        [ValidateSet('Any','Domain','Private','Public')]
        [string[]]
        $Profile,

        [string]
        $LocalIPAddress,

        [string]
        $LocalPort,

        [string]
        $RemoteIPAddress,

        [string]
        $RemotePort,

        [string]
        $Protocol,

        [ValidateSet('Yes', 'No', 'DeferUser','DeferApp')]
        [string]
        $EdgeTraversalPolicy,

        [ValidateSet('Allow','Block','Bypass')]
        [string]
        $Action,

        [ValidateSet('Any','Wireless','LAN','RAS')]
        [string]
        $InterfaceType,

        [ValidateSet('NotRequired','Authenticate','AuthEnc','AuthDynEnc','AuthNoEncap')]
        [string]
        $Security,

        [string]
        $Description,

        [string]
        $Program,

        [string]
        $Service,

        [ValidateSet('Present','Absent')]
        [string]
        $Ensure = 'Present'
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    $resource = Get-TargetResource @PSBoundParameters
    if( $Ensure -eq 'Absent' )
    {
        $result = ($resource.Ensure -eq 'Absent')
        if( $result )
        {
            Write-Verbose ('Firewall rule ''{0}'' not found.' -f $Name)
        }
        else
        {
            Write-Verbose ('Firewall rule ''{0}'' found.' -f $Name)
        }
        return $result
    }

    if( $Ensure -eq 'Present' -and $resource.Ensure -eq 'Absent' )
    {
        Write-Verbose ('Firewall rule ''{0}'' not found.' -f $Name)
        return $false
    }

    return Test-CDscTargetResource -TargetResource $resource -DesiredResource $PSBoundParameters -Target ('Firewall rule ''{0}''' -f $Name)
}



Carbon\DscResources\Carbon_FirewallRule\Carbon_FirewallRule.schema.mof
 
Carbon\DscResources\Carbon_Group\Carbon_Group.psm1
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
# 
#     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
# 
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.

& (Join-Path -Path $PSScriptRoot -ChildPath '..\Initialize-CarbonDscResource.ps1' -Resolve)
. (Join-Path -Path $PSScriptRoot -ChildPath '..\..\Functions\Use-CallerPreference.ps1' -Resolve)

function Get-TargetResource
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    [OutputType([hashtable])]
    param
    (
        [parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [System.String]
        $Name
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $group = Get-CGroup -Name $Name -ErrorAction Ignore

    $ensure = 'Absent'
    $description = $null
    $members = @()
    if( $group )
    {
        $description = $group.Description
        $members = $group.Members
        $ensure = 'Present'
    }

    @{
        Name = $Name
        Ensure = $ensure
        Description = $description
        Members = $members
    }
}

function Set-TargetResource
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    DSC resource for configuring local Windows groups.

    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Carbon_Group` resource installs and uninstalls groups. It also adds members to existing groups. 
    
    The group is installed when `Ensure` is set to `Present`. Members of the group are updated to match the `Members` property (i.e. members not listed in the `Members` property are removed from the group). If `Members` has no value, all members are removed. Because DSC resources run under the LCM which runs as `System`, local system accounts must have access to the directories where both new and existing member accounts can be found.

    The group is removed when `Ensure` is set to `Absent`. When removing a group, the `Members` property is ignored.

    The `Carbon_Group` resource was added in Carbon 2.1.0.

    .LINK
    Add-CGroupMember

    .LINK
    Install-CGroup

    .LINK
    Remove-CGroupMember

    .LINK
    Test-CGroup

    .LINK
    Uninstall-CGroup

    .EXAMPLE
    >
    Demonstrates how to install a group and add members to it.

        Carbon_Group 'CreateFirstOrder'
        {
            Name = 'FirstOrder';
            Description = 'On to victory!';
            Ensure = 'Present';
            Members = @( 'FO\SupremeLeaderSnope', 'FO\KRen' );
        }

    .EXAMPLE
    >
    Demonstrates how to uninstall a group.

        Carbon_Group 'RemoveRepublic
        {
            Name = 'Republic';
            Ensure = 'Absent';
        }

    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param
    (
        [parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the group.
        $Name,

        [string]
        # A description of the group. Only used when adding/updating a group (i.e. when `Ensure` is `Present`).
        $Description,

        [ValidateSet("Present","Absent")]
        [string]
        # Should be either `Present` or `Absent`. If set to `Present`, a group is configured and membership configured. If set to `Absent`, the group is removed.
        $Ensure,

        [string[]]
        # The group's members. Only used when adding/updating a group (i.e. when `Ensure` is `Present`).
        #
        # Members not in this list are removed from the group.
        $Members = @()
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( $Ensure -eq 'Absent' )
    {
        Uninstall-CGroup -Name $Name
        return
    }

    $group = Install-CGroup -Name $Name -Description $Description -Member $Members -PassThru
    if( -not $group )
    {
        return
    }

    try
    {
        $memberNames = @()
        if( $Members )
        {
             $memberNames = $Members | Resolve-MemberName
        }
        $membersToRemove = $group.Members | Where-Object {
                                                            $memberName = Resolve-PrincipalName -Principal $_
                                                            return $memberNames -notcontains $memberName
                                                         }
        if( $membersToRemove )
        {
            foreach( $memberToRemove in $membersToRemove )
            {
                Write-Verbose -Message ('[{0}] Members      {1} ->' -f $Name,(Resolve-PrincipalName -Principal $memberToRemove))
                $group.Members.Remove( $memberToRemove )
            }

            if( $PSCmdlet.ShouldProcess( ('local group {0}' -f $Name), 'remove members' ) )
            {
                $group.Save()
            }
        }
    }
    finally
    {
        $group.Dispose()
    }
}

function Test-TargetResource
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    [OutputType([bool])]
    param
    (
        [parameter(Mandatory = $true)]
        [string]
        $Name,

        [string]
        $Description = $null,

        [ValidateSet("Present","Absent")]
        [string]
        $Ensure = "Present",

        [string[]]
        $Members = @()
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'
    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $resource = Get-TargetResource -Name $Name

    # Do we need to delete the group?
    if( $Ensure -eq 'Absent' -and $resource.Ensure -eq 'Present' )
    {
        Write-Verbose -Message ('[{0}] Group is present but should be absent.' -f $Name)
        return $false
    }

    # Is it already gone?
    if( $Ensure -eq 'Absent' -and $resource.Ensure -eq 'Absent' )
    {
        return $true
    }

    # Do we need to create the group?
    if( $Ensure -eq 'Present' -and $resource.Ensure -eq 'Absent' )
    {
        Write-Verbose -Message ('[{0}] Group is absent but should be present.' -f $Name)
        return $false
    }

    # Is the group out-of-date?
    $upToDate = $true
    if( $Description -ne $resource.Description )
    {
        Write-Verbose -Message ('[{0}] [Description] ''{1}'' != ''{2}''' -f $Name,$Description,$resource.Description)
        $upToDate = $false
    }

    $memberNames = @()
    if( $Members )
    {
         $memberNames = $Members | Resolve-MemberName
    }
    $currentMemberNames = $resource['Members'] | Resolve-PrincipalName

    # Is the current group missing the desired members?
    foreach( $memberName in $memberNames )
    {
        if( $currentMemberNames -notcontains $memberName )
        {
            Write-Verbose -Message ('[{0}] [Members] {1} is absent but should be present' -f $Name,$memberName)
            $upToDate = $false
        }
    }

    # Does the current group contains extra members?
    foreach( $memberName in $currentMemberNames )
    {
        if( $memberNames -notcontains $memberName )
        {
            Write-Verbose -Message ('[{0}] [Members] {1} is present but should be absent' -f $Name,$memberName)
            $upToDate = $false
        }
    }

    return $upToDate
}

function Resolve-MemberName
{
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,VAlueFromPipeline=$true)]
        [string]
        $Name
    )

    process
    {
        Resolve-CIdentityName -Name $Name
    }
}

function Resolve-PrincipalName
{
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ValueFromPipeline=$true)]
        $Principal
    )

    process
    {
        Resolve-CIdentity -SID $Principal.Sid.Value | Select-Object -ExpandProperty 'FullName'
    }
}

Export-ModuleMember -Function *-TargetResource

Carbon\DscResources\Carbon_Group\Carbon_Group.schema.mof
 
Carbon\DscResources\Carbon_IniFile\Carbon_IniFile.psm1
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
# 
#     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
# 
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.

& (Join-Path -Path $PSScriptRoot -ChildPath '..\Initialize-CarbonDscResource.ps1' -Resolve)

function Get-TargetResource
{
	[CmdletBinding()]
	[OutputType([Collections.Hashtable])]
	param
	(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The path to the file to update.
        $Path,

        [string]
        # The section of the INI file where the setting can be found.
        $Section,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the INI setting.
        $Name,

        [string]
        # The value of the INI setting.        
        $Value,

        [Switch]
        # The INI file being modified is case-sensitive.
        $CaseSensitive,

        [Switch]
        # If `$true`, creates the INI file if it doesn't exist.
        $Force,

        [ValidateSet("Present","Absent")]
        [string]
        # Create or delete the INI setting?
        $Ensure = 'Present'
	)
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    $ini = @{ }
    if( (Test-Path -Path $Path -PathType Leaf) )
    {
        $ini = Split-CIni -Path $Path -AsHashtable -CaseSensitive:$CaseSensitive
    }
    else
    {
        if( -not $Force )
        {
            Write-Error ('INI file ''{0}'' not found. Set the `Force` property to `true` to create this INI file when it doesn''t exist.' -f $Path)
            return
        }
    }
    
    $key = $Name
    if( $Section )
    {
        $key = '{0}.{1}' -f $Section,$Name
    }
    
    $currentValue = $null
    $Ensure = 'Absent'
    if( $ini.ContainsKey( $key ) )
    {
        $currentValue = $ini[$key].Value
        $Ensure = 'Present';
    }
    
    @{
        Path = $Path;
        Section = $Section;
        Name = $Name;
        Value = $currentValue;
        CaseSensitive = [bool]$CaseSensitive;
        Force = [bool]$Force
        Ensure = $Ensure;
    }
}

function Set-TargetResource
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    DSC resource for managing settings in INI files.

    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Carbon_IniFile` resource sets or removes settings from INI files.

    `Carbon_IniFile` is new in Carbon 2.0.

    .LINK
    Remove-CIniEntry

    .LINK
    Set-CIniEntry

    .LINK
    Split-CIni

    .EXAMPLE
    >
    Demonstrates how to create/set a setting in sectionless INI file.

        Carbon_IniFile SetNpmPrefix
        {
            Path = 'C:\Program Files\nodejs\node_modules\npm\npmrc'
            Name = 'prefix';
            Value = 'C:\node-global-modules';
            CaseSensitive = $true;
        }

    In this case, we're setting the `prefix` NPM setting to `C:\node-global-modules` in the `C:\Program Files\nodejs\node_modules\npm\npmrc` file. It is expected this file exists and you'll get an error if it doesn't. NPM configuration files are case-sensitive, so the `CaseSensitive` property is set to `$true`.

    This line will be added to the INI file:

        prefix = C:\node-global-modules

    .EXAMPLE
    >
    Demonstrates how to create/set a setting in an INI file with sections.

        Carbon_IniFile SetBuildUserMercurialUsername
        {
            Path = 'C:\Users\BuildUser\mercurial.ini'
            Section = 'ui';
            Name = 'username';
            Force = $true;
            Value = 'Build User <[email protected]>';
        }

    In this case, we're setting the 'username' setting in the 'ui' section of the `C:\Users\BuildUser\mercurial.ini` file to `Build User <[email protected]>`. Since the `$Force` property is `$true`, if the file doesn't exist, it will be created. These lines will be added to the ini file:

        [ui]
        username = Build User <[email protected]>

    .EXAMPLE
    >
    Demonstrates how to remove a setting from a case-sensitive INI file.

        Carbon_IniFile RemoveNpmPrefix
        {
            Path = 'C:\Program Files\nodejs\node_modules\npm\npmrc'
            Name = 'prefix';
            CaseSensitive = $true;
            Ensure = 'Absent';
        }

    .EXAMPLE
    >
    Demonstrates how to remove a setting from an INI file that organizes settings into sections.

        Carbon_IniFile RemoveBuildUserMercurialUsername
        {
            Path = 'C:\Users\BuildUser\mercurial.ini'
            Section = 'ui';
            Name = 'username';
            Ensure = 'Absent';
        }
    #>
	[CmdletBinding()]
	param
	(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The path to the file to update.
        $Path,

        [string]
        # The section of the INI file where the setting can be found.
        $Section,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the INI setting.
        $Name,

        [string]
        # The value of the INI setting.        
        $Value,

        [Switch]
        # The INI file being modified is case-sensitive.
        $CaseSensitive,

        [Switch]
        # If `$true`, creates the INI file if it doesn't exist.
        $Force,

        [ValidateSet("Present","Absent")]
        [string]
        # Create or delete the INI setting?
        $Ensure = 'Present'
	)
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    $resource = Get-TargetResource -Path $Path -Section $Section -Name $Name -Force:$Force -CaseSensitive:$CaseSensitive
    if( -not $resource )
    {
        return
    }

    if( -not (Test-Path -Path $Path -PathType Leaf) -and $Force )
    {
        New-Item -Path $Path -ItemType 'File' -Force | Out-Null
    }

    $fullName = $Name
    if( $Section )
    {
        $fullName = '{0}.{1}' -f $Section,$Name
    }

    if( $resource.Ensure -eq 'Present' -and $Ensure -eq 'Absent' )
    {
        Write-Verbose ('{0}: {1}: removing' -f $Path,$fullName)
        Remove-CIniEntry -Path $Path -Section $Section -Name $Name -CaseSensitive:$CaseSensitive
        return
    }

    if( $Ensure -eq 'Present' )
    {
        Write-Verbose ('{0}: {1}: setting' -f $Path,$fullName)
        Set-CIniEntry -Path $Path -Section $Section -Name $Name -Value $Value -CaseSensitive:$CaseSensitive
    }
}

function Test-TargetResource
{
	[CmdletBinding()]
	[OutputType([bool])]
	param
	(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The path to the file to update.
        $Path,

        [string]
        # The section of the INI file where the setting can be found.
        $Section,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the INI setting.
        $Name,

        [string]
        # The value of the INI setting.        
        $Value,

        [Switch]
        # The INI file being modified is case-sensitive.
        $CaseSensitive,

        [Switch]
        # If `$true`, creates the INI file if it doesn't exist.
        $Force,

        [ValidateSet("Present","Absent")]
        [string]
        # Create or delete the INI setting?
        $Ensure = 'Present'
	)
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    $resource = Get-TargetResource -Path $Path -Section $Section -Name $Name -Force:$Force
    if( -not $resource )
    {
        return $false
    }

    $fullName = $Name
    if( $Section )
    {
        $fullName = '{0}.{1}' -f $Section,$Name
    }

    if( $Ensure -eq 'Present' )
    {
        $result = ($resource.Value -eq $Value)
        if( $CaseSensitive )
        {
            $result = ($resource.Value -ceq $Value)
        }

        if( $result )
        {
            Write-Verbose ('{0}: {1}: current value unchanged' -f $Path,$fullName)
        }
        else
        {
            Write-Verbose ('{0}: {1}: current value differs' -f $Path,$fullName)
        }
    }
    else
    {
        $result = ($resource.Ensure -eq 'Absent')
        if( $result )
        {
            Write-Verbose ('{0}: {1}: not found' -f $Path,$fullName) 
        }
        else
        {
            Write-Verbose ('{0}: {1}: found' -f $Path,$fullName)
        }
    }
    return $result
}

Export-ModuleMember -Function '*-TargetResource'

Carbon\DscResources\Carbon_IniFile\Carbon_IniFile.schema.mof
 
Carbon\DscResources\Carbon_Permission\Carbon_Permission.psm1
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
# 
#     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
# 
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.

& (Join-Path -Path $PSScriptRoot -ChildPath '..\Initialize-CarbonDscResource.ps1' -Resolve)

function Get-TargetResource
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    [OutputType([hashtable])]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The path on which the permissions should be granted.  Can be a file system or registry path.
        $Path,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The user or group getting the permissions.
        $Identity,
        
        [ValidateSet("CreateFiles","AppendData","CreateSubKey","EnumerateSubKeys","CreateLink","Delete","ChangePermissions","ExecuteFile","DeleteSubdirectoriesAndFiles","FullControl","GenericRead","GenericAll","GenericExecute","QueryValues","ReadAttributes","ReadData","ReadExtendedAttributes","GenericWrite","Notify","ReadPermissions","Read","ReadAndExecute","Modify","SetValue","ReadKey","TakeOwnership","WriteAttributes","Write","Synchronize","WriteData","WriteExtendedAttributes","WriteKey")]
        [string[]]
        # The permission: e.g. FullControl, Read, etc.  For file system items, use values from [System.Security.AccessControl.FileSystemRights](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.security.accesscontrol.filesystemrights.aspx).  For registry items, use values from [System.Security.AccessControl.RegistryRights](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.security.accesscontrol.registryrights.aspx).
        $Permission,
        
        [ValidateSet('Container','SubContainers','ContainerAndSubContainers','Leaves','ContainerAndLeaves','SubContainersAndLeaves','ContainerAndSubContainersAndLeaves','ChildContainers','ContainerAndChildContainers','ChildLeaves','ContainerAndChildLeaves','ChildContainersAndChildLeaves','ContainerAndChildContainersAndChildLeaves')]
        [string]
        # How to apply container permissions.  This controls the inheritance and propagation flags.  Default is full inheritance, e.g. `ContainersAndSubContainersAndLeaves`. This parameter is ignored if `Path` is to a leaf item.
        $ApplyTo,

        [bool]
        $Append,
        
        [ValidateSet('Present','Absent')]
        [string]
        # Should the user exist or not exist?
        $Ensure = 'Present'
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    $defaultState = @{
                        Path = $Path;
                        Identity = $Identity;
                        Permission = @();
                        ApplyTo = $null;
                        Ensure = 'Absent';
                    }

    $perms = Get-CPermission -Path $Path -Identity $Identity
    if( -not $perms )
    {
        return $defaultState
    }

    foreach( $perm in $perms )
    {
        $resource = $defaultState.Clone()
        [string[]]$resource.Permission = $perm | 
                                            Get-Member -Name '*Rights' -MemberType Property | 
                                            ForEach-Object { ($perm.($_.Name)).ToString() -split ',' } |
                                            ForEach-Object { $_.Trim() } | 
                                            Where-Object { $_ -ne 'Synchronize' }

        $resource.ApplyTo = ConvertTo-CContainerInheritanceFlags -InheritanceFlags $perm.InheritanceFlags -PropagationFlags $perm.PropagationFlags
        $resource.Ensure = 'Present'
        $resource
    }
}


function Set-TargetResource
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    DSC resource for managing permissions on files, directories, registry keys, or a certificate's private key.

    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Carbon_Permission` resource can grant or revoke permissions on a file, a directory, a registry key, or a certificate's private key.

    ### Granting Permission

    Permissions are granted when the `Ensure` property is set to `Present`.
    
    When granting permissions, you *must* supply a value for the `Permission` property. Valid values are:

     * CreateFiles
     * AppendData
     * CreateSubKey
     * EnumerateSubKeys
     * CreateLink
     * Delete
     * ChangePermissions
     * ExecuteFile
     * DeleteSubdirectoriesAndFiles
     * FullControl
     * GenericRead
     * GenericAll
     * GenericExecute
     * QueryValues
     * ReadAttributes
     * ReadData
     * ReadExtendedAttributes
     * GenericWrite
     * Notify
     * ReadPermissions
     * Read
     * ReadAndExecute
     * Modify
     * SetValue
     * ReadKey
     * TakeOwnership
     * WriteAttributes
     * Write
     * Synchronize
     * WriteData
     * WriteExtendedAttributes
     * WriteKey
    
    The `ApplyTo` property is only used when setting permissions on a directory or a registry key. Valid values are:

     * Container
     * SubContainers
     * ContainerAndSubContainers
     * Leaves
     * ContainerAndLeaves
     * SubContainersAndLeaves
     * ContainerAndSubContainersAndLeaves
     * ChildContainers
     * ContainerAndChildContainers
     * ChildLeaves
     * ContainerAndChildLeaves
     * ChildContainersAndChildLeaves
     * ContainerAndChildContainersAndChildLeaves

    Beginning in Carbon 2.7, you can add multiple permissions to an identity with the `Append` property. When set to true, it will add the permission instead of replacing an identity's current permissions. Note that DSC won't let you have two `Carbon_Permission` resources in your configuration where the identity and path properties are the same. Every `Carbon_Permission` resource must have unique identity and path properties. You may be able to work around this by using different values for the `Identity` property that resolve to the same identity, e.g. `Administrators` vs. `.\Administrators`.

    ### Revoking Permission
        
    Permissions are revoked when the `Ensure` property is set to `Absent`. *All* a user or group's permissions are revoked. You can't revoke part of a principal's access. If you want to revoke part of a principal's access, set the `Ensure` property to `Present` and the `Permissions` property to the list of properties you want the principal to have.

    `Carbon_Permission` is new in Carbon 2.0.

    .LINK
    Get-CPermission

    .LINK
    Grant-CPermission

    .LINK
    Revoke-CPermission

    .LINK
    Test-CPermission

    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.security.accesscontrol.filesystemrights.aspx
    
    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.security.accesscontrol.registryrights.aspx
    
    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.security.accesscontrol.cryptokeyrights.aspx
    
    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/magazine/cc163885.aspx#S3    
    
    .EXAMPLE
    >
    Demonstrates how to grant permissions to an item on the file system.

        Carbon_Permission GrantPermission
        {
            Path = 'C:\Projects\Carbon';
            Identity = 'CarbonServiceUser';
            Permission = 'ReadAndExecute';
        }

    This will grant `ReadAndExecute` permission to the `CarbonServiceUser` on the `C:\Projects\Carbon` directory.

    .EXAMPLE
    >
    Demonstrates how to grant permissions to a registry key.

        Carbon_Permission GrantPermission
        {
            Path = 'hklm:\SOFTWARE\Carbon';
            Identity = 'CarbonServiceUser';
            Permission = 'ReadKey';
        }

    This will grant `ReadKey` permission to the `CarbonServiceUser` on the `C:\Projects\Carbon` directory.

    .EXAMPLE
    >
    Demonstrates how to grant permissions to a certificate's private key and how to grant multiple permissions.

        Carbon_Permission GrantPermission
        {
            Path = 'cert:\LocalMachine\My\1234567890ABCDEF1234567890ABCDEF12345678';
            Identity = 'CarbonServiceUser';
            Permission = 'GenericRead','ReadKey';
        }

    This will grant `GenericRead` and `ReadKey` permissions to the `CarbonServiceUser` on the `C:\Projects\Carbon` directory.

    .EXAMPLE
    >
    Demonstrates how to revoke permissions.

        Carbon_Permission GrantPermission
        {
            Path = 'C:\Projects\Carbon';
            Identity = 'CarbonServiceUser';
            Ensure = 'Absent';
        }

    This will revoke all of the `CarbonServiceUser` user's permissions on the `C:\Projects\Carbon`.


    .EXAMPLE
    >
    Demonstrates how to grant multiple permissions to the same local user:

        Carbon_Permission GrantReadAndExecute
        {
            Path = 'C:\Projects\Carbon';
            Identity = 'CarbonServiceUser';
            Permission = 'ReadAndExecute';
            ApplyTo = 'ContainerAndSubContainersAndLeaves';
            Append = $true;
            Ensure = 'Present';
        }

        Carbon_Permission GrantWrite
        {
            Path = 'C:\Projects\Carbon';
            Identity = '.\CarbonServiceUser';
            Permission = 'Write';
            ApplyTo = 'ContainerAndLeaves';
            Append = $true;
            Ensure = 'Present';
        }

    Demonstrates how grant to multiple permission to a user with the `Append` property. Note the `Append` property in both resources. If you omit one, permissions will always get ovewritten. Note the unique values on the `Identity` properties that resolve to the same user. This is due to the DSC requirement that a DSC resource must have unique key values and `Path` and `Identity` are the `Carbon_Permission` key values.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The path on which the permissions should be granted.  Can be a file system, registry path, or certificate path.
        $Path,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The user or group getting the permissions.
        $Identity,
        
        [ValidateSet("CreateFiles","AppendData","CreateSubKey","EnumerateSubKeys","CreateLink","Delete","ChangePermissions","ExecuteFile","DeleteSubdirectoriesAndFiles","FullControl","GenericRead","GenericAll","GenericExecute","QueryValues","ReadAttributes","ReadData","ReadExtendedAttributes","GenericWrite","Notify","ReadPermissions","Read","ReadAndExecute","Modify","SetValue","ReadKey","TakeOwnership","WriteAttributes","Write","Synchronize","WriteData","WriteExtendedAttributes","WriteKey")]
        [string[]]
        # The permission: e.g. FullControl, Read, etc. Mandatory when granting permission. Valid values are `CreateFiles`, `AppendData`, `CreateSubKey`, `EnumerateSubKeys`, `CreateLink`, `Delete`, `ChangePermissions`, `ExecuteFile`, `DeleteSubdirectoriesAndFiles`, `FullControl`, `GenericRead`, `GenericAll`, `GenericExecute`, `QueryValues`, `ReadAttributes`, `ReadData`, `ReadExtendedAttributes`, `GenericWrite`, `Notify`, `ReadPermissions`, `Read`, `ReadAndExecute`, `Modify`, `SetValue`, `ReadKey`, `TakeOwnership`, `WriteAttributes`, `Write`, `Synchronize`, `WriteData`, `WriteExtendedAttributes`, `WriteKey`.
        $Permission,
        
        [ValidateSet('Container','SubContainers','ContainerAndSubContainers','Leaves','ContainerAndLeaves','SubContainersAndLeaves','ContainerAndSubContainersAndLeaves','ChildContainers','ContainerAndChildContainers','ChildLeaves','ContainerAndChildLeaves','ChildContainersAndChildLeaves','ContainerAndChildContainersAndChildLeaves')]
        [string]
        # How to apply container permissions.  This controls the inheritance and propagation flags.  Default is full inheritance, e.g. `ContainersAndSubContainersAndLeaves`. This parameter is only used when `Path` is a directory or registry key. Valid values are `Container`, `SubContainers`, `ContainerAndSubContainers`, `Leaves`, `ContainerAndLeaves`, `SubContainersAndLeaves`, `ContainerAndSubContainersAndLeaves`, `ChildContainers`, `ContainerAndChildContainers`, `ChildLeaves`, `ContainerAndChildLeaves`, `ChildContainersAndChildLeaves`, `ContainerAndChildContainersAndChildLeaves`.
        $ApplyTo,

        [bool]
        # When granting permissions on files, directories, or registry items, add the permissions as a new access rule instead of replacing any existing access rules. This parameter is ignored when setting permissions on certificates.
        #
        # This parameter was added in Carbon 2.7.
        $Append,
        
        [ValidateSet('Present','Absent')]
        [string]
        # If set to `Present`, permissions are set. If `Absent`, all permissions to `$Path` removed.
        $Ensure = 'Present'
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'


    if( $PSBoundParameters.ContainsKey('Ensure') )
    {
        $PSBoundParameters.Remove('Ensure')
    }
    
    if( $Ensure -eq 'Absent' )
    {
        Write-Verbose ('Revoking permission for "{0}" to "{1}"' -f $Identity,$Path)
        Revoke-CPermission -Path $Path -Identity $Identity
    }
    else
    {
        if( -not $Permission )
        {
            Write-Error ('Permission parameter is mandatory when granting permissions. If you want to revoke a user"s permission(s), set the `Ensure` property to `Absent`.')
            return
        }

        Write-Verbose ('Granting permission for "{0}" to "{1}": {2}' -f $Identity,$Path,($Permission -join ','))
        Grant-CPermission @PSBoundParameters
    }
}


function Test-TargetResource
{
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    [OutputType([bool])]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The path on which the permissions should be granted.  Can be a file system or registry path.
        $Path,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The user or group getting the permissions.
        $Identity,
        
        [ValidateSet("CreateFiles","AppendData","CreateSubKey","EnumerateSubKeys","CreateLink","Delete","ChangePermissions","ExecuteFile","DeleteSubdirectoriesAndFiles","FullControl","GenericRead","GenericAll","GenericExecute","QueryValues","ReadAttributes","ReadData","ReadExtendedAttributes","GenericWrite","Notify","ReadPermissions","Read","ReadAndExecute","Modify","SetValue","ReadKey","TakeOwnership","WriteAttributes","Write","Synchronize","WriteData","WriteExtendedAttributes","WriteKey")]
        [string[]]
        # The permission: e.g. FullControl, Read, etc.  For file system items, use values from [System.Security.AccessControl.FileSystemRights](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.security.accesscontrol.filesystemrights.aspx).  For registry items, use values from [System.Security.AccessControl.RegistryRights](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.security.accesscontrol.registryrights.aspx).
        $Permission,
        
        [ValidateSet('Container','SubContainers','ContainerAndSubContainers','Leaves','ContainerAndLeaves','SubContainersAndLeaves','ContainerAndSubContainersAndLeaves','ChildContainers','ContainerAndChildContainers','ChildLeaves','ContainerAndChildLeaves','ChildContainersAndChildLeaves','ContainerAndChildContainersAndChildLeaves')]
        [string]
        # How to apply container permissions.  This controls the inheritance and propagation flags.  Default is full inheritance, e.g. `ContainersAndSubContainersAndLeaves`. This parameter is ignored if `Path` is to a leaf item.
        $ApplyTo,

        [bool]
        $Append,
        
        [ValidateSet('Present','Absent')]
        [string]
        # Should the user exist or not exist?
        $Ensure = 'Present'
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    $resources = Get-TargetResource -Identity $Identity -Path $Path
    $desiredRights = ($Permission | Sort-Object) -join ','
    
    if( $Ensure -eq 'Absent' )
    {
        if( -not ($resources | Where-Object { $_.Ensure -eq 'Present' }) )
        {
            Write-Verbose ('[{0}]  [{1}]  No Permissions' -f $Path,$Identity)
            return $true
        }
        
        foreach( $resource in $resources )
        {
            $currentRights = ($resource.Permission | Sort-Object) -join ','
            Write-Verbose ('[{0}]  [{1}]  {2}' -f $Path,$Identity,$currentRights)
        }
        return $false
    }

    if( -not $Permission )
    {
        Write-Error ('Permission parameter is mandatory when granting permissions. If you want to revoke a user"s permission(s), set the `Ensure` property to `Absent`.')
        return
    }

    $upToDate = $false
    $idx = -1
    foreach( $resource in $resources )
    {
        ++$idx
        $currentRights = ($resource.Permission | Sort-Object) -join ','
        if( $desiredRights -ne $currentRights )
        {
            Write-Verbose ('[{0}]  [{1}]  Rule[{2}]  Permission  "{3}" != "{4}"' -f $Path,$Identity,$idx,$currentRights,$desiredRights)
            continue
        }
        else
        {
            Write-Verbose ('[{0}]  [{1}]  Rule[{2}]  Permission  "{3}" == "{4}"' -f $Path,$Identity,$idx,$currentRights,$desiredRights)
        }

        if( $ApplyTo )
        {
            if( $ApplyTo -ne $resource.ApplyTo )
            {
                Write-Verbose ('[{0}]  [{1}]  Rule[{2}]  ApplyTo  "{3}" != "{4}"' -f $Path,$Identity,$idx,$ApplyTo,$resource.ApplyTo)
                continue
            }
            else
            {
                Write-Verbose ('[{0}]  [{1}]  Rule[{2}]  ApplyTo  "{3}" == "{4}"' -f $Path,$Identity,$idx,$ApplyTo,$resource.ApplyTo)
            }
        }

        # We found one access rule that matches. It's up-to-date.
        $upToDate = $true
        break
    }

    return $upToDate
}
Carbon\DscResources\Carbon_Permission\Carbon_Permission.schema.mof
 
Carbon\DscResources\Carbon_Privilege\Carbon_Privilege.psm1
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
# 
#     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
# 
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.

& (Join-Path -Path $PSScriptRoot -ChildPath '..\Initialize-CarbonDscResource.ps1' -Resolve)

function Get-TargetResource
{
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    [OutputType([hashtable])]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The identity of the principal whose privileges to get.
        $Identity,
        
        [AllowEmptyCollection()]
        [string[]]
        # The user's expected/desired privileges.
        $Privilege = @(),
        
        [ValidateSet('Present','Absent')]
        [string]
        # Should the user exist or not exist?
        $Ensure = 'Present'
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    [string[]]$currentPrivileges = Get-CPrivilege -Identity $Identity
    $Ensure = 'Present'
    if( -not $currentPrivileges )
    {
        [string[]]$currentPrivileges = @()
    }

    foreach( $item in $Privilege )
    {
        if( $currentPrivileges -notcontains $item )
        {
            $Ensure = 'Absent'
            break
        }
    }

    foreach( $item in $currentPrivileges )
    {
        if( $Privilege -notcontains $item )
        {
            $Ensure = 'Absent'
            break
        }
    }

    $resource = @{
                    Identity = $Identity;
                    Privilege = $currentPrivileges;
                    Ensure = $Ensure;
                }

    
    return $resource
}


function Set-TargetResource
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    DSC resource for managing privileges.

    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Carbon_Privilege` resource manages privileges, i.e. the system operations and logons a user or group can perform.

    Privileges are granted by default. The user/group is granted only the privileges specified by the `Privilege` property. All other privileges are revoked.
    
    To revoke *all* a user's privileges, set the `Ensure` property to `Absent`. To revoke specific privileges, grant the user just the desired privileges. All others are revoked.

    *Privilege names are **case-sensitive**.* Valid privileges are documented on Microsoft's website: [Privilege Constants](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/bb530716.aspx) and [Account Right Constants](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/bb545671.aspx). Here is the most current list, as of August 2014:

     * SeAssignPrimaryTokenPrivilege
     * SeAuditPrivilege
     * SeBackupPrivilege
     * SeBatchLogonRight
     * SeChangeNotifyPrivilege
     * SeCreateGlobalPrivilege
     * SeCreatePagefilePrivilege
     * SeCreatePermanentPrivilege
     * SeCreateSymbolicLinkPrivilege
     * SeCreateTokenPrivilege
     * SeDebugPrivilege
     * SeDenyBatchLogonRight
     * SeDenyInteractiveLogonRight
     * SeDenyNetworkLogonRight
     * SeDenyRemoteInteractiveLogonRight
     * SeDenyServiceLogonRight
     * SeEnableDelegationPrivilege
     * SeImpersonatePrivilege
     * SeIncreaseBasePriorityPrivilege
     * SeIncreaseQuotaPrivilege
     * SeIncreaseWorkingSetPrivilege
     * SeInteractiveLogonRight
     * SeLoadDriverPrivilege
     * SeLockMemoryPrivilege
     * SeMachineAccountPrivilege
     * SeManageVolumePrivilege
     * SeNetworkLogonRight
     * SeProfileSingleProcessPrivilege
     * SeRelabelPrivilege
     * SeRemoteInteractiveLogonRight
     * SeRemoteShutdownPrivilege
     * SeRestorePrivilege
     * SeSecurityPrivilege
     * SeServiceLogonRight
     * SeShutdownPrivilege
     * SeSyncAgentPrivilege
     * SeSystemEnvironmentPrivilege
     * SeSystemProfilePrivilege
     * SeSystemtimePrivilege
     * SeTakeOwnershipPrivilege
     * SeTcbPrivilege
     * SeTimeZonePrivilege
     * SeTrustedCredManAccessPrivilege
     * SeUndockPrivilege
     * SeUnsolicitedInputPrivilege

    `Carbon_Privilege` is new in Carbon 2.0.

    .LINK
    Get-CPrivilege

    .LINK
    Grant-CPrivilege

    .LINK
    Revoke-CPrivilege

    .LINK
    Test-CPrivilege

    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/bb530716.aspx

    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/bb545671.aspx

    .EXAMPLE
    >
    Demonstrates how to grant a service user the ability to log in as a service.

        Carbon_Privilege GrantServiceLogonPrivileges
        {
            Identity = 'CarbonServiceUser'
            Privilege = 'SeBatchLogonRight','SeServiceLogonRight';
        }

    .EXAMPLE
    >
    Demonstrates how to revoke all a user/group's privileges. To revoke specific privileges, grant just the privileges you want. All other privileges are revoked.

        Carbon_Privilege RevokePrivileges
        {
            Identity = 'CarbonServiceUser'
            Ensure = 'Absent'
        }
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The identity of the principal whose privileges to set.
        $Identity,
        
        [AllowEmptyCollection()]
        [string[]]
        # The user's expected/desired privileges. *Privilege names are **case-sensitive**.* Ignored when `Ensure` is set to `Absent`.
        $Privilege = @(),
        
        [ValidateSet('Present','Absent')]
        [string]
        # Should the user exist or not exist?
        $Ensure = 'Present'
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    $currentPrivileges = Get-CPrivilege -Identity $Identity
    if( $currentPrivileges )
    {
        Write-Verbose ('Revoking ''{0}'' privileges: {1}' -f $Identity,($currentPrivileges -join ','))
        Revoke-CPrivilege -Identity $Identity -Privilege $currentPrivileges
    }

    if( $Ensure -eq 'Present' -and $Privilege )
    {
        Write-Verbose ('Granting ''{0}'' privileges: {1}' -f $Identity,($Privilege -join ','))
        Grant-CPrivilege -Identity $Identity -Privilege $Privilege
    }
}


function Test-TargetResource
{
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    [OutputType([bool])]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The identity of the principal whose privileges to test.
        $Identity,
        
        [AllowEmptyCollection()]
        [string[]]
        # The user's expected/desired privileges.
        $Privilege = @(),
        
        [ValidateSet('Present','Absent')]
        [string]
        # Should the user exist or not exist?
        $Ensure = 'Present'
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    $resource = Get-TargetResource -Identity $Identity -Privilege $Privilege

    $privilegeMissing = $resource.Ensure -eq 'Absent'
    if( $Ensure -eq 'Absent' )
    {
        $absent = $resource.Privilege.Length -eq 0
        if( $absent )
        {
            Write-Verbose ('Identity ''{0}'' has no privileges' -f $Identity)
            return $true
        }
        
        Write-Verbose ('Identity ''{0}'' has privilege(s) {1}' -f $Identity,($resource.Privilege -join ','))
        return $false
    }

    if( $privilegeMissing )
    {
        $msgParts = @()
        $extraPrivileges = $resource.Privilege | Where-Object { $Privilege -notcontains $_ }
        if( $extraPrivileges )
        {
            $msgParts += 'extra privilege(s): {0}' -f ($extraPrivileges -join ',')
        }

        $missingPrivileges = $Privilege | Where-Object { $resource.Privilege -notcontains $_ }
        if( $missingPrivileges )
        {
            $msgParts += 'missing privilege(s): {0}' -f ($missingPrivileges -join ',')
        }
        Write-Verbose ('Identity ''{0}'' {1}' -f $Identity,($msgParts -join '; '))
        return $false
    }

    return $true
}
Carbon\DscResources\Carbon_Privilege\Carbon_Privilege.schema.mof
 
Carbon\DscResources\Carbon_ScheduledTask\Carbon_ScheduledTask.psm1
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
# 
#     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
# 
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.

& (Join-Path -Path $PSScriptRoot -ChildPath '..\Initialize-CarbonDscResource.ps1' -Resolve)

function Get-TargetResource
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    [OutputType([hashtable])]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [ValidateLength(1,238)]
        [Alias('TaskName')]
        [string]
        # The name of the scheduled task to return. Wildcards supported. This must be the *full task name*, i.e. the task's path/location and its name.
        $Name,

        [string]
        # Install the task from this XML.
        $TaskXml,

        [Management.Automation.PSCredential]
        # The principal the task should run as. Use `Principal` parameter to run as a built-in security principal. Required if `Interactive` or `NoPassword` switches are used.
        $TaskCredential,

        [ValidateSet('Present','Absent')]
        [string]
        # If `Present`, the service is installed/updated. If `Absent`, the service is removed.
        $Ensure = 'Present'
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    $canonicalName = $Name
    if( -not $canonicalName.StartsWith('\') )
    {
        $canonicalName = '\{0}' -f $canonicalName
    }

    $resource = @{
                    Name = $Name;
                    TaskXml = '';
                    TaskCredential = $null;
                    Ensure = 'Absent';
                }

    if( (Test-CScheduledTask -Name $canonicalName) )
    {
        $task = Get-CScheduledTask -Name $canonicalName -AsComObject
        $principal = $task.Definition.Principal
        $principalName = $principal.UserId
        if( -not $principalName )
        {
            $principalName = $principal.GroupId
        }

        $resource.TaskCredential = $principalname
        $resource.TaskXml = $task.Xml
        $resource.Ensure = 'Present'
    }

    return $resource
}


function Set-TargetResource
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    DSC resource for configuring scheduled tasks.

    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Carbon_ScheduledTask` resource configures scheduled tasks using `schtasks.exe` with [Task Scheduler XML](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/aa383609.aspx).

    The task is installed when the `Ensure` property is set to `Present`. If the task already exists, and the XML of the current task doesn't match the XML passed in, the task is deleted, and a new task is created in its place. The XML comparison is pretty dumb: it compares the XML document(s) as a giant string, not element by element. This means if your XML doesn't order elements in the same way as `schtasks.exe /query /xml`, then your task will always be deleted and re-created. This may or may not be a problem for you.

    `Carbon_ScheduledTask` is new in Carbon 2.0.

    .LINK
    Get-CScheduledTask

    .LINK
    Install-CScheduledTask

    .LINK
    Test-CScheduledTask

    .LINK
    Uninstall-CScheduledTask

    .LINK
    http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc725744.aspx#BKMK_create
    
    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/aa383609.aspx

    .EXAMPLE
    >
    Demonstrates how to install a new or update an existing scheduled task that runs as a built-in user. The user's SID should be declared in the task XML file.

        Carbon_ScheduledTask InstallScheduledTask
        {
            Name = 'ClearApplicationCache';
            TaskXml = (Get-Content -Path $clearApplicationCacheTaskPath.xml -Raw);
        }

    .EXAMPLE
    >
    Demonstrates how to install a new or update an existing scheduled task that runs as a custom user. 

        Carbon_ScheduledTask InstallScheduledTask
        {
            Name = 'ClearApplicationCache';
            TaskXml = (Get-Content -Path $clearApplicationCacheTaskPath.xml -Raw);
            TaskCredential = (Get-Credential 'runasuser');
        }

    .EXAMPLE
    >
    Demonstrates how to remove a scheduled task.

        Carbon_ScheduledTask InstallScheduledTask
        {
            Name = 'ClearApplicationCache';
            Ensure = 'Absent';
        }
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [ValidateLength(1,238)]
        [Alias('TaskName')]
        [string]
        # The name of the scheduled task to return. Wildcards supported. This must be the *full task name*, i.e. the task's path/location and its name.
        $Name,

        [string]
        # Install the task from this XML.
        $TaskXml,

        [Management.Automation.PSCredential]
        # The identity that should run the task. The default is `SYSTEM`.
        $TaskCredential,

        [ValidateSet('Present','Absent')]
        [string]
        # If `Present`, the service is installed/updated. If `Absent`, the service is removed.
        $Ensure = 'Present'
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    $PSBoundParameters.Remove('Ensure')

    if( $Ensure -eq 'Present' )
    {
        $installParams = @{ }
        if( (Test-CScheduledTask -Name $Name ) )
        {
            Write-Verbose ('[{0}] Re-installing' -f $Name)
            $installParams['Force'] = $true
        }
        else
        {
            Write-Verbose ('[{0}] Installing' -f $Name)
        }
        Install-CScheduledTask @PSBoundParameters @installParams
    }
    else
    {
        Write-Verbose ('[{0}] Uninstalling' -f $Name)
        Uninstall-CScheduledTask -Name $Name
    }

}


function Test-TargetResource
{
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    [OutputType([bool])]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [ValidateLength(1,238)]
        [Alias('TaskName')]
        [string]
        # The name of the scheduled task to return. Wildcards supported. This must be the *full task name*, i.e. the task's path/location and its name.
        $Name,

        [string]
        # Install the task from this XML.
        $TaskXml,

        [Management.Automation.PSCredential]
        # The principal the task should run as. Use `Principal` parameter to run as a built-in security principal. Required if `Interactive` or `NoPassword` switches are used.
        $TaskCredential,

        [ValidateSet('Present','Absent')]
        [string]
        # If `Present`, the task is installed/updated. If `Absent`, the task is removed.
        $Ensure = 'Present'
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    $resource = Get-TargetResource -Name $Name

    if( $Ensure -eq 'Present' )
    {
        if( $resource.Ensure -eq 'Absent' )
        {
            Write-Verbose ('[{0}] Desired scheduled task not found' -f $Name)
            return $false
        }

        if( -not $TaskXml )
        {
            Write-Error ('Property ''TaskXml'' is missing or empty. When creating a scheduled task, the ''TaskXml'' property is required.')
            return $true
        }

        $resourceXml = [xml]$resource.TaskXml
        $currentTaskXml = $resourceXml.OuterXml
        $desiredTaskXml = ([xml]$TaskXml).OuterXml
        if( $currentTaskXml -ne $desiredTaskXml )
        {
            $differsAt = 0
            for( $idx = 0; $idx -lt $desiredTaskXml.Length -and $idx -lt $currentTaskXml.Length; ++$idx )
            {
                $charEqual = $desiredTaskXml[$idx] -eq $currentTaskXml[$idx]

                if( -not $charEqual )
                {
                    $differsAt = $idx
                    break
                }
            }
  
            $nameLength = $Name.Length
            $linePrefix = ' ' * ($nameLength + 2)
            $msgFormat = @'
'@        
            Write-Verbose ('[{0}] Task XML differs:' -f $Name)
            $startIdx = $differsAt - 35
            if( $startIdx -lt 0 )
            {
                $startIdx = 0
            }

            $shortestLength = $currentTaskXml.Length
            if( $desiredTaskXml.Length -lt $shortestLength )
            {
                $shortestLength = $desiredTaskXml.Length
            }

            $length = 70
            if( $startIdx + $length -ge $shortestLength )
            {
                $length = $shortestLength - $startIdx
            }

            Write-Verbose ('{0} Current {1}' -f $linePrefix,$currentTaskXml.Substring($startIdx,$length))
            Write-Verbose ('{0} Desired {1}' -f $linePrefix,$desiredTaskXml.Substring($startIdx,$length))
            if( $length -eq 70 )
            {
                Write-Verbose ('{0}         -----------------------------------^' -f $linePrefix)
            }
            return $false
        }
        else
        {
            Write-Verbose ('[{0}] Task XML unchanged' -f $Name)
        }

        if( $TaskCredential )
        {
            $resourceUserName = $resource.TaskCredential | ForEach-Object { Resolve-CIdentityName -Name $_ }
            $desiredUserName = $TaskCredential.UserName | ForEach-Object { Resolve-CIdentityName -Name $_ }
            if( $resourceUserName -ne $desiredUserName )
            {
                Write-Verbose ('[{0}] [TaskCredential] {1} != {2}' -f $Name,$resourceUserName,$desiredUserName) -Verbose
                return $false
            }
        }

        return $true
    }
    else
    {
        if( $resource.Ensure -eq 'Present' )
        {
            Write-Verbose ('[{0}] Found' -f $Name)
            return $false
        }

        Write-Verbose ('[{0}] Not found' -f $Name)
        return $true
    }
}

Export-ModuleMember -Function *
Carbon\DscResources\Carbon_ScheduledTask\Carbon_ScheduledTask.schema.mof
 
Carbon\DscResources\Carbon_Service\Carbon_Service.psm1
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
# 
#     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
# 
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.

& (Join-Path -Path $PSScriptRoot -ChildPath '..\Initialize-CarbonDscResource.ps1' -Resolve)

function Get-TargetResource
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    [OutputType([hashtable])]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the service.
        $Name,
        
        [string]
        # The path to the service.
        $Path,
        
        [ValidateSet('Automatic','Manual','Disabled')]
        [string]
        # The startup type: automatic, manual, or disabled.  Default is automatic.
        $StartupType,

        [Switch]
        $Delayed,
        
        [Carbon.Service.FailureAction]
        # What to do on the service's first failure.  Default is to take no action.
        $OnFirstFailure,
        
        [Carbon.Service.FailureAction]
        # What to do on the service's second failure. Default is to take no action.
        $OnSecondFailure,
        
        [Carbon.Service.FailureAction]
        # What to do on the service' third failure.  Default is to take no action.
        $OnThirdFailure,
        
        [int]
        # How many seconds after which the failure count is reset to 0.
        $ResetFailureCount,
        
        [int]
        # How many milliseconds to wait before restarting the service.  Default is 60,0000, or 1 minute.
        $RestartDelay,
        
        [int]
        # How many milliseconds to wait before handling the second failure.  Default is 60,000 or 1 minute.
        $RebootDelay,
        
        [string[]]
        # What other services does this service depend on?
        $Dependency,
        
        [string]
        # The command to run when a service fails, including path to the command and arguments.
        $Command,
        
        [int]
        # How many milliseconds to wait before running the failure command. Default is 0, or immediately.
        $RunCommandDelay,

        [string]
        # The service's display names.
        $DisplayName,
        
        [string]
        # The service's description.
        $Description,
        
        [ValidateSet("LocalSystem", "LocalService", "NetworkService")]
        [string]
        # The system account the service should run as.
        $UserName,
        
        [pscredential]
        # The credentials of the custom account the service should run as.
        $Credential,
        
        [string[]]
        # The arguments/startup parameters for the service
        $ArgumentList,

        [ValidateSet('Present','Absent')]
        [string]
        # If `Present`, the service is installed/updated. If `Absent`, the service is removed.
        $Ensure = 'Present'        
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    $resource = @{
                    Name = $Name;
                    Path = $null;
                    StartupType = $null;
                    Delayed = $null;
                    OnFirstFailure = $null;
                    OnSecondFailure = $null;
                    OnThirdFailure = $null;
                    ResetFailureCount = $null;
                    RestartDelay = $null;
                    RebootDelay = $null;
                    Command = $null;
                    RunCommandDelay = $null;
                    Dependency = $null;
                    DisplayName = $null;
                    Description = $null;
                    UserName = $null;
                    Credential = $null;
                    Ensure = 'Absent';
                    ArgumentList = $null;
                }

    if( Test-CService -Name $Name )
    {
        $service = Get-Service -Name $Name
        
        $resource.Path,$resource.ArgumentList = [Carbon.Shell.Command]::Split($service.Path)
        $resource.StartupType = $service.StartMode
        $resource.Delayed = $service.DelayedAutoStart
        $resource.OnFirstFailure = $service.FirstFailure
        $resource.OnSecondFailure = $service.SecondFailure
        $resource.OnThirdFailure = $service.ThirdFailure
        $resource.ResetFailureCount = $service.ResetPeriod
        $resource.RestartDelay = $service.RestartDelay
        $resource.RebootDelay = $service.RebootDelay
        $resource.Command = $service.FailureProgram
        $resource.RunCommandDelay = $service.RunCommandDelay
        $resource.DisplayName = $service.DisplayName
        $resource.Description = $service.Description
        $resource.UserName = $service.UserName
        $actualUserName = ''
        if( $service.UserName )
        {
            $actualUserName = Resolve-CIdentity -Name $service.UserName -ErrorAction Ignore
            if( $actualUserName )
            {
                $resource.UserName = $actualUserName.FullName
            }
        }
        [string[]]$resource.Dependency = $service.ServicesDependedOn | Select-Object -ExpandProperty Name
        $resource.Ensure = 'Present'
    }
    $resource
}


function Set-TargetResource
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    DSC resource for configuring Windows services.

    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Carbon_Service` resource configures Windows services, including name, credentials, startup type, state, failure actions, and dependencies.

    The service is installed when the `Ensure` property is set to `Present`. If the service already exists, and its configuration doesn't match the properties being set, the service is stopped, its configuration updated, and the service is restarted. Properties not passed are ignored/left as-is.

    In addition to installing the service, this resource also grants the service user the logon as a service privilege and execute permissions on the service executable.

    The service is uninstalled when the `Ensure` property is set to `Absent`. The service is stopped, then uninstalled.

    `Carbon_Service` is new in Carbon 2.0.

    .LINK
    Grant-CPrivilege

    .LINK
    Install-CService

    .LINK
    Uninstall-CService

    .EXAMPLE
    >
    Demonstrates how to install a service that runs as a custom account and has custom failure actions.

        Carbon_Service InstallNoOpService
        {
            Name = 'CarbonNoOpService';
            Path = 'C:\Projects\Carbon\bin\NoOpService.bin';
            StartupType = 'Automatic';
            Credential = $noOpServiceCreential';
            OnFirstFailure = 'RunCommand';
            Command = 'example.exe /fail %1%';
            RunCommandDelay = 1000;
            OnSecondFailure = 'Restart';
            RestartDelay = (1000*60*5); # 5 minutes as milliseconds
        }

    .EXAMPLE
    >
    Demonstrates how to install a service that runs as a built-in account.

        Carbon_Service InstallNoOpService
        {
            Name = 'CarbonNoOpService';
            Path = 'C:\Projects\Carbon\bin\NoOpService.bin';
            StartupType = 'Automatic';
            UserName = 'LocalService';
        }

    .EXAMPLE
    >
    Demonstrates how to remove a service.

        Carbon_Service InstallNoOpService
        {
            Name = 'CarbonNoOpService';
            Ensure = 'Absent';
        }

    .EXAMPLE
    >
    Demonstrates how to set a service's start type `Automatic (Delayed)`. This functionality was added in Carbon 2.5.

        Carbon_Service InstallNoOpService
        {
            Name = 'CarbonNoOpService';
            Path = 'C:\Projects\Carbon\bin\NoOpService.bin';
            StartupType = 'Automatic';
            Delayed = $true;
            Ensure = 'Present';
        }
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the service.
        $Name,
        
        [string]
        # The path to the service.
        $Path,
        
        [ValidateSet('Automatic','Manual','Disabled')]
        [string]
        # The startup type: automatic, manual, or disabled.  Default is automatic.
        $StartupType,

        [Switch]
        # Used in combination with the `StartupType` parameter to set a service's startup type to `Automatic (Delayed)`.
        #
        # If `Delayed` is true true, and `StartupType` is `Automatic` sets the service's startup type to `Automatic (Delayed)`. 
        #
        # If `Delayed` is false and `StartupType` is `Automatic, sets the service's startup type to `Automatic`.
        #
        # For all other values of `StartupType`, this parameter is ignored.
        #
        # This parameter was added in Carbon 2.5.
        $Delayed,
        
        [Carbon.Service.FailureAction]
        # What to do on the service's first failure.  Default is to take no action.
        $OnFirstFailure,
        
        [Carbon.Service.FailureAction]
        # What to do on the service's second failure. Default is to take no action.
        $OnSecondFailure,
        
        [Carbon.Service.FailureAction]
        # What to do on the service' third failure.  Default is to take no action.
        $OnThirdFailure,
        
        [int]
        # How many seconds after which the failure count is reset to 0.
        $ResetFailureCount,
        
        [int]
        # How many milliseconds to wait before restarting the service.  Default is 60,0000, or 1 minute.
        $RestartDelay,
        
        [int]
        # How many milliseconds to wait before handling the second failure.  Default is 60,000 or 1 minute.
        $RebootDelay,
        
        [string[]]
        # What other services does this service depend on?
        $Dependency,
        
        [string]
        # The command to run when a service fails, including path to the command and arguments.
        $Command,
        
        [int]
        # How many milliseconds to wait before running the failure command. Default is 0, or immediately.
        $RunCommandDelay,
        
        [string]
        # The service's display names.
        $DisplayName,
        
        [string]
        # The service's description.
        $Description,
        
        [ValidateSet("LocalSystem", "LocalService", "NetworkService")]
        [string]
        # The system account the service should run as.
        $UserName,
        
        [pscredential]
        # The credentials of the custom account the service should run as.
        $Credential,
        
        [string[]]
        # The arguments/startup parameters for the service
        $ArgumentList,

        [ValidateSet('Present','Absent')]
        [string]
        # If `Present`, the service is installed/updated. If `Absent`, the service is removed.
        $Ensure = 'Present'
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    $serviceExists = Test-CService -Name $Name
    if( $Ensure -eq 'Absent' )
    {
        if( $serviceExists )
        {
            Write-Verbose ('Removing service ''{0}''' -f $Name)
            Uninstall-CService -Name $Name
        }
        return
    }

    if( -not $Path )
    {
        Write-Error ('Property ''Path'' mandatory when installing/updating a service.')
        return
    }

    if( $UserName -and $Credential )
    {
        Write-Error ('UserName and Credential properties are mutually exclusive. Please provide either Credential or UserName, not both.')
        return
    }

    $PSBoundParameters.Remove('Ensure')
    if( $serviceExists )
    {
        Write-Verbose ('Updating service ''{0}''' -f $Name)
    }
    else
    {
        Write-Verbose ('Installing service ''{0}''' -f $Name)
    }

    Install-CService @PSBoundParameters
}


function Test-TargetResource
{
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    [OutputType([bool])]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the service.
        $Name,
        
        [string]
        # The path to the service.
        $Path,
        
        [ValidateSet('Automatic','Manual','Disabled')]
        [string]
        # The startup type: automatic, manual, or disabled.  Default is automatic.
        $StartupType,

        [Switch]
        $Delayed,
        
        [Carbon.Service.FailureAction]
        # What to do on the service's first failure.  Default is to take no action.
        $OnFirstFailure,
        
        [Carbon.Service.FailureAction]
        # What to do on the service's second failure. Default is to take no action.
        $OnSecondFailure,
        
        [Carbon.Service.FailureAction]
        # What to do on the service' third failure.  Default is to take no action.
        $OnThirdFailure,
        
        [int]
        # How many seconds after which the failure count is reset to 0.
        $ResetFailureCount,
        
        [int]
        # How many milliseconds to wait before restarting the service.  Default is 60,0000, or 1 minute.
        $RestartDelay,
        
        [int]
        # How many milliseconds to wait before handling the second failure.  Default is 60,000 or 1 minute.
        $RebootDelay,
        
        [string[]]
        # What other services does this service depend on?
        $Dependency,
        
        [string]
        # The command to run when a service fails, including path to the command and arguments.
        $Command,
        
        [int]
        # How many milliseconds to wait before running the failure command. Default is 0, or immediately.
        $RunCommandDelay,
        
        [string]
        # The service's display names.
        $DisplayName,
        
        [string]
        # The service's description.
        $Description,
        
        [ValidateSet("LocalSystem", "LocalService", "NetworkService")]
        [string]
        # The system account the service should run as.
        $UserName,
        
        [pscredential]
        # The custom account the service should run as.
        $Credential,
        
        [string[]]
        # The arguments/startup parameters for the service
        $ArgumentList,

        [ValidateSet('Present','Absent')]
        [string]
        # If `Present`, the service is installed/updated. If `Absent`, the service is removed.
        $Ensure = 'Present'
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    $resource = Get-TargetResource -Name $Name

    if( $Ensure -eq 'Absent' )
    {
        if( $resource.Ensure -eq 'Absent' )
        {
            return $true
        }

        Write-Verbose ('Service ''{0}'' found.' -f $Name)
        return $false
    }

    if( $resource.Ensure -eq 'Absent' )
    {
        Write-Verbose ('Service ''{0}'' not found.' -f $Name)
        return $false
    }

    if( $PSBoundParameters.ContainsKey( 'UserName' ) )
    {
        $identity = Resolve-CIdentity -Name $UserName
        if( $identity )
        {
            $PSBoundParameters['UserName'] = $identity.FullName
        }
    }

    if( $resource.ContainsKey('Credential') )
    {
        [void]$resource.Remove('Credential')
    }

    if( $PSBoundParameters.ContainsKey('Credential') )
    {
        [void]$PSBoundParameters.Remove('Credential')
        $identity = Resolve-CIdentity -Name $Credential.UserName -ErrorAction Ignore
        if( $identity )
        {
            $PSBoundParameters.UserName = $identity.FullName
        }
    }

    return Test-CDscTargetResource -TargetResource $resource -DesiredResource $PSBoundParameters -Target ('Service ''{0}''' -f $Name)
}
Carbon\DscResources\Carbon_Service\Carbon_Service.schema.mof
 
Carbon\DscResources\Initialize-CarbonDscResource.ps1
<#
.SYNOPSIS
Configures PowerShell so that Carbon's DSC resources can use Carbon functions/commands.
#>
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
# 
#     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
# 
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
[CmdletBinding()]
param(
)

#Requires -Version 4
Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

Write-Verbose ('Checking if Carbon module loaded.')
if( -not (Get-Module -Name 'Carbon') )
{
    Write-Verbose ('Loading Carbon module.')
    Import-Module -Name (Join-Path -Path $PSScriptRoot -ChildPath '..\Carbon.psd1' -Resolve) -Global
}

Carbon\en-US\about_Carbon.help.txt
TOPIC
    about_Carbon
    
SHORT DESCRIPTION
    Carbon is a PowerShell module for automating the configuration of computers 
    running Windows 7, 8, 2008, and 2012. It can configure and manage:
    
     * Local users and groups
     * IIS websites, virtual directories, and applications
     * File system, registry, and certificate permissions
     * Certificates
     * Privileges
     * Services
     * Encryption
     * Junctions
     * Hosts file
     * INI files
     * Performance counters
     * Shares
     * .NET connection strings and app settings
     * And much more!
    
    All functions are designed to be idempotent: when run multiple times with the 
    same arguments, your system will be in the same state without failing or producing
    errors.  
    
SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS
    PowerShell 4.0/5.0 and .NET Framework 4.5 

    Windows 7, 8, 2008, or 2012.

    To use IIS functions, IIS  must be installed/enabled, including the 
    `Web-Scripting-Tools` feature.

INSTALLATION
    See the `about_Carbon_Installation` help topic for installation instructions.

SUPPORT
    See the `about_Carbon_Support` help topic for ways to ask questions about using 
    Carbon.
    
OVERVIEW  
    Only PowerShell [approved verbs](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/ms714428.aspx)
    are used for command names. Carbon assigns special meaning to these verbs:
    
    * Format: Escape (e.g. `Format-CADSearchFilterValue`).
    * Install: Create a resource if it doesn't exist. If it does exist, update its 
      configuration to your desired state (e.g. `Install-CUser`, `Install-CIisWebsite`,
      etc.).
    * Split: Parse (e.g. Split-CIni)
    * Uninstall: Remove a resource if it exists. If it doesn't exist, do nothing.
    
    Carbon has no dependencies and is designed to work on a computer running a fresh
    install of Windows. Some functions do interact with some Windows features. If those 
    features aren't installed, you'll get errors.
    
    Carbon has an automated test suite that runs after every change on a computer
    running Windows 2012 R2. Before release, the test suite is run automatically on a 
    computer running Windows 7 and PowerShell 5. No releases are made unless all tests 
    pass.

VERSIONING

    Carbon uses [semantic versioning](http://semver.org/). We use our version number
    to communicate how Carbon changes from the last version. Carbon version numbers have
    the form Major.Minor.Patch.
    
    When upgrading to a new version, if:
    
     * Just the patch number has changed (e.g. 1.5.0 -> 1.5.1) then we've only fixed bugs
       in a 100% backwards-compatible way. You should feel comfortable upgrading with no
       or limited testing.
     * The Minor version has changed (e.g. 1.8.0 -> 1.9.0), then we've only fixed bugs or
       introduced new functionality in a 100% backwards-compatible way. Again, you should
       feel comfortable upgrading with light to limited testing.
       
       When upgrading to a new minor version, always upgrade to the minor version with the
       highest patch number.   
     * The Major version has changed (e.g. 1.9.0 -> 2.0.0), then we've broken 
       compatibility with previous versions of Carbon. You should carefully review the
       release notes and update your code to work with the new version. You'll need to do
       a thorough test of any changes to ensure your scripts still work.
    
SEE ALSO
    http://get-carbon.org
    https://github.com/pshdo/Carbon/
    about_Carbon_Installation
    about_Carbon_Support
    about_Carbon_Extended_Type_Data
    about_Carbon_2.0
    about_Carbon_Contributing
    http://semver.org
Carbon\en-US\about_Carbon_2.0.help.txt
TOPIC
    about_Carbon_2.0

SHORT DESCRIPTION
    Describes changes included in Carbon 2.0.
    
LONG DESCRIPTION
    Carbon version 2.0 is a *huge* release, with lots of new enhancements. We hope you 
    like them. Carbon 2.0 now requires PowerShell 4, so it is not 
    backwards-compatabile with Carbon 1.x. Because of this, we made some additional 
    backwards-incompatible changes. See the `Upgrade Instructions` section for things 
    to look out for.
    
    If you're upgrading from a previous 2.0 alpha release, you'll want to review the 
    changes since your alpha version (found after the *Upgrade Instructions* section). 
    We improved backwards-compatability with Carbon 1.x since the last alpha release, 
    but that broke compatability with the alphas. 
    
UPGRADE INSTRUCTIONS
    
    Make sure you're running PowerShell 4. 
    
    `Install-CCertificate`'s parameters have changed:
    
     * Remove the `Exportable` switch from any usages of `Install-CCertificate` when 
       installing from an `X509Certificate2` *object*, since that switch only gets used 
       when installing a certificate from a file.
    
    Some functions now return different objects and/or the objects returned have 
    changed:
    
    * Use the `Sid` property on objects returned by `Test-CIdentity` when using the 
      `PassThru` switch: it now returns a `Carbon.Identity` object if the identity 
      exists *and* you use the `-PassThru` switch, e.g. `Test-CIdentity -Name $userName 
      -PassThru | Select-Object -Expand 'Sid'`.
    * Update usages of `Carbon.Computer.ProgramInstallInfo`'s `Version` property 
      (returned by `Get-CProgramInstallInfo`). It was an `int` and is now a 
      [Version](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/y0hf9t2e.aspx) object.
    
    The Carbon assembly was re-organized. If you were reaching into `Carbon.dll` 
    (***NOT RECOMMENDED***), you'll want to:
    
     * Rename usages of `[Carbon.AdvApi32]` class to `[Carbon.Service.ServiceSecurity]`.
     * Rename usages of `[Carbon.Lsa]` class to `[Carbon.Security.Privilege]`.
     * Rename usages of `[Carbon.Win32]` class to `[Carbon.FileSystem.Path]`.
     * Rename usages of `[Carbon.HandleInfo]` class to `[Carbon.Win32.HandleInfo]`.
     * Remove usages of `[Carbon.Lsa]::LookupPrivilegeValue` class method. It was 
       incorrectly exposed as a public method.
     * Remove usages of `[Carbon.Kernel32]::LocalFree` class method. It was 
       incorrectly exposed as a public method.
    
    The following commands no longer return the stdout output from the console 
    applications each one calls. To see the old output, use the `-Verbose` switch. 
    Remove any usage of the output you were processing.
    
     * All IIS functions.
     * `Disable-CFirewallStatefulFtp`
     * `Enable-CFirewallStatefulFtp`
     * `Install-CService`
     * `Install-SmbShare`
     * `Remove-CSslCertificateBinding`
     * `Set-CSslCertificateBinding`
    
    The following functions' internal behavior has changed. This may or may not impact 
    you.
    
     * `Grant-CPermission` now only grants permissions on an object if those 
        permissions aren't present.  To preserve previous behavior, add the `-Force` 
        switch to all `Grant-CPermission` usages.
     * `Grant-CPermission` now writes an error if you don't have access to a private 
       key. Previously, it would skip the key without any messages.
     * `Install-CMsi` (fka `Invoke-WindowsInstaller`) now only installs the MSI if it 
       isn't already installed. To preserve the previous behavior and always install, 
       add the `-Force` switch to all `Invoke-WindowsInstaller`\`Install-CMsi` usages.
     * All IIS functions were re-written to use the `Microsoft.Web.Administration` API 
       instead of `appcmd.exe`.
     * `Install-CIisWebsite` no longer deletes and re-creates websites. If a website 
       exists, it updates its configuration to match parameters passed in. To preserve 
       previous behavior and delete the website before installing, use the `-Force` 
       switch.
     * `Install-CIisVirtualDirectory` no longer deletes and re-creates virtual 
        directories. If a virtual directory exists, its configuration is updated in 
       place. To preserve previous behavior and delete the virtual directory before 
       installing, use the `Force` switch.
     * `Install-CFileShare` (fka `Install-SmbShare`) no longer deletes and re-creates 
       the share, instead it modifies existing shares in place. To preserve previous 
       behavior and delete existing shares before re-creating, use the `Force` switch.
    
    We've added parameter validation to some functions. This shouldn't impact 
    anybody, since if you were passing data that breaks this new validation, the 
    function wouldn't have worked even in previous versions of Carbon.
    
     * Ensure that all thumbprints passed to `Set-CSslCertificateBinding` are valid (40 
       character hex strings), since it now validates thumbprints.
     * Check that all IP addresses passed to `Set-CHostsEntry` are valid IP v4 or v6 
       addresses.  `Set-CHostsEntry`'s IPAddress parameter is now a 
       `System.Net.IPAddress` object.  Previously it was a string validated with a 
       regular expression, so you *should* be OK.
    
    
BUG FIXES
    * Carbon's `System.ServiceProcess.ServiceController` extended type data causes 
      errors when PowerShell formats `System.ServiceProcess.ServiceController` objects 
      that represent services on remote computers.
    * `Compress-CItem` doesn't remove handled errors from global error array.
    * `Grant-CPermission` fails with an unhelpful error message if it is unable to get 
      the ACL on a private key.
    * `Install-CMsi` didn't properly detect when installation failed.
    * `Install-CScheduledTask` fails under PowerShell 5 to create a scheduled task to 
       run on Sunday.
    * `Install-CService`:
       * No longer writes a warning about being unable to stop an already stopped 
         service (fixes [issue #158](https://bitbucket.org/splatteredbits/carbon/issues/158/Install-CService-extraneous-warning-about)).
       * Starting the service now respects caller's error action preference. Before, 
        `Start-Service` would write an error even if somone called `Install-CService` 
        with an `Ignore` or `SilentlyContinue` error action preference.
    * `Set-CEnvironmentVariable` fails to set process-level environment variable. 
    * `Set-CHostsEntry` fails to preserve whitespace if existing lines end with a 
      comment/description. Thanks to [Konstantin Ushenin](https://vk.com/kostanew) for 
      the fix.
    
GENERAL EHANCEMENTS
    
    * Carbon now requires PowerShell 4.
    * `Import-Carbon.ps1` is more intelligent about when it tries to re-load Carbon. 
      It will force a re-import of Carbon if any of Carbon's files have changed or the 
      version has changed.
    * Added new `FileIndex`, `LinkCount`, and `VolumeSerialNumber` extended type data 
      on `System.IO.FileInfo` objects for getting a file's index, its hard link count, 
      and volume serial number, respectively.
    * The product version of the Carbon assembly now includes pre-release version 
      information, as defined by the [Semantic Versioning 
      specification](http://semver.org). To get this version, run `Get-Item Carbon.dll | 
      Select-Object -ExpandProperty 'VersionInfo' | Select-Object -ExpandProperty 
      'ProductVersion'`.
    * The Carbon NuGet package now supports installing and uninstalling under 
       Chocolatey.
    * All IIS functions were re-written to use the `Microsoft.Web.Administration` API 
      instead of `appcmd.exe`. As a side effect, they no longer return `appcmd.exe` 
      console output.
    * The following functions no longer use `Write-Host`. Instead, they use 
       `Write-Verbose`:
       * `Disable-CNtfsCompression`
       * `Enable-CNtfsCompression`
       * `Grant-CComPermission`
       * `Grant-CPermission`
       * `Install-CService` 
       * `Remove-CSslCertificateBinding` 
       * `Revoke-CComPermission` 
    * Created default, table-based display formats for 
       `System.DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.UserPrincipal`, 
       `System.DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.GroupPrincipal`, 
       `Microsoft.Web.Administration.ApplicationPool`, 
       `Microsoft.Web.Administration.Site`, and 
       `Microsoft.Web.Administration.Application` objects.
     
NEW FUNCTIONS
    
    * `Clear-CDscLocalResourceCache` clears the local LCM's DSC resource. This makes 
      developing resources easier.
    * `Clear-CMofAuthoringMetadata` removes authoring metadata from .mof files.
    * `Copy-CDscResource` copies DSC resources (ZIP files, MSI archives, MOF files, 
      etc.), including timestamps, checksums, and copying only changed files.
    * `ConvertTo-SecurityIdentifer` converts a binary, string, or 
      `System.Security.Principal.SecurityIdentifier` object into a 
      `System.Security.Principal.SecurityIdentifier` object.
    * `Get-CDscError` gets any DSC errors that were written to a computer's DSC event 
      log.
    * `Get-CDscWinEvent` gets DSC events that were written to a computer's DSC event log.
    * `Get-CFileSharePermission` gets the sharing permissions on a file/SMB share 
      (*not* the NTFS file system permissions).
    * `Get-CFileShare` uses WMI to get `Win32_Share` objects for the file shares 
      installed on the local computer.
    * `Get-CGroup` gets a local group or all local groups.
    * `Get-CMsi` reads installer information and properties from an MSI file.
    * `Get-CPowerShellModuleInstallPath` gets the path where new module's should be 
      installed. Beginning with PowerShell 4, modules should get installed into 
      `$env:ProgramFiles\Windows PowerShell\Modules`. Under PowerShell 3, it is 
      `$PSHome\Modules`. This function returns the correct location for the version of 
      PowerShell you're using.
    * `Get-CUser` gets a local user or all local users.
    * `Initialize-CLcm` configures the DSC Local Configuration Manager on computers, 
      including installing the private key needed for decrypting credentials.
    * `Remove-CGroupMember` removes a user/group from a local group. Thanks to [Philip Kluss](https://bitbucket.org/philkloose) 
      for the contribution. 
    * `Resolve-CIdentity` converts a system, local, or domain principal name or a SID 
      (as a `SecurityIdentifer`, string SDDL, or byte array) into its canonical 
      representation and includes extended identity information: domain, type, and SID.
    * `Start-CDscPullConfiguration` starts a configuration check on a computer that is 
      configured to use the PULL refresh mode.
    * `Test-CDscTargetResource` compares target resource with desired resource. Helpful 
      when writing `Test-TargetResource` functions.
    * `Test-CGroup` checks if a *local* group exists.
    * `Test-CFileShare` uses WMI to check if a file/SMB share exists on the local 
      computer.
    * `Test-CTypeDataMember` tests if a type has an extended type member defined.
    * `Uninstall-CFileShare` uninstalls/removes a file share, if it exists.
    * `Write-CDscError` writes DSC `ErrorLogRecord` objects as errors.
    
NEW DSC RESOURCES
    
    * `Carbon_EnvironmentVariable` creates/removes machine-level environment variables.
    * `Carbon_FirewallRule` configures firewall rules.
    * `Carbon_IniFile` manages the contents of INI files.
    * `Carbon_Permission` configures file, directory, registry, and certificate 
      permissions.
    * `Carbon_Privilege` configures an identity's privileges.
    * `Carbon_ScheduledTask` configures scheduled tasks with `schtasks.exe`.
    * `Carbon_Service` configures Windows services.
     
ADDED PASSTHRU PARAMETERS
    
    Added a `PassThru` switch to the following functions, which will return objects of 
    the given type:
    
     * `Grant-CComPermission`: `Carbon.Security.ComAccessRule`, representing the granted 
       permission.
     * `Grant-CPermission`: `System.Security.AccessControl.AccessRule`, representing the 
       granted permission.
     * `Install-CGroup`: `System.DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.GroupPrincipal`, 
       representing the group. 
     * `Install-CIisApplication`: `Microsoft.Web.Administration.Application`, 
       representing the application.
     * `Install-CIisWebsite`: `Microsoft.Web.Administration.Site`, representing the 
       website.
     * `Install-CJunction`: `System.IO.DirectoryInfo`, representing new target 
       directories and any new/updated junctions.
     * `Install-CService`: `System.ServiceProcess.ServiceController`, representing the 
       service.
     * `Install-CUser`: `System.DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.UserPrincipal`, 
       representing the user.
     * `Set-CSslCertificateBinding`: `Carbon.Certificates.SslCertificateBinding`, 
       representing the configured binding.
     
NO MORE CONSOLE OUTPUT
    
    The following functions no longer return the console output of the program each one 
    runs. Instead, the output is written to the verbose stream (i.e. use the `-Verbose` 
    switch to see it).
    
     * `Disable-CFirewallStatefulFtp`
     * `Enable-CFirewallStatefulFtp`
     * `Install-CService`
     * `Remove-CSslCertificateBinding`
     * `Set-CSslCertificateBinding`
     
OBSOLETE FUNCTIONS AND PARAMETERS
    
    The following functions are now obsolete. Please don't use them and stop using them 
    if you are. They will be removed from a future major version of Carbon. You'll get 
    warnings if you use them.
    
     * `Complete-CJob`: It's total crap. Use PowerShell's `Wait-Job` cmdlet instead.
     * `Invoke-CAppCmd`: Switch to Carbon's IIS functions, or use 
       `Get-CIisConfigurationSection` to get `ConfigurationElement` objects from the 
       `Microsoft.Web.Administration` API that you can modify.
     * `Resolve-CNetPath`: Switch to something else. Carbon doesn't use `net.exe` anymore.
     
    The following functions now have obsolete parameters, which will be removed from a 
    future major version of Carbon. You'll get warnings if you use them.
    
    * `Install-CIisAppPool's` `UserName` and `Password` parameters. Use the new 
      `Credential` parameter instead.
    * `Install-CMsi's` `Quiet` switch. `Install-CMsi` always installs in quiet mode. 
      Please remove usages.
    * `Install-CService's` `Password` parameter. Use the new `Credential` parameter 
      instead.
    * `Install-CUser's` `UserName` and `Password` parameters. Use the new `Credential` 
      parameter instead.
    
RENAMED FUNCTIONS
    
    The following functions were renamed, but with backwards-compatible aliases in 
    place, so you shouldn't have to change any code.
    
    * `Invoke-WindowsInstaller` -> `Install-CMsi`
    * `Install-SmbShare` -> `Install-CFileShare`
     
SWITCH TO SYSTEM.DIRECTORYSERVICES.ACCOUNTMANAGEMENT API FOR USER/GROUP MANAGEMENT
    
    The following functions were re-written to use the 
    `System.DirectoryServices.AccountManagement` API, introduced in .NET 3.5.
    
    * `Add-CGroupMember`
    * `Install-CGroup`
    * `Install-CUser` 
    * `Test-CUser`
    * `Uninstall-CUser`
     
MISCELLANEOUS CHANGES
    
    * `Get-CIisAppPool`
       * Now return all application pools installed on the local computer when called 
          with no parameters.
       * Added a default table format for 
          `Microsoft.Web.Administration.ApplicationPool` objects.
    * `Get-CProgramInstallInfo`
       * Return object's `Version` property changed from an `int` to a 
          [Version](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/y0hf9t2e.aspx) object.
       * Return object's now have `ProductCode` and `User` properties. If a program 
          doesn't have a product code, it is set to `[Guid]::Empty`. The `User` property 
          is only set for per-user software installs.
    * `Get-CServiceConfiguration` now supports services from remote computers.
    * `Grant-CPermission` now only grants permissions on an object if those permissions 
       aren't present.  To preserve previous behavior, add the `-Force` switch to all 
       `Grant-CPermission` usages.
    * `Install-CCertificate's` `Exportable` switch is now only allowed when installing 
       a certificate from a file. Previously, you could supply the switch when installing 
       from an X509Certificate2 object but it was ignored.
    * `Install-CGroup's` `Members` parameter renamed to `Member` (with 
       backwards-compatible alias).
    * Added `Credential` parameter to `Install-CIisAppPool` for increased security and 
       to follow PowerShell guidelines.
    * `Install-CIisVirtualDirectory` no longer deletes and re-creates existing virtual 
       directories, but modifies existing virtual directories in place.
    * `Install-CIisWebsite`
       * Added `SiteID` parameter tfor setting a website's IIS ID.
       * No longer deletes and re-creates websites, but modifies existing websites in 
          place. This may or may not be a breaking change in your environment.
    * `Install-CMsi`
       * `Path` parameter now supports wildcards.
       * Now only installs an MSI if it isn't already installed. To preserve the 
          previous behavior and always install, add the `-Force` switch to all 
          `Invoke-WindowsInstaller`\`Install-CMsi` usages.
    * `Install-CService`
       * Now supports service startup parameters/arguments via the `ArgumentList` 
          parameter.
       * Improved error handling and messages. It now uses `net helpmsg` to get 
          helpful error messages based on sc.exe exit codes.
       * Added `Credential` parameter for increased security and to follow PowerShell 
          guidelines.
       * Added `Description` parameter for setting a service's description.
       * Added `DisplayName` parameter for setting a service's display name.
    * `Install-CFileShare` (fka `Install-SmbShare`):
       * Re-written to use WMI isntead of `net.exe`, so it no longer returns any 
          console output.
       * Modifies existing shares in place, instead of deleting and re-creating, 
         *unless* the share's path changes. Changing a share's path requires the old 
         share to be deleted and a new one created.
    * `Install-CUser`
       * Added `PasswordExpires` switch for creating accounts with passwords that 
          expire.
       * Added `UserCannotChangePassword` to prevent user from changing his password.
    * `Remove-CSslCertificateBinding` has better error handling.
    * Added `SID` parameter to `Resolve-CIdentityName` to resolve a SID into its 
       identity name.
    * `Set-CHostsEntry's` `IPAddress` parameter is now a `System.Net.IPAddress` object. 
       It used to be a string validated with a regular expression.
    * `Test-CIdentity` now returns a `Carbon.Identity` object if the identity exists 
       *and* you use the `-PassThru` switch. It used to return the identity's SID. Update 
       scripts to use the `FullName` property to get the old return value, e.g. 
       `Test-CIdentity -Name $userName -PassThru | Select-Object -Expand 'FullName'`.
    * `Test-COSIs32Bit` now uses the Environment class's new 
       [Is64BitOperatingSystem](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.environment.is64bitoperatingsystem.aspx) property.
    * `Test-COSIs64Bit` now uses the Environment class's new 
       [Is64BitOperatingSystem](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.environment.is64bitoperatingsystem.aspx) property.
    * `Test-CPowerShellIs32Bit` now uses the `Environment` class's new 
       [Is64BitProcess](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.environment.is64bitprocess.aspx) property.
    * `Test-CPowerShellIs64Bit` now uses the `Environment` class's new 
       [Is64BitProcess](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/system.environment.is64bitprocess.aspx) property.
    * `Uninstall-CScheduledTask` now retries when un-installing a task fails with "The 
       function attempted to use a name that is reserved for use by another transaction." 
       error.
    * `Unprotect-CString`
       * Added `AsSecureString` switch, which will return a secure string instead of a 
          normal string.
       * The `Password` parameter now accepts `SecureString` values.
    * `Initialize-CLcm`
       * Added support for PowerShell 5: `RefreshIntervalMinutes` default value 
          changed to from 15 to 30; `RefreshIntervalMinutes` minimum value is now 30; 
          `ConfigurationFrequency`'s minimum value is now 1 (from 2).
Carbon\en-US\about_Carbon_Contributing.help.txt
TOPIC
    about_Carbon_Contributing

SHORT DESCRIPTION
    This topic describes how to contribute to the Carbon project.
    
LONG DESCRIPTION
    We welcome your feedback and contributions!  
    
    [Clone the repo from GitHub.](https://github.com/pshdo/Carbon/)

    Write tests with Pester. Tests go in the `Tests` directory. Tests should always 
    clean-up after themselves and strive to leave an operating system in the exact state 
    it was in before the test fixture ran. 
    
    Unfortunately, we only have the resources to run our tests on a 64-bit Windows 2012 R2
    and 7 computer. Any donations to the project would be used to purchase licenses and 
    hosting for running our tests on 32-bit and 64-bit versions of Windows 7, Windows 
    2008 R2, and Windows 2012 R2.
 
    Carbon uses semantic versioning (see http://semver.org/). Carbon version numbers 
    take the form X.Y.Z: X is the major version, Y is the minor version, and Z is the 
    patch version. The patch version is incremented when backwards-compatible bug 
    fixes are made. You should feel comfortable rolling out a new patch version 
    quickly, with limited testing. The minor version is incremented when new, 
    backwards-compatible changes are introduced, or existing functions are deprecated.  
    You'll probably want to review the release notes and test those bits that changed 
    since the last release. The major version is incremented when 
    backwards-incompatible changes are made. In this case, you'll need to do thorough 
    testing, and upgrade your scripts to use new functionality. 

STYLE GUIDE
 
    We use spaces for indenting.  Each level of indent (i.e. "tab") should be four spaces. 
    This is default in the PowerShell ISE.
    
    Use camel-casing for all function names, including abbreviations three letters or 
    longer, e.g. Install-CMsmq, Install-CIisWebsite. Capitalize all letters in one or two 
    letter abbreviations, e.g. Test-COSIs32Bit.
    
    All function parameter and module variables names must be capitalized, e.g. `$Path`, 
    `$Name`, etc. All variable names should be lowercase, e.g. `$result`, `$csprojXml`.
    
    Variables that contain a path should end in `Path`, e.g. $csprojPath, $websitePath.
    
    *Always* use an [approved PowerShell verb](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/ms714428.aspx).
    
    If possible, use an [approved PowerShell parameter name](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/desktop/dd878352(v=vs.85).aspx).
      
    Use a prefix for all functions that manage a common area of Windows, e.g. Iis for all 
    IIS-related functions, Msmq for MSMQ-related functions, etc.
    
    All functions must have synopsis, description, and example documentation.
    
SEE ALSO
    https://github.com/pshdo/Carbon/
    
Carbon\en-US\about_Carbon_Extended_Type_Data.help.txt
TOPIC
    about_Carbon_Extended_Type_Data
    
SHORT DESCRIPTION
    Explains all the extended type data Carbon adds to native .NET objects.
    
LONG DESCRIPTION
    The extended type data that Carbon adds are outlined below. 
    
    ## Microsoft.Web.Administration.Site
     * `[string] PhysicalPath { get; }`: the website's physical path (i.e. web root).
     
    ## Microsoft.Web.Administration.Application
     * `[string] PhysicalPath`: the application's phyiscal path (i.e. web root).
    
    ## System.Diagnostics.Process
     * `[int] ParentProcessID { get; }`: the ID of the parent process (i.e. the process 
       that started this process). Uses WMI, so it can be a little slow.
     
    ## System.DirectoryServices.AccountManagement.Principal
     * `[string] ConnectedServer { get; }`: the server the principal came from. This 
       information  is normally available as `$principal.Context.ConnectedServer`. I'm 
       lazy so added this member.
     
    ## System.IO.DirectoryInfo
     * `[bool] IsJunction { get; }`: returns `$true` if the directory is a junction, 
       `$false` otherwise. Uses the `DirectoryInfo`'s `Attributes` properties to make 
       this determination.
     * `[bool] IsSymbolicLink { get; }`: returns `$true` if the directory is a symbolic
       link, `$false` otherwise. Uses the Win32 API to make this determination. This 
       function was added in Carbon 2.5.0.
     * `[string] TargetPath { get; }`: if the `DirectoryInfo` is a junction or symbolic 
       link,returns the junction's/symbolic link's target path (i.e. the path it points 
       to). Retrieving the target path for symbolic links was added in Carbon 2.5.0.
    
    ## System.IO.FileInfo
     * `[uint64] FileIndex { get; }`: the file's index. This is the file's unique 
       identifier.
     * `[bool] IsSymbolicLink { get; }`: returns `$true` if the file is a symbolic link,
       `$false` otherwise. Uses the Win32 API to make this determination. This function 
       was added in Carbon 2.5.0.
     * `[uint32] LinkCount { get; }`: the number of links to the file. Each unique file
       can be linked to at different paths on the file system.
     * `[uint32] VolumeSerialNumber { get; }`: the serial number of the volume the file
       is on.
     * `[string] TargetPath { get; }`: if the `FileInfo` is a symbolic link, returns the 
       symbolic link's target path (i.e. the path it points to). This property was added
       in Carbon 2.5.0.
    
    ## System.Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509Certificate2
     * `[string] IssueTo { get; }`: gets the Issued To information from the certificate.
       This is the same information displayed in the Certificates MMC snap-in.
     * `[string] IssuedBy { get; }`: gets the Issued By information from the certificate.
       This is the same information displayed in the Certificates MMC snap-in.
    
    ## System.Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.X509Store
     * `[string] DisplayName { get; }`: gets the name of the store as displayed in the 
       Certificates MMC snap-in.
     * `[Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.StoreName] StoreName { get; }`: gets the
       `Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates.StoreName` enumeration value for a store.
       If it doesn't have one, returns an empty string.
    
    ## System.ServiceProcess.ServiceController
     * `[string] Description { get; }`: gets the service's description.
     * `[Carbon.Service.ErrorControl] ErrorControl { get; }`: Specifies how Windows 
       proceeds if the service fails to load or initialize properly. See
       [ErrorControl](https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/Cc963244.aspx) for 
       an explanation of these values.
     * `[string] FailureProgram { get; }`: the program to run if the service fails.
     * `[Carbon.Service.FailureAction] FailureAction { get; }`: specifies the action to
       take the first time the service fails.
     * `[string] LoadOrderGroup { get; }`: the group the service is in when the system
       starts services during startup.
     * `[string] Path { get; }`: the path, with arguments, of the service's executable.
     * `[uint32] RebootDelay { get; }`: the number of milliseconds to wait after the 
       service fails to restart the computer.
     * `[uint32] RebootDelayMinutes { get; }`: the number of minutes (rounded down) to 
       wait after the service fails to restart the computer. Calculated from the 
       `RebootDelay`.
     * `[string] RebootMessage { get; }`: the message to use when rebooting the system
       after the service fails.
     * `[uint32] ResetPeriod { get; }`: the number of seconds to wait after a failure 
       before resetting the failure count back to zero.
     * `[uint32] ResetPeriodDays { get; }`: the number of days to wait after a failure 
       before resetting the failure count back to zero. Calculated from the 
       `ResetPeriodDays` property, and rounded down to the nearest day.
     * `[uint32] RestartDelay { get; }`: the number of milliseconds to wait after the
       service fails before attempting to restart it.
     * `[uint32] RestartDelayMinutes { get; }`: the number of minutes to wait after the
       service fails before attempting to restart it. Calculated from `RestartDelay` and
       round down.
     * `[uint32] RunCommandDelay { get; }`: the number of milliseconds to wait after a
       failure before running the failure command.
     * `[uint32] RunCommandDelayMinutes { get; }`: the number of minutes to wait after 
       a failure before running the failure command.
     * `[Carbon.Service.FailureAction] SecondFailure { get; }`: the action to take
       when the service fails for the second time.
     * `[System.ServiceProcess.ServiceStartMode] StartMode { get; }`: the service's 
       start mode.
     * `[string] TagID { get; }`: the service's tag ID.
     * `[Carbon.Service.FailureAction] ThirdFailure { get; }`: the action to take when
       the service fails the third time.
     * `[string] UserName { get; }`: the name of the user whose credentials the service
       runs under.
 
SEE ALSO
    about_Types.ps1xml
    
    
Carbon\en-US\about_Carbon_Installation.help.txt
TOPIC
    about_Carbon_Installation
    
SHORT DESCRIPTION
    Carbon can be installed from a ZIP archive, from the PowerShell gallery, with 
    Chocolatey, and NuGet.
    
INSTALL FROM ZIP ARCHIVE
    1. [Download the ZIP file from GitHub.](https://github.com/pshdo/Carbon/releases)
    2. Unblock the zip file (right-click the .zip file, choose Properties, click 
       "Unblock", then click "OK").
    3. Unzip the Carbon module anywhere on your file system. 
    
    You can now import module using the `Import-Carbon.ps1` script:
    
        PS> .\Carbon\Import-Carbon.ps1
    
    To make Carbon available so you can run `Import-Module Carbon`, copy the `Carbon`
    directory into one of PowerShell's module paths. This command will you a list:
           
        PS> $env:PSModulePath -split ';'
    
    Once you do, you can import Carbon by running:
    
        PS> Import-Module 'Carbon'

INSTALL FROM POWERSHELL GALLERY
    To install from the PowerShell Gallery, you must be running PowerShell 5 or
    PowerShell 4 with the [Package Management PowerShell Modules
    Preview](https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/download/details.aspx?id=51451)
    installed.

    
    To install, run:
    
        PS> Install-Module -Name 'Carbon' -AllowClobber
    
    Note: You need the `-AllowClobber` switch because Windows 10/2016 ships with
    modules that contain functions with the same name as some of Carbon's
    functions.
    
    You can now import Carbon by running:
    
        PS> Import-Module 'Carbon'
  
INSTALL WITH CHOCOLATEY
    To install with Chocolatey, you'll need [Chocolatey installed](http://chocolatey.org).
    With Chocolatey installed, run:
    
        PS> choco install Carbon

    This will install Carbon into one of PowerShell's module paths. You can now import
    Carbon by running:
    
        PS> Import-Module 'Carbon'  

INSTALL WITH NUGET
    To install with NuGet, you'll need [NuGet installed](http://nuget.org). With NuGet
    installed, run:
    
        PS> nuget install Carbon
    
    This will create a `Carbon-X.Y.Z` directory in your current directory (or the 
    output directory you specified with Nuget's `OutputDirectory` parameter). You can
    import Carbon from that directory using the `Import-Carbon.ps1 script:
    
        PS> .\Carbon-X.Y.Z\Carbon\Import-Carbon.ps1
     
    Or with PowerShell's `Import-Module` command:
    
        PS> Import-Module '.\Carbon-X.Y.Z\Carbon'
        
    If you want Carbon available so you can run `Import-Module Carbon`, copy the
    `Carbon-X.Y.Z\Carbon` directory into one of PowerShell's module paths. This command
    will give you a list:
    
        PS> $env:PSModulePath -split ';'

SEE ALSO
    http://chocolatey.org
    http://www.nuget.org
    https://www.powershellgallery.com/
    https://github.com/pshdo/Carbon/releases
Carbon\en-US\about_Carbon_Support.help.txt
TOPIC
    about_Carbon_Support
    
SHORT DESCRIPTION
    This topic describes how you can get help using Carbon.
    
OVERVIEW
    Remember, Carbon is open-source software, and comes "as is", ***without 
    warranties or conditions of any kind, either express or implied***. The Carbon 
    users and developers are volunteering to help you. Please respect their time and
    assistance. 

CHAT
    Carbon has a dedicated support channel on the [PowerShell Slack 
    team](https://powershell.slack.com). The project owner/maintainer usually hangs out 
    there Monday through Friday, during Pacific-time-zone business hours. To join the 
    team, use [this form at slack.poshcode.org](http://slack.poshcode.org/) to get an 
    invitation.

E-MAIL
    Carbon has a public mailing list: 
    [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]). Anyone can ask 
    questions. You do need to subscribe to be part of the community and answer questions. 
    [Subscribe to the list.](https://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/carbonps). 

REPORTING BUGS AND REQUESTING NEW FEATURES AND ENHANCEMENTS
    If you've found a bug or want to request an enhancement, create an issue on the 
    project's [Bitbucket 
    site](https://github.com/pshdo/Carbon/issues/new).     

SEE ALSO
    https://powershell.slack.com/
    [email protected]
    https://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/carbonps
    https://github.com/pshdo/Carbon/issues/new
Carbon\Formats\Carbon.Security.HttpUrlAcl.format.ps1xml
 
Carbon\Formats\Schedule.Service.RegisteredTask.format.ps1xml
 
Carbon\Functions\Iis.ps1
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
# 
#     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
# 
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.

function Add-CIisDefaultDocument
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Adds a default document name to a website.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    If you need a custom default document for your website, this function will add it.  The `FileName` argument should be a filename IIS should use for a default document, e.g. home.html.
    
    If the website already has `FileName` in its list of default documents, this function silently returns.
    
    Beginning with Carbon 2.0.1, this function is available only if IIS is installed.

    .EXAMPLE
    Add-CIisDefaultDocument -SiteName MySite -FileName home.html
    
    Adds `home.html` to the list of default documents for the MySite website.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the site where the default document should be added.
        $SiteName,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The default document to add.
        $FileName
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $section = Get-CIisConfigurationSection -SiteName $SiteName -SectionPath 'system.webServer/defaultDocument'
    if( -not $section )
    {
        return
    }

    [Microsoft.Web.Administration.ConfigurationElementCollection]$files = $section.GetCollection('files')
    $defaultDocElement = $files | Where-Object { $_["value"] -eq $FileName }
    if( -not $defaultDocElement )
    {
        Write-IisVerbose $SiteName 'Default Document' '' $FileName
        $defaultDocElement = $files.CreateElement('add')
        $defaultDocElement["value"] = $FileName
        $files.Add( $defaultDocElement )
        $section.CommitChanges() 
    }
}




filter Add-IisServerManagerMember
{
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ValueFromPipeline=$true)]
        # The object on which the server manager members will be added.
        $InputObject,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [Microsoft.Web.Administration.ServerManager]
        # The server manager object to use as the basis for the new members.
        $ServerManager,
        
        [Switch]
        # If set, will return the input object.
        $PassThru
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $InputObject | 
        Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name 'ServerManager' -Value $ServerManager -PassThru |
        Add-Member -MemberType ScriptMethod -Name 'CommitChanges' -Value { $this.ServerManager.CommitChanges() }
        
    if( $PassThru )
    {
        return $InputObject
    }
}




function Disable-CIisSecurityAuthentication
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Disables anonymous or basic authentication for all or part of a website.

    .DESCRIPTION
    By default, disables an authentication type for an entire website.  You can disable an authentication type at a specific path under a website by passing the virtual path (*not* the physical path) to that directory as the value of the `VirtualPath` parameter.

    Beginning with Carbon 2.0.1, this function is available only if IIS is installed.

    .LINK
    Enable-CIisSecurityAuthentication

    .LINK
    Get-CIisSecurityAuthentication
    
    .LINK
    Test-CIisSecurityAuthentication
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Disable-CIisSecurityAuthentication -SiteName Peanuts -Anonymous

    Turns off anonymous authentication for the `Peanuts` website.

    .EXAMPLE
    Disable-CIisSecurityAuthentication -SiteName Peanuts Snoopy/DogHouse -Basic

    Turns off basic authentication for the `Snoopy/DogHouse` directory under the `Peanuts` website.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The site where anonymous authentication should be set.
        $SiteName,
        
        [Alias('Path')]
        [string]
        # The optional path where anonymous authentication should be set.
        $VirtualPath = '',

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='Anonymous')]
        [Switch]
        # Enable anonymouse authentication.
        $Anonymous,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='Basic')]
        [Switch]
        # Enable basic authentication.
        $Basic,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='Windows')]
        [Switch]
        # Enable Windows authentication.
        $Windows
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $authType = $pscmdlet.ParameterSetName
    $getArgs = @{ $authType = $true; }
    $authSettings = Get-CIisSecurityAuthentication -SiteName $SiteName -VirtualPath $VirtualPath @getArgs
    
    if( -not $authSettings.GetAttributeValue('enabled') )
    {
        return
    }

    $authSettings.SetAttributeValue('enabled', 'False')
    $fullPath = Join-CIisVirtualPath $SiteName $VirtualPath
    if( $pscmdlet.ShouldProcess( $fullPath, ("disable {0} authentication" -f $authType) ) )
    {
        $authSettings.CommitChanges()
    }
}





function Enable-CIisDirectoryBrowsing
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Enables directory browsing under all or part of a website.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Enables directory browsing (i.e. showing the contents of a directory by requesting that directory in a web browser) for a website.  To enable directory browsing on a directory under the website, pass the virtual path to that directory as the value to the `Directory` parameter.

    Beginning with Carbon 2.0.1, this function is available only if IIS is installed.

    .EXAMPLE
    Enable-CIisDirectoryBrowsing -SiteName Peanuts

    Enables directory browsing on the `Peanuts` website.

    .EXAMPLE
    Enable-CIisDirectoryBrowsing -SiteName Peanuts -Directory Snoopy/DogHouse

    Enables directory browsing on the `/Snoopy/DogHouse` directory under the `Peanuts` website.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the site where the virtual directory is located.
        $SiteName,
        
        [Alias('Path')]
        [string]
        # The directory where directory browsing should be enabled.
        $VirtualPath
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $section = Get-CIisConfigurationSection -SiteName $SiteName -SectionPath 'system.webServer/directoryBrowse'

    if( $section['enabled'] -ne 'true' )
    {
        Write-IisVerbose $SiteName 'Directory Browsing' 'disabled' 'enabled'
        $section['enabled'] = $true
        $section.CommitChanges()
    }

}




function Enable-CIisSecurityAuthentication
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Enables anonymous or basic authentication for an entire site or a sub-directory of that site.

    .DESCRIPTION
    By default, enables an authentication type on an entire website.  You can enable an authentication type at a specific path under a website by passing the virtual path (*not* the physical path) to that directory as the value of the `VirtualPath` parameter.

    Beginning with Carbon 2.0.1, this function is available only if IIS is installed.

    .LINK
    Disable-CIisSecurityAuthentication
    
    .LINK
    Get-CIisSecurityAuthentication
    
    .LINK
    Test-CIisSecurityAuthentication
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Enable-CIisSecurityAuthentication -SiteName Peanuts -Anonymous

    Turns on anonymous authentication for the `Peanuts` website.

    .EXAMPLE
    Enable-CIisSecurityAuthentication -SiteName Peanuts Snoopy/DogHouse -Basic

    Turns on anonymous authentication for the `Snoopy/DogHouse` directory under the `Peanuts` website.

    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The site where anonymous authentication should be set.
        $SiteName,
        
        [Alias('Path')]
        [string]
        # The optional path where anonymous authentication should be set.
        $VirtualPath = '',
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='Anonymous')]
        [Switch]
        # Enable anonymouse authentication.
        $Anonymous,

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='Basic')]
        [Switch]
        # Enable basic authentication.
        $Basic,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='Windows')]
        [Switch]
        # Enable Windows authentication.
        $Windows
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $authType = $pscmdlet.ParameterSetName
    $getArgs = @{ $authType = $true; }
    $authSettings = Get-CIisSecurityAuthentication -SiteName $SiteName -VirtualPath $VirtualPath @getArgs
    
    if( $authSettings.GetAttributeValue('enabled') )
    {
        return
    }
    
    $authSettings.SetAttributeValue('enabled', 'true')
    
    $fullPath = Join-CIisVirtualPath $SiteName $VirtualPath
    if( $pscmdlet.ShouldProcess( $fullPath, ("enable {0}" -f $authType) ) )
    {
        $authSettings.CommitChanges()
    }
}





function Enable-CIisSsl
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Turns on and configures SSL for a website or part of a website.

    .DESCRIPTION
    This function enables SSL and optionally the site/directory to: 

     * Require SSL (the `RequireSsl` switch)
     * Ignore/accept/require client certificates (the `AcceptClientCertificates` and `RequireClientCertificates` switches).
     * Requiring 128-bit SSL (the `Require128BitSsl` switch).

    By default, this function will enable SSL, make SSL connections optional, ignores client certificates, and not require 128-bit SSL.

    Changing any SSL settings will do you no good if the website doesn't have an SSL binding or doesn't have an SSL certificate.  The configuration will most likely succeed, but won't work in a browser.  So sad.
    
    Beginning with IIS 7.5, the `Require128BitSsl` parameter won't actually change the behavior of a website since [there are no longer 128-bit crypto providers](https://forums.iis.net/p/1163908/1947203.aspx) in versions of Windows running IIS 7.5.
    
    Beginning with Carbon 2.0.1, this function is available only if IIS is installed.

    .LINK
    http://support.microsoft.com/?id=907274

    .EXAMPLE
    Enable-CIisSsl -Site Peanuts

    Enables SSL on the `Peanuts` website's, making makes SSL connections optional, ignoring client certificates, and making 128-bit SSL optional.

    .EXAMPLE
    Enable-CIisSsl -Site Peanuts -VirtualPath Snoopy/DogHouse -RequireSsl
    
    Configures the `/Snoopy/DogHouse` directory in the `Peanuts` site to require SSL.  It also turns off any client certificate settings and makes 128-bit SSL optional.

    .EXAMPLE
    Enable-CIisSsl -Site Peanuts -AcceptClientCertificates

    Enables SSL on the `Peanuts` website and configures it to accept client certificates, makes SSL optional, and makes 128-bit SSL optional.

    .EXAMPLE
    Enable-CIisSsl -Site Peanuts -RequireSsl -RequireClientCertificates

    Enables SSL on the `Peanuts` website and configures it to require SSL and client certificates.  You can't require client certificates without also requiring SSL.

    .EXAMPLE
    Enable-CIisSsl -Site Peanuts -Require128BitSsl

    Enables SSL on the `Peanuts` website and require 128-bit SSL.  Also, makes SSL connections optional and ignores client certificates.

    .LINK
    Set-CIisWebsiteSslCertificate
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true,DefaultParameterSetName='IgnoreClientCertificates')]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The website whose SSL flags should be modifed.
        $SiteName,
        
        [Alias('Path')]
        [string]
        # The path to the folder/virtual directory/application under the website whose SSL flags should be set.
        $VirtualPath = '',
        
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='IgnoreClientCertificates')]
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='AcceptClientCertificates')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='RequireClientCertificates')]
        [Switch]
        # Should SSL be required?
        $RequireSsl,
        
        [Switch]
        # Requires 128-bit SSL.  Only changes IIS behavior in IIS 7.0.
        $Require128BitSsl,
        
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='AcceptClientCertificates')]
        [Switch]
        # Should client certificates be accepted?
        $AcceptClientCertificates,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='RequireClientCertificates')]
        [Switch]
        # Should client certificates be required?  Also requires SSL ('RequireSsl` switch).
        $RequireClientCertificates
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $SslFlags_Ssl = 8
    $SslFlags_SslNegotiateCert = 32
    $SslFlags_SslRequireCert = 64
    $SslFlags_SslMapCert = 128
    $SslFlags_Ssl128 = 256

    $intFlag = 0
    $flags = @()
    if( $RequireSSL -or $RequireClientCertificates )
    {
        $flags += 'Ssl'
        $intFlag = $intFlag -bor $SslFlags_Ssl
    }
    
    if( $AcceptClientCertificates -or $RequireClientCertificates )
    {
        $flags += 'SslNegotiateCert'
        $intFlag = $intFlag -bor $SslFlags_SslNegotiateCert
    }
    
    if( $RequireClientCertificates )
    {
        $flags += 'SslRequireCert'
        $intFlag = $intFlag -bor $SslFlags_SslRequireCert
    }
    
    if( $Require128BitSsl )
    {
        $flags += 'Ssl128'
        $intFlag = $intFlag -bor $SslFlags_Ssl128
    }

    $section = Get-CIisConfigurationSection -SiteName $SiteName -VirtualPath $VirtualPath -SectionPath 'system.webServer/security/access'
    if( -not $section )
    {
        return
    }

    $flags = $flags -join ','
    $currentIntFlag = $section['sslFlags']
    $currentFlags = @( )
    if( $currentIntFlag -band $SslFlags_Ssl )
    {
        $currentFlags += 'Ssl'
    }
    if( $currentIntFlag -band $SslFlags_SslNegotiateCert )
    {
        $currentFlags += 'SslNegotiateCert'
    }
    if( $currentIntFlag -band $SslFlags_SslRequireCert )
    {
        $currentFlags += 'SslRequireCert'
    }
    if( $currentIntFlag -band $SslFlags_SslMapCert )
    {
        $currentFlags += 'SslMapCert'
    }
    if( $currentIntFlag -band $SslFlags_Ssl128 )
    {
        $currentFlags += 'Ssl128'
    }

    if( -not $currentFlags )
    {
        $currentFlags += 'None'
    }

    $currentFlags = $currentFlags -join ','


    if( $section['sslFlags'] -ne $intFlag )
    {
        Write-IisVerbose $SiteName 'SslFlags' ('{0} ({1})' -f $currentIntFlag,$currentFlags) ('{0} ({1})' -f $intFlag,$flags) -VirtualPath $VirtualPath
        $section['sslFlags'] = $flags
        if( $pscmdlet.ShouldProcess( (Join-CIisVirtualPath $SiteName $VirtualPath), "enable SSL" ) )
        {
            $section.CommitChanges()
        }
    }
}




function Get-CIisApplication
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets an IIS application as an `Application` object.

    .DESCRIPTION
    Uses the `Microsoft.Web.Administration` API to get an IIS application object.  If the application doesn't exist, `$null` is returned.

    The objects returned have two dynamic properties and one dynamic methods added.

     * `ServerManager { get; }` - The `ServerManager` object which created the `Application` object.
     * `CommitChanges()` - Persists any configuration changes made to the object back into IIS's configuration files.
     * `PhysicalPath { get; }` - The physical path to the application.

    Beginning with Carbon 2.0.1, this function is available only if IIS is installed.

    .OUTPUTS
    Microsoft.Web.Administration.Application.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CIisApplication -SiteName 'DeathStar`

    Gets all the applications running under the `DeathStar` website.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CIisApplication -SiteName 'DeathStar' -VirtualPath '/'

    Demonstrates how to get the main application for a website: use `/` as the application name.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CIisApplication -SiteName 'DeathStar' -VirtualPath 'MainPort/ExhaustPort'

    Demonstrates how to get a nested application, i.e. gets the application at `/MainPort/ExhaustPort` under the `DeathStar` website.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    [OutputType([Microsoft.Web.Administration.Application])]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The site where the application is running.
        $SiteName,
        
        [Parameter()]
        [Alias('Name')]
        [string]
        # The name of the application.  Default is to return all applications running under the website `$SiteName`.
        $VirtualPath
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $site = Get-CIisWebsite -SiteName $SiteName
    if( -not $site )
    {
        return
    }

    $site.Applications |
        Where-Object {
            if( $VirtualPath )
            {
                return ($_.Path -eq "/$VirtualPath")
            }
            return $true
        } | 
        Add-IisServerManagerMember -ServerManager $site.ServerManager -PassThru
}




function Get-CIisAppPool
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets a `Microsoft.Web.Administration.ApplicationPool` object for an application pool.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Get-CIisAppPool` function returns an IIS application pools as a `Microsoft.Web.Administration.ApplicationPool` object. Use the `Name` parameter to return the application pool. If that application pool isn't found, `$null` is returned.

    Carbon adds a `CommitChanges` method on each object returned that you can use to save configuration changes.

    Beginning in Carbon 2.0, `Get-CIisAppPool` will return all application pools installed on the current computer.
    
    Beginning with Carbon 2.0.1, this function is available only if IIS is installed.

    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/microsoft.web.administration.applicationpool(v=vs.90).aspx
    
    .OUTPUTS
    Microsoft.Web.Administration.ApplicationPool.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CIisAppPool

    Demonstrates how to get *all* application pools.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CIisAppPool -Name 'Batcave'
    
    Gets the `Batcave` application pool.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CIisAppPool -Name 'Missing!'
    
    Returns `null` since, for purposes of this example, there is no `Missing~` application pool.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    [OutputType([Microsoft.Web.Administration.ApplicationPool])]
    param(
        [string]
        # The name of the application pool to return. If not supplied, all application pools are returned.
        $Name
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $mgr = New-Object Microsoft.Web.Administration.ServerManager
    $mgr.ApplicationPools |
        Where-Object { 
            if( -not $PSBoundParameters.ContainsKey('Name') )
            {
                return $true
            }
            return $_.Name -eq $Name 
        } |
        Add-IisServerManagerMember -ServerManager $mgr -PassThru
}




function Get-CIisConfigurationSection
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets a Microsoft.Web.Adminisration configuration section for a given site and path.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    Uses the Microsoft.Web.Administration API to get a `Microsoft.Web.Administration.ConfigurationSection`.
    
    Beginning with Carbon 2.0.1, this function is available only if IIS is installed.

    .OUTPUTS
    Microsoft.Web.Administration.ConfigurationSection.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CIisConfigurationSection -SiteName Peanuts -Path Doghouse -Path 'system.webServer/security/authentication/anonymousAuthentication'

    Returns a configuration section which represents the Peanuts site's Doghouse path's anonymous authentication settings.    
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParameterSetName='Global')]
    [OutputType([Microsoft.Web.Administration.ConfigurationSection])]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ForSite')]
        [string]
        # The site whose configuration should be returned.
        $SiteName,
        
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='ForSite')]
        [Alias('Path')]
        [string]
        # The optional site path whose configuration should be returned.
        $VirtualPath = '',
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ForSite')]
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='Global')]
        [string]
        # The path to the configuration section to return.
        $SectionPath,
        
        [Type]
        # The type of object to return.  Optional.
        $Type = [Microsoft.Web.Administration.ConfigurationSection]
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $mgr = New-Object 'Microsoft.Web.Administration.ServerManager'
    $config = $mgr.GetApplicationHostConfiguration()
    
    $section = $null
    $qualifier = ''
    try
    {
        if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'ForSite' )
        {
            $qualifier = Join-CIisVirtualPath $SiteName $VirtualPath
            $section = $config.GetSection( $SectionPath, $Type, $qualifier )
        }
        else
        {
            $section = $config.GetSection( $SectionPath, $Type )
        }
    }
    catch
    {
    }
        
    if( $section )
    {
        $section | Add-IisServerManagerMember -ServerManager $mgr -PassThru
    }
    else
    {
        Write-Error ('IIS:{0}: configuration section {1} not found.' -f $qualifier,$SectionPath)
        return
    }
}




function Get-CIisHttpHeader
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets the HTTP headers for a website or directory under a website.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    For each custom HTTP header defined under a website and/or a sub-directory under a website, returns a `Carbon.Iis.HttpHeader` object.  This object has two properties:
    
     * Name: the name of the HTTP header
     * Value: the value of the HTTP header
    
    Beginning with Carbon 2.0.1, this function is available only if IIS is installed.

    .OUTPUTS
    Carbon.Iis.HttpHeader.
    
    .LINK
    Set-CIisHttpHeader
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CIisHttpHeader -SiteName SopwithCamel
    
    Returns the HTTP headers for the `SopwithCamel` website.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CIisHttpHeader -SiteName SopwithCamel -Path Engine
    
    Returns the HTTP headers for the `Engine` directory under the `SopwithCamel` website.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CIisHttpHeader -SiteName SopwithCambel -Name 'X-*'
    
    Returns all HTTP headers which match the `X-*` wildcard.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the website whose headers to return.
        $SiteName,
        
        [Alias('Path')]
        [string]
        # The optional path under `SiteName` whose headers to return.
        $VirtualPath = '',
        
        [string]
        # The name of the HTTP header to return.  Optional.  If not given, all headers are returned.  Wildcards supported.
        $Name = '*'
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $httpProtocol = Get-CIisConfigurationSection -SiteName $SiteName `
                                                -VirtualPath $VirtualPath `
                                                -SectionPath 'system.webServer/httpProtocol'
    $httpProtocol.GetCollection('customHeaders') |
        Where-Object { $_['name'] -like $Name } |
        ForEach-Object { New-Object Carbon.Iis.HttpHeader $_['name'],$_['value'] }
}




function Get-CIisHttpRedirect
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets the HTTP redirect settings for a website or virtual directory/application under a website.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    Returns a `Carbon.Iis.HttpRedirectConfigurationSection` object for the given HTTP redirect settings.  The object contains the following properties:
    
     * Enabled - `True` if the redirect is enabled, `False` otherwise.
     * Destination - The URL where requests are directed to.
     * HttpResponseCode - The HTTP status code sent to the browser for the redirect.
     * ExactDestination - `True` if redirects are to destination, regardless of the request path.  This will send all requests to `Destination`.
     * ChildOnly - `True` if redirects are only to content in the destination directory (not subdirectories).
	 
    Beginning with Carbon 2.0.1, this function is available only if IIS is installed.

    .LINK
    http://www.iis.net/configreference/system.webserver/httpredirect
     
    .OUTPUTS
    Carbon.Iis.HttpRedirectConfigurationSection.
     
    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CIisHttpRedirect -SiteName ExampleWebsite 
    
    Gets the redirect settings for ExampleWebsite.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CIisHttpRedirect -SiteName ExampleWebsite -Path MyVirtualDirectory
    
    Gets the redirect settings for the MyVirtualDirectory virtual directory under ExampleWebsite.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The site's whose HTTP redirect settings will be retrieved.
        $SiteName,
        
        [Alias('Path')]
        [string]
        # The optional path to a sub-directory under `SiteName` whose settings to return.
        $VirtualPath = ''
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    Get-CIisConfigurationSection -SiteName $SiteName `
                                -VirtualPath $VirtualPath `
                                -SectionPath 'system.webServer/httpRedirect' `
                                -Type ([Carbon.Iis.HttpRedirectConfigurationSection])
}




function Get-CIisMimeMap
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets the file extension to MIME type mappings.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    IIS won't serve static content unless there is an entry for it in the web server or website's MIME map configuration. This function will return all the MIME maps for the current server.  The objects returned are instances of the `Carbon.Iis.MimeMap` class, and contain the following properties:
    
     * `FileExtension`: the mapping's file extension
     * `MimeType`: the mapping's MIME type
    
    Beginning with Carbon 2.0.1, this function is available only if IIS is installed.

    .OUTPUTS
    Carbon.Iis.MimeMap.
    
    .LINK
    Set-CIisMimeMap
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CIisMimeMap
    
    Gets all the the file extension to MIME type mappings for the web server.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CIisMimeMap -FileExtension .htm*
    
    Gets all the file extension to MIME type mappings whose file extension matches the `.htm*` wildcard.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CIisMimeMap -MimeType 'text/*'
    
    Gets all the file extension to MIME type mappings whose MIME type matches the `text/*` wildcard.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CIisMimeMap -SiteName DeathStar
    
    Gets all the file extenstion to MIME type mappings for the `DeathStar` website.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CIisMimeMap -SiteName DeathStar -VirtualPath ExhaustPort
    
    Gets all the file extension to MIME type mappings for the `DeathStar`'s `ExhausePort` directory.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParameterSetName='ForWebServer')]
    [OutputType([Carbon.Iis.MimeMap])]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ForWebsite')]
        [string]
        # The website whose MIME mappings to return.  If not given, returns the web server's MIME map.
        $SiteName,
        
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='ForWebsite')]
        [Alias('Path')]
        [string]
        # The directory under the website whose MIME mappings to return.  Optional.
        $VirtualPath = '',
        
        [string]
        # The name of the file extensions to return. Wildcards accepted.
        $FileExtension = '*',
        
        [string]
        # The name of the MIME type(s) to return.  Wildcards accepted.
        $MimeType = '*'
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    
    $getIisConfigSectionParams = @{ }
    if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'ForWebsite' )
    {
        $getIisConfigSectionParams['SiteName'] = $SiteName
        $getIisConfigSectionParams['VirtualPath'] = $VirtualPath
    }

    $staticContent = Get-CIisConfigurationSection -SectionPath 'system.webServer/staticContent' @getIisConfigSectionParams
    $staticContent.GetCollection() | 
        Where-Object { $_['fileExtension'] -like $FileExtension -and $_['mimeType'] -like $MimeType } |
        ForEach-Object {
            New-Object 'Carbon.Iis.MimeMap' ($_['fileExtension'],$_['mimeType'])
        }
}




function Get-CIisSecurityAuthentication
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets a site's (and optional sub-directory's) security authentication configuration section.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    You can get the anonymous, basic, digest, and Windows authentication sections by using the `Anonymous`, `Basic`, `Digest`, or `Windows` switches, respectively.
    
    Beginning with Carbon 2.0.1, this function is available only if IIS is installed.

    .OUTPUTS
    Microsoft.Web.Administration.ConfigurationSection.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CIisSecurityAuthentication -SiteName Peanuts -Anonymous
    
    Gets the `Peanuts` site's anonymous authentication configuration section.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CIisSecurityAuthentication -SiteName Peanuts -VirtualPath Doghouse -Basic
    
    Gets the `Peanuts` site's `Doghouse` sub-directory's basic authentication configuration section.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    [OutputType([Microsoft.Web.Administration.ConfigurationSection])]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The site where anonymous authentication should be set.
        $SiteName,
        
        [Alias('Path')]
        [string]
        # The optional path where anonymous authentication should be set.
        $VirtualPath = '',

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='anonymousAuthentication')]        
        [Switch]
        # Gets a site's (and optional sub-directory's) anonymous authentication configuration section.
        $Anonymous,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='basicAuthentication')]        
        [Switch]
        # Gets a site's (and optional sub-directory's) basic authentication configuration section.
        $Basic,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='digestAuthentication')]        
        [Switch]
        # Gets a site's (and optional sub-directory's) digest authentication configuration section.
        $Digest,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='windowsAuthentication')]        
        [Switch]
        # Gets a site's (and optional sub-directory's) Windows authentication configuration section.
        $Windows
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $sectionPath = 'system.webServer/security/authentication/{0}' -f $pscmdlet.ParameterSetName
    Get-CIisConfigurationSection -SiteName $SiteName -VirtualPath $VirtualPath -SectionPath $sectionPath
}




function Get-CIisVersion
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Gets the version of IIS.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    Reads the version of IIS from the registry, and returns it as a `Major.Minor` formatted string.
    
    Beginning with Carbon 2.0.1, this function is available only if IIS is installed.

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CIisVersion
    
    Returns `7.0` on Windows 2008, and `7.5` on Windows 7 and Windows 2008 R2.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $props = Get-ItemProperty hklm:\Software\Microsoft\InetStp
    return $props.MajorVersion.ToString() + "." + $props.MinorVersion.ToString()
}




function Get-CIisWebsite
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Returns all the websites installed on the local computer, or a specific website.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    Returns a Microsoft.Web.Administration.Site object.

    Each object will have a `CommitChanges` script method added which will allow you to commit/persist any changes to the website's configuration.
     
    Beginning with Carbon 2.0.1, this function is available only if IIS is installed.

    .OUTPUTS
    Microsoft.Web.Administration.Site.
    
    .LINK
    http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/microsoft.web.administration.site.aspx

    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CIisWebsite

    Returns all installed websites.
     
    .EXAMPLE
    Get-CIisWebsite -SiteName 'WebsiteName'
     
    Returns the details for the site named `WebsiteName`.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    [OutputType([Microsoft.Web.Administration.Site])]
    param(
        [string]
        [Alias('SiteName')]
        # The name of the site to get.
        $Name
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( $Name -and -not (Test-CIisWebsite -Name $Name) )
    {
        return $null
    }
    
    $mgr = New-Object 'Microsoft.Web.Administration.ServerManager'
    $mgr.Sites | 
        Where-Object {
            if( $Name )
            {
                $_.Name -eq $Name
            }
            else
            {
                $true
            }
        } | Add-IisServerManagerMember -ServerManager $mgr -PassThru
}




function Install-CIisApplication
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Creates a new application under a website.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    Creates a new application at `VirtualPath` under website `SiteName` running the code found on the file system under `PhysicalPath`, i.e. if SiteName is is `example.com`, the application is accessible at `example.com/VirtualPath`.  If an application already exists at that path, it is removed first.  The application can run under a custom application pool using the optional `AppPoolName` parameter.  If no app pool is specified, the application runs under the same app pool as the website it runs under.

    Beginning with Carbon 2.0, returns a `Microsoft.Web.Administration.Application` object for the new application if one is created or modified.

    Beginning with Carbon 2.0, if no app pool name is given, existing application's are updated to use `DefaultAppPool`.
    
    Beginning with Carbon 2.0.1, this function is available only if IIS is installed.

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CIisApplication -SiteName Peanuts -VirtualPath CharlieBrown -PhysicalPath C:\Path\To\CharlieBrown -AppPoolName CharlieBrownPool
    
    Creates an application at `Peanuts/CharlieBrown` which runs from `Path/To/CharlieBrown`.  The application runs under the `CharlieBrownPool`.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CIisApplication -SiteName Peanuts -VirtualPath Snoopy -PhysicalPath C:\Path\To\Snoopy
    
    Create an application at Peanuts/Snoopy, which runs from C:\Path\To\Snoopy.  It uses the same application as the Peanuts website.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    [OutputType([Microsoft.Web.Administration.Application])]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The site where the application should be created.
        $SiteName,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [Alias('Name')]
        [string]
        # The name of the application.
        $VirtualPath,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [Alias('Path')]
        [string]
        # The path to the application.
        $PhysicalPath,
        
        [string]
        # The app pool for the application. Default is `DefaultAppPool`.
        $AppPoolName,

        [Switch]
        # Returns IIS application object. This switch is new in Carbon 2.0.
        $PassThru
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $site = Get-CIisWebsite -SiteName $SiteName
    if( -not $site )
    {
        Write-Error ('[IIS] Website ''{0}'' not found.' -f $SiteName)
        return
    }

    $iisAppPath = Join-CIisVirtualPath $SiteName $VirtualPath

    $PhysicalPath = Resolve-CFullPath -Path $PhysicalPath
    if( -not (Test-Path $PhysicalPath -PathType Container) )
    {
        Write-Verbose ('IIS://{0}: creating physical path {1}' -f $iisAppPath,$PhysicalPath)
        $null = New-Item $PhysicalPath -ItemType Directory
    }

    $appPoolDesc = ''
    if( $AppPoolName )
    {
        $appPoolDesc = '; appPool: {0}' -f $AppPoolName
    }
    
    $apps = $site.GetCollection()

    $appPath = "/{0}" -f $VirtualPath
    $app = Get-CIisApplication -SiteName $SiteName -VirtualPath $VirtualPath
    $modified = $false
    if( -not $app )
    {
        Write-Verbose ('IIS://{0}: creating application' -f $iisAppPath)
        $app = $apps.CreateElement('application') |
                    Add-IisServerManagerMember -ServerManager $site.ServerManager -PassThru
        $app['path'] = $appPath
        $apps.Add( $app ) | Out-Null
        $modified = $true
    }

    if( $app['path'] -ne $appPath )
    {
        $app['path'] = $appPath
        $modified = $true
    }
        
    if( $AppPoolName -and $app['applicationPool'] -ne $AppPoolName)
    {
        $app['applicationPool'] = $AppPoolName
        $modified = $true
    }

    $vdir = $null
    if( $app | Get-Member 'VirtualDirectories' )
    {
        $vdir = $app.VirtualDirectories |
                    Where-Object { $_.Path -eq '/' }
    }

    if( -not $vdir )
    {
        Write-Verbose ('IIS://{0}: creating virtual directory' -f $iisAppPath)
        $vdirs = $app.GetCollection()
        $vdir = $vdirs.CreateElement('virtualDirectory')
        $vdir['path'] = '/'
        $vdirs.Add( $vdir ) | Out-Null
        $modified = $true
    }

    if( $vdir['physicalPath'] -ne $PhysicalPath )
    {
        Write-Verbose ('IIS://{0}: setting physical path {1}' -f $iisAppPath,$PhysicalPath)
        $vdir['physicalPath'] = $PhysicalPath
        $modified = $true
    }

    if( $modified )
    {
        Write-Verbose ('IIS://{0}: committing changes' -f $iisAppPath)
        $app.CommitChanges()
    }

    if( $PassThru )
    {
        return Get-CIisApplication -SiteName $SiteName -VirtualPath $VirtualPath
    }

}




function Install-CIisAppPool
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Creates a new app pool.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    By default, creates a 64-bit app pool running as the `ApplicationPoolIdentity` service account under .NET v4.0 with an integrated pipeline.
    
    You can control which version of .NET is used to run an app pool with the `ManagedRuntimeVersion` parameter: versions `v1.0`, `v1.1`, `v2.0`, and `v4.0` are supported. Use an empty string if you're running .NET Core or to set the .NET framework version to `No Managed Code`.

    To run an application pool using the classic pipeline mode, set the `ClassicPipelineMode` switch.

    To run an app pool using the 32-bit version of the .NET framework, set the `Enable32BitApps` switch.

    An app pool can run as several built-in service accounts, by passing one of them as the value of the `ServiceAccount` parameter: `NetworkService`, `LocalService`, or `LocalSystem`  The default is `ApplicationPoolIdentity`, which causes IIS to create and use a custom local account with the name of the app pool.  See [Application Pool Identities](http://learn.iis.net/page.aspx/624/application-pool-identities/) for more information.

    To run the app pool as a specific user, pass the credentials with the `Credential` parameter. (In some versions of Carbon, there is no `Credential` parameter, so use the `UserName` and `Password` parameters instead.) The user will be granted the `SeBatchLogonRight` privilege.

    If an existing app pool exists with name `Name`, it's settings are modified.  The app pool isn't deleted.  (You can't delete an app pool if there are any websites using it, that's why.)

    By default, this function will create an application pool running the latest version of .NET, with an integrated pipeline, as the NetworkService account.

    Beginning with Carbon 2.0, the `PassThru` switch will cause this function to return a `Microsoft.Web.Administration.ApplicationPool` object for the created/updated application pool.

    Beginning with Carbon 2.0.1, this function is available only if IIS is installed.

    .LINK
    http://learn.iis.net/page.aspx/624/application-pool-identities/

    .LINK
    New-CCredential
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CIisAppPool -Name Cyberdyne -ServiceAccount NetworkService

    Creates a new Cyberdyne application pool, running as NetworkService, using .NET 4.0 and an integrated pipeline.  If the Cyberdyne app pool already exists, it is modified to run as NetworkService, to use .NET 4.0 and to use an integrated pipeline.

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CIisAppPool -Name Cyberdyne -ServiceAccount NetworkService -Enable32BitApps -ClassicPipelineMode

    Creates or sets the Cyberdyne app pool to run as NetworkService, in 32-bit mode (i.e. 32-bit applications are enabled), using the classic IIS request pipeline.

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CIisAppPool -Name Cyberdyne -Credential $charlieBrownCredential

    Creates or sets the Cyberdyne app pool to run as the `PEANUTS\charliebrown` domain account, under .NET 4.0, with an integrated pipeline.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParameterSetName='AsServiceAccount')]
    [OutputType([Microsoft.Web.Administration.ApplicationPool])]
    [Diagnostics.CodeAnalysis.SuppressMessageAttribute("PSAvoidUsingUserNameAndPassWordParams","")]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The app pool's name.
        $Name,
        
        [string]
        [ValidateSet('v1.0','v1.1','v2.0','v4.0','')]
        # The managed .NET runtime version to use.  Default is 'v4.0'.  Valid values are `v1.0`, `v1.1`, `v2.0`, or `v4.0`. Use an empty string if you're using .NET Core or to set the .NET framework version to `No Managed Code`.
        $ManagedRuntimeVersion = 'v4.0',
        
        [int]
        [ValidateScript({$_ -gt 0})]
        #Idle Timeout value in minutes. Default is 0.
        $IdleTimeout = 0,
        
        [Switch]
        # Use the classic pipeline mode, i.e. don't use an integrated pipeline.
        $ClassicPipelineMode,
        
        [Switch]
        # Enable 32-bit applications.
        $Enable32BitApps,
        
        [string]
        [ValidateSet('NetworkService','LocalService','LocalSystem')]
        # Run the app pool under the given local service account.  Valid values are `NetworkService`, `LocalService`, and `LocalSystem`.  The default is `ApplicationPoolIdentity`, which causes IIS to create a custom local user account for the app pool's identity.  The default is `ApplicationPoolIdentity`.
        $ServiceAccount,
        
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='AsSpecificUser',Mandatory=$true,DontShow=$true)]
        [string]
        # OBSOLETE. The `UserName` parameter will be removed in a future major version of Carbon. Use the `Credential` parameter instead.
        $UserName,
        
        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='AsSpecificUser',Mandatory=$true,DontShow=$true)]
        # OBSOLETE. The `Password` parameter will be removed in a future major version of Carbon. Use the `Credential` parameter instead.
        $Password,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='AsSpecificUserWithCredential',Mandatory=$true)]
        [pscredential]
        # The credential to use to run the app pool.
        #
        # The `Credential` parameter is new in Carbon 2.0.
        $Credential,

        [Switch]
        # Return an object representing the app pool.
        $PassThru
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState
    
    if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -like 'AsSpecificUser*' )
    {
        if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -notlike '*WithCredential' ) 
        {
            Write-Warning ('`Install-CIisAppPool` function''s `UserName` and `Password` parameters are obsolete and will be removed in a future major version of Carbon. Please use the `Credential` parameter instead.')
            $Credential = New-CCredential -UserName $UserName -Password $Password
        }
    }

    if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'AsSpecificUser' -and -not (Test-CIdentity -Name $Credential.UserName) )
    {
        Write-Error ('Identity {0} not found. {0} IIS websites and applications assigned to this app pool won''t run.' -f $Credential.UserName,$Name)
    }
    
    if( -not (Test-CIisAppPool -Name $Name) )
    {
        Write-Verbose ('Creating IIS Application Pool {0}' -f $Name)
        $mgr = New-Object 'Microsoft.Web.Administration.ServerManager'
        $appPool = $mgr.ApplicationPools.Add($Name)
        $mgr.CommitChanges()
    }

    $appPool = Get-CIisAppPool -Name $Name
    
    $updated = $false

    if( $appPool.ManagedRuntimeVersion -ne $ManagedRuntimeVersion )
    {
        Write-Verbose ('IIS Application Pool {0}: Setting ManagedRuntimeVersion = {0}' -f $Name,$ManagedRuntimeVersion)
        $appPool.ManagedRuntimeVersion = $ManagedRuntimeVersion
        $updated = $true
    }

    $pipelineMode = [Microsoft.Web.Administration.ManagedPipelineMode]::Integrated
    if( $ClassicPipelineMode )
    {
        $pipelineMode = [Microsoft.Web.Administration.ManagedPipelineMode]::Classic
    }
    if( $appPool.ManagedPipelineMode -ne $pipelineMode )
    {
        Write-Verbose ('IIS Application Pool {0}: Setting ManagedPipelineMode = {0}' -f $Name,$pipelineMode)
        $appPool.ManagedPipelineMode = $pipelineMode
        $updated = $true
    }

    $idleTimeoutTimeSpan = New-TimeSpan -Minutes $IdleTimeout
    if( $appPool.ProcessModel.IdleTimeout -ne $idleTimeoutTimeSpan )
    {
        Write-Verbose ('IIS Application Pool {0}: Setting idle timeout = {0}' -f $Name,$idleTimeoutTimeSpan)
        $appPool.ProcessModel.IdleTimeout = $idleTimeoutTimeSpan 
        $updated = $true
    }

    if( $appPool.Enable32BitAppOnWin64 -ne ([bool]$Enable32BitApps) )
    {
        Write-Verbose ('IIS Application Pool {0}: Setting Enable32BitAppOnWin64 = {0}' -f $Name,$Enable32BitApps)
        $appPool.Enable32BitAppOnWin64 = $Enable32BitApps
        $updated = $true
    }
    
    if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -like 'AsSpecificUser*' )
    {
        if( $appPool.ProcessModel.UserName -ne $Credential.UserName )
        {
            Write-Verbose ('IIS Application Pool {0}: Setting username = {0}' -f $Name,$Credential.UserName)
            $appPool.ProcessModel.IdentityType = [Microsoft.Web.Administration.ProcessModelIdentityType]::SpecificUser
            $appPool.ProcessModel.UserName = $Credential.UserName
            $appPool.ProcessModel.Password = $Credential.GetNetworkCredential().Password

            # On Windows Server 2008 R2, custom app pool users need this privilege.
            Grant-CPrivilege -Identity $Credential.UserName -Privilege SeBatchLogonRight -Verbose:$VerbosePreference
            $updated = $true
        }
    }
    else
    {
        $identityType = [Microsoft.Web.Administration.ProcessModelIdentityType]::ApplicationPoolIdentity
        if( $ServiceAccount )
        {
            $identityType = $ServiceAccount
        }

        if( $appPool.ProcessModel.IdentityType -ne $identityType )
        {
            Write-Verbose ('IIS Application Pool {0}: Setting IdentityType = {0}' -f $Name,$identityType)
            $appPool.ProcessModel.IdentityType = $identityType
            $updated = $true
        }
    }

    if( $updated )
    {
        $appPool.CommitChanges()
    }
    
    # TODO: Pull this out into its own Start-IisAppPool function.  I think.
    $appPool = Get-CIisAppPool -Name $Name
    if($appPool -and $appPool.state -eq [Microsoft.Web.Administration.ObjectState]::Stopped )
    {
        try
        {
            $appPool.Start()
        }
        catch
        {
            Write-Error ('Failed to start {0} app pool: {1}' -f $Name,$_.Exception.Message)
        }
    }

    if( $PassThru )
    {
        $appPool
    }
}




function Install-CIisVirtualDirectory
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Installs a virtual directory.

    .DESCRIPTION
    The `Install-CIisVirtualDirectory` function creates a virtual directory under website `SiteName` at `/VirtualPath`, serving files out of `PhysicalPath`.  If a virtual directory at `VirtualPath` already exists, it is updated in palce. (Before Carbon 2.0, the virtual directory was deleted before installation.)

    Beginning with Carbon 2.0.1, this function is available only if IIS is installed.

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CIisVirtualDirectory -SiteName 'Peanuts' -VirtualPath 'DogHouse' -PhysicalPath C:\Peanuts\Doghouse

    Creates a /DogHouse virtual directory, which serves files from the C:\Peanuts\Doghouse directory.  If the Peanuts website responds to hostname `peanuts.com`, the virtual directory is accessible at `peanuts.com/DogHouse`.

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CIisVirtualDirectory -SiteName 'Peanuts' -VirtualPath 'Brown/Snoopy/DogHouse' -PhysicalPath C:\Peanuts\DogHouse

    Creates a DogHouse virtual directory under the `Peanuts` website at `/Brown/Snoopy/DogHouse` serving files out of the `C:\Peanuts\DogHouse` directory.  If the Peanuts website responds to hostname `peanuts.com`, the virtual directory is accessible at `peanuts.com/Brown/Snoopy/DogHouse`.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The site where the virtual directory should be created.
        $SiteName,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [Alias('Name')]
        [string]
        # The name of the virtual directory.  This can contain multiple directory segments for virtual directories not at the root of the website, e.g. First/Second/VirtualDirectory.
        $VirtualPath,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [Alias('Path')]
        [string]
        # The file system path to the virtual directory.
        $PhysicalPath,

        [Switch]
        # Deletes the virttual directory before installation, if it exists. Preserves default beheaviro in Carbon before 2.0.
        # 
        # *Does not* delete custom configuration for the virtual directory, just the virtual directory. If you've customized the location of the virtual directory, those customizations will remain in place.
        #
        # The `Force` switch is new in Carbon 2.0.
        $Force
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $site = Get-CIisWebsite -Name $SiteName
    [Microsoft.Web.Administration.Application]$rootApp = $site.Applications | Where-Object { $_.Path -eq '/' }
    if( -not $rootApp )
    {
        Write-Error ('Default website application not found.')
        return
    }

    $PhysicalPath = Resolve-CFullPath -Path $PhysicalPath

    $VirtualPath = $VirtualPath.Trim('/')
    $VirtualPath = '/{0}' -f $VirtualPath

    $vdir = $rootApp.VirtualDirectories | Where-Object { $_.Path -eq $VirtualPath }
    if( $Force -and $vdir )
    {
        Write-IisVerbose $SiteName -VirtualPath $VirtualPath 'REMOVE' '' ''
        $rootApp.VirtualDirectories.Remove($vdir)
        $site.CommitChanges()
        $vdir = $null

        $site = Get-CIisWebsite -Name $SiteName
        $rootApp = $site.Applications | Where-Object { $_.Path -eq '/' }
    }

    $modified = $false

    if( -not $vdir )
    {
        [Microsoft.Web.Administration.ConfigurationElementCollection]$vdirs = $rootApp.GetCollection()
        $vdir = $vdirs.CreateElement('virtualDirectory')
        Write-IisVerbose $SiteName -VirtualPath $VirtualPath 'VirtualPath' '' $VirtualPath
        $vdir['path'] = $VirtualPath
        [void]$vdirs.Add( $vdir )
        $modified = $true
    }

    if( $vdir['physicalPath'] -ne $PhysicalPath )
    {
        Write-IisVerbose $SiteName -VirtualPath $VirtualPath 'PhysicalPath' $vdir['physicalPath'] $PhysicalPath
        $vdir['physicalPath'] = $PhysicalPath
        $modified = $true
    }

    if( $modified )
    {
        $site.CommitChanges()
    }
}




function Install-CIisWebsite
{
    <# 
    .SYNOPSIS
    Installs a website.

    .DESCRIPTION
    `Install-CIisWebsite` installs an IIS website. Anonymous authentication is enabled, and the anonymous user is set to the website's application pool identity. Before Carbon 2.0, if a website already existed, it was deleted and re-created. Beginning with Carbon 2.0, existing websites are modified in place. 
    
    If you don't set the website's app pool, IIS will pick one for you (usually `DefaultAppPool`), and `Install-CIisWebsite` will never manage the app pool for you (i.e. if someone changes it manually, this function won't set it back to the default). We recommend always supplying an app pool name, even if it is `DefaultAppPool`.

    By default, the site listens on (i.e. is bound to) all IP addresses on port 80 (binding `http/*:80:`). Set custom bindings with the `Bindings` argument. Multiple bindings are allowed. Each binding must be in this format (in BNF):

        <PROTOCOL> '/' <IP_ADDRESS> ':' <PORT> ':' [ <HOSTNAME> ]

     * `PROTOCOL` is one of `http` or `https`.
     * `IP_ADDRESS` is a literal IP address, or `*` for all of the computer's IP addresses.  This function does not validate if `IPADDRESS` is actually in use on the computer.
     * `PORT` is the port to listen on.
     * `HOSTNAME` is the website's hostname, for name-based hosting.  If no hostname is being used, leave off the `HOSTNAME` part.

    Valid bindings are:

     * http/*:80:
     * https/10.2.3.4:443:
     * http/*:80:example.com

     ## Troubleshooting

     In some situations, when you add a website to an application pool that another website/application is part of, the new website will fail to load in a browser with a 500 error saying `Failed to map the path '/'.`. We've been unable to track down the root cause. The solution is to recycle the app pool, e.g. `(Get-CIisAppPool -Name 'AppPoolName').Recycle()`.

    Beginning with Carbon 2.0.1, this function is available only if IIS is installed.

    .LINK
    Get-CIisWebsite
    
    .LINK
    Uninstall-CIisWebsite

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CIisWebsite -Name 'Peanuts' -PhysicalPath C:\Peanuts.com

    Creates a website named `Peanuts` serving files out of the `C:\Peanuts.com` directory.  The website listens on all the computer's IP addresses on port 80.

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CIisWebsite -Name 'Peanuts' -PhysicalPath C:\Peanuts.com -Binding 'http/*:80:peanuts.com'

    Creates a website named `Peanuts` which uses name-based hosting to respond to all requests to any of the machine's IP addresses for the `peanuts.com` domain.

    .EXAMPLE
    Install-CIisWebsite -Name 'Peanuts' -PhysicalPath C:\Peanuts.com -AppPoolName 'PeanutsAppPool'

    Creates a website named `Peanuts` that runs under the `PeanutsAppPool` app pool
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    [OutputType([Microsoft.Web.Administration.Site])]
    param(
        [Parameter(Position=0,Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the website.
        $Name,
        
        [Parameter(Position=1,Mandatory=$true)]
        [Alias('Path')]
        [string]
        # The physical path (i.e. on the file system) to the website. If it doesn't exist, it will be created for you.
        $PhysicalPath,
        
        [Parameter(Position=2)]
        [Alias('Bindings')]
        [string[]]
        # The site's network bindings.  Default is `http/*:80:`.  Bindings should be specified in protocol/IPAddress:Port:Hostname format.  
        #
        #  * Protocol should be http or https. 
        #  * IPAddress can be a literal IP address or `*`, which means all of the computer's IP addresses.  This function does not validate if `IPAddress` is actually in use on this computer.
        #  * Leave hostname blank for non-named websites.
        $Binding = @('http/*:80:'),
        
        [string]
        # The name of the app pool under which the website runs.  The app pool must exist.  If not provided, IIS picks one for you.  No whammy, no whammy! It is recommended that you create an app pool for each website. That's what the IIS Manager does.
        $AppPoolName,

        [int]
        # The site's IIS ID. IIS picks one for you automatically if you don't supply one. Must be greater than 0.
        #
        # The `SiteID` switch is new in Carbon 2.0.
        $SiteID,

        [Switch]
        # Return a `Microsoft.Web.Administration.Site` object for the website.
        #
        # The `PassThru` switch is new in Carbon 2.0.
        $PassThru,

        [Switch]
        # Deletes the website before installation, if it exists. Preserves default beheaviro in Carbon before 2.0.
        #
        # The `Force` switch is new in Carbon 2.0.
        $Force
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $bindingRegex = '^(?<Protocol>https?):?//?(?<IPAddress>\*|[\d\.]+):(?<Port>\d+):?(?<HostName>.*)$'

    filter ConvertTo-Binding
    {
        param(
            [Parameter(ValueFromPipeline=$true,Mandatory=$true)]
            [string]
            $InputObject
        )

        Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

        $InputObject -match $bindingRegex | Out-Null
        [pscustomobject]@{ 
                            'Protocol' = $Matches['Protocol'];
                            'IPAddress' = $Matches['IPAddress'];
                            'Port' = $Matches['Port'];
                            'HostName' = $Matches['HostName'];
                          } |
                            Add-Member -MemberType ScriptProperty -Name 'BindingInformation' -Value { '{0}:{1}:{2}' -f $this.IPAddress,$this.Port,$this.HostName } -PassThru
    }

    $PhysicalPath = Resolve-CFullPath -Path $PhysicalPath
    if( -not (Test-Path $PhysicalPath -PathType Container) )
    {
        New-Item $PhysicalPath -ItemType Directory | Out-String | Write-Verbose
    }
    
    $invalidBindings = $Binding | 
                           Where-Object { $_ -notmatch $bindingRegex } 
    if( $invalidBindings )
    {
        $invalidBindings = $invalidBindings -join "`n`t"
        $errorMsg = "The following bindings are invalid. The correct format is protocol/IPAddress:Port:Hostname. Protocol and IP address must be separted by a single slash, not ://. IP address can be * for all IP addresses. Hostname is optional. If hostname is not provided, the binding must end with a colon.`n`t{0}" -f $invalidBindings
        Write-Error $errorMsg
        return
    }

    if( $Force )
    {
        Uninstall-CIisWebsite -Name $Name
    }

    [Microsoft.Web.Administration.Site]$site = $null
    $modified = $false
    if( -not (Test-CIisWebsite -Name $Name) )
    {
        Write-Verbose -Message ('Creating website ''{0}'' ({1}).' -f $Name,$PhysicalPath)
        $firstBinding = $Binding | Select-Object -First 1 | ConvertTo-Binding
        $mgr = New-Object 'Microsoft.Web.Administration.ServerManager'
        $site = $mgr.Sites.Add( $Name, $firstBinding.Protocol, $firstBinding.BindingInformation, $PhysicalPath )
        $mgr.CommitChanges()
    }

    $site = Get-CIisWebsite -Name $Name

    $expectedBindings = New-Object 'Collections.Generic.Hashset[string]'
    $Binding | ConvertTo-Binding | ForEach-Object { [void]$expectedBindings.Add( ('{0}/{1}' -f $_.Protocol,$_.BindingInformation) ) }

    $bindingsToRemove = $site.Bindings | Where-Object { -not $expectedBindings.Contains(  ('{0}/{1}' -f $_.Protocol,$_.BindingInformation ) ) }
    foreach( $bindingToRemove in $bindingsToRemove )
    {
        Write-IisVerbose $Name 'Binding' ('{0}/{1}' -f $bindingToRemove.Protocol,$bindingToRemove.BindingInformation)
        $site.Bindings.Remove( $bindingToRemove )
        $modified = $true
    }

    $existingBindings = New-Object 'Collections.Generic.Hashset[string]'
    $site.Bindings | ForEach-Object { [void]$existingBindings.Add( ('{0}/{1}' -f $_.Protocol,$_.BindingInformation) ) }
    $bindingsToAdd = $Binding | ConvertTo-Binding | Where-Object { -not $existingBindings.Contains(  ('{0}/{1}' -f $_.Protocol,$_.BindingInformation ) ) }
    foreach( $bindingToAdd in $bindingsToAdd )
    {
        Write-IisVerbose $Name 'Binding' '' ('{0}/{1}' -f $bindingToAdd.Protocol,$bindingToAdd.BindingInformation)
        $site.Bindings.Add( $bindingToAdd.BindingInformation, $bindingToAdd.Protocol ) | Out-Null
        $modified = $true
    }
    
    [Microsoft.Web.Administration.Application]$rootApp = $null
    if( $site.Applications.Count -eq 0 )
    {
        $rootApp = $site.Applications.Add("/", $PhysicalPath)
        $modifed = $true
    }
    else
    {
        $rootApp = $site.Applications | Where-Object { $_.Path -eq '/' }
    }

    if( $site.PhysicalPath -ne $PhysicalPath )
    {
        Write-IisVerbose $Name 'PhysicalPath' $site.PhysicalPath $PhysicalPath 
        [Microsoft.Web.Administration.VirtualDirectory]$vdir = $rootApp.VirtualDirectories | Where-Object { $_.Path -eq '/' }
        $vdir.PhysicalPath = $PhysicalPath
        $modified = $true
    }
    
    if( $AppPoolName )
    {
        if( $rootApp.ApplicationPoolName -ne $AppPoolName )
        {
            Write-IisVerbose $Name 'AppPool' $rootApp.ApplicationPoolName $AppPoolName 
            $rootApp.ApplicationPoolName = $AppPoolName
            $modified = $true
        }
    }

    if( $modified )
    {
        $site.CommitChanges()
    }
    
    if( $SiteID )
    {
        Set-CIisWebsiteID -SiteName $Name -ID $SiteID
    }
    
    # Make sure anonymous authentication is enabled and uses the application pool identity
    $security = Get-CIisSecurityAuthentication -SiteName $Name -VirtualPath '/' -Anonymous
    Write-IisVerbose $Name 'Anonymous Authentication UserName' $security['username'] ''
    $security['username'] = ''
    $security.CommitChanges()

    # Now, wait until site is actually running
    $tries = 0
    $website = $null
    do
    {
        $website = Get-CIisWebsite -SiteName $Name
        $tries += 1
        if($website.State -ne 'Unknown')
        {
            break
        }
        else
        {
            Start-Sleep -Milliseconds 100
        }
    }
    while( $tries -lt 100 )

    if( $PassThru )
    {
        return $website
    }
}




function Join-CIisVirtualPath
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Combines a path and a child path for an IIS website, application, virtual directory into a single path.  

    .DESCRIPTION
    Removes extra slashes.  Converts backward slashes to forward slashes.  Relative portions are not removed.  Sorry.

    Beginning with Carbon 2.0.1, this function is available only if IIS is installed.

    .EXAMPLE
    Join-CIisVirtualPath 'SiteName' 'Virtual/Path'

    Demonstrates how to join two IIS paths together.  REturns `SiteName/Virtual/Path`.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding()]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,Position=0)]
        [string]
        # The parent path.
        $Path,

        [Parameter(Position=1)]
        [string]
        $ChildPath
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    if( $ChildPath )
    {
        $Path = Join-Path -Path $Path -ChildPath $ChildPath
    }
    $Path.Replace('\', '/').Trim('/')
}




function Lock-CIisConfigurationSection
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Locks an IIS configuration section so that it can't be modified/overridden by individual websites.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    Locks configuration sections globally so they can't be modified by individual websites.  For a list of section paths, run
    
        C:\Windows\System32\inetsrv\appcmd.exe lock config /section:?
    
    Beginning with Carbon 2.0.1, this function is available only if IIS is installed.

    .EXAMPLE
    Lock-CIisConfigurationSection -SectionPath 'system.webServer/security/authentication/basicAuthentication'
    
    Locks the `basicAuthentication` configuration so that sites can't override/modify those settings.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string[]]
        # The path to the section to lock.  For a list of sections, run
        #
        #     C:\Windows\System32\inetsrv\appcmd.exe unlock config /section:?
        $SectionPath
    )

    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $SectionPath |
        ForEach-Object {
            $section = Get-CIisConfigurationSection -SectionPath $_
            $section.OverrideMode = 'Deny'
            if( $pscmdlet.ShouldProcess( $_, 'locking IIS configuration section' ) )
            {
                $section.CommitChanges()
            }
        }
}




function Remove-CIisMimeMap
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Removes a file extension to MIME type map from an entire web server.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    IIS won't serve static files unless they have an entry in the MIME map.  Use this function toremvoe an existing MIME map entry.  If one doesn't exist, nothing happens.  Not even an error.
    
    If a specific website has the file extension in its MIME map, that site will continue to serve files with those extensions.
    
    Beginning with Carbon 2.0.1, this function is available only if IIS is installed.

    .LINK
    Get-CIisMimeMap
    
    .LINK
    Set-CIisMimeMap
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Remove-CIisMimeMap -FileExtension '.m4v' -MimeType 'video/x-m4v'
    
    Removes the `.m4v` file extension so that IIS will no longer serve those files.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(DefaultParameterSetName='ForWebServer')]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true,ParameterSetName='ForWebsite')]
        [string]
        # The name of the website whose MIME type to set.
        $SiteName,

        [Parameter(ParameterSetName='ForWebsite')]
        [string]
        # The optional site path whose configuration should be returned.
        $VirtualPath = '',

        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The file extension whose MIME map to remove.
        $FileExtension
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $getIisConfigSectionParams = @{ }
    if( $PSCmdlet.ParameterSetName -eq 'ForWebsite' )
    {
        $getIisConfigSectionParams['SiteName'] = $SiteName
        $getIisConfigSectionParams['VirtualPath'] = $VirtualPath
    }
    
    $staticContent = Get-CIisConfigurationSection -SectionPath 'system.webServer/staticContent' @getIisConfigSectionParams
    $mimeMapCollection = $staticContent.GetCollection()
    $mimeMapToRemove = $mimeMapCollection |
                            Where-Object { $_['fileExtension'] -eq $FileExtension }
    if( -not $mimeMapToRemove )
    {
        Write-Verbose ('MIME map for file extension {0} not found.' -f $FileExtension)
        return
    }
    
    $mimeMapCollection.Remove( $mimeMapToRemove )
    $staticContent.CommitChanges()
}




function Set-CIisHttpHeader
{
    <#
    .SYNOPSIS
    Sets an HTTP header for a website or a directory under a website.
    
    .DESCRIPTION
    If the HTTP header doesn't exist, it is created.  If a header exists, its value is replaced.
    
    Beginning with Carbon 2.0.1, this function is available only if IIS is installed.

    .LINK
    Get-CIisHttpHeader
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Set-CIisHttpHeader -SiteName 'SopwithCamel' -Name 'X-Flown-By' -Value 'Snoopy'
    
    Sets or creates the `SopwithCamel` website's `X-Flown-By` HTTP header to the value `Snoopy`.
    
    .EXAMPLE
    Set-CIisHttpHeader -SiteName 'SopwithCamel' -VirtualPath 'Engine' -Name 'X-Powered-By' -Value 'Root Beer'
    
    Sets or creates the `SopwithCamel` website's `Engine` sub-directory's `X-Powered-By` HTTP header to the value `Root Beer`.
    #>
    [CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
    param(
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the website where the HTTP header should be set/created.
        $SiteName,
        
        [Alias('Path')]
        [string]
        # The optional path under `SiteName` where the HTTP header should be set/created.
        $VirtualPath = '',
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The name of the HTTP header.
        $Name,
        
        [Parameter(Mandatory=$true)]
        [string]
        # The value of the HTTP header.
        $Value
    )
    
    Set-StrictMode -Version 'Latest'

    Use-CallerPreference -Cmdlet $PSCmdlet -Session $ExecutionContext.SessionState

    $httpProtocol = Get-CIisConfigurationSection -SiteName $SiteName `
                                                -VirtualPath $VirtualPath `
                                                -SectionPath 'system.webServer/httpProtocol'
    $headers = $httpProtocol.GetCollection('customHeaders') 
    $header = $headers | Where-Object { $_['name